Vehicular Pollution At Indore

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Vehicular Pollution At Indore

  1. 1. Vehicular Pollution at Indore city Dr. Gunwant Joshi Scientist M.P.Pollution Control Board Indore
  2. 2. What is Pollution Pollution is undesirable change in the quality of our Environment (Land, Water & Air) that adversely affects Human Life, Our Property, Trade & Commerce, Industries and the Life of the Desired Species of Plants and Animals Defines Air Pollutants : Solids, Liquids, or Gas ( including Noise) present in Atmosphere in such concentrations as may be, or tend to be injurious to humans, other living creatures, plants, property or the environment. Air Pollution : Presence of Pollutants in Atmosphere
  3. 3. Vehicular Pollution is caused by 1.Emissions from Vehicle tail pipes 2. Crank Case emissions 3. Fugitive emissions from fuel tanks
  4. 4. Automobile Pollutants Source / Pollutants SPM SO2 NOx CO HC Lead Petrol Automobile - ++ ++ ++++ ++++ +++ Diesel Automobile +++ ++ ++++ - - - ++ ++ + ++ ++ - Bio-Gas - - - + - - LPG - - + - - -
  5. 5. Environmental Fact-Sheet of Thermal Power Plant at Talcher(200MW) Oxygen:25,000 MT; Coal : 9,000 MT; Water: 1,10,000 M3 Carbon di Oxide : 50,000 MT, Nitrous Oxide : 9000 Kg Sulfur di Oxide : 270 Kg, Fly Ash Slurry : 3500 MT Lead : 208 Kg, Zinc : 56 Kg , Nickel : 56.5Kg, Cobalt :112 Kg Cadmium : 51 Kg, Copper : 45 Kg, Chromium : 60.6 Kg Uranium : 4.6 Kg, Thorium : 16.5 Kg
  6. 6. The Effects of Various Air Pollutants The Effects of Various Air The Cause Pollutants The Effects Suspended Particulate Adverse effect on the Respiratory System, Matter [SPM and PM 10] Visibility & Standing Crops. Corrosion of Metals, Inconvenience and Annoyance Oxides of Sulfur Suffocation and Adverse effects on Upper [ SO2 ] Respiratory Tract, Acute & Chronic injury to Plants leaves, Corrosion of Metals,Acid Rains. Hydrocarbons Carcinogenic, Adverse effect on plants, Causes Smog [ PAN with NOx ] Oxides of Nitrogen Irritation of Eyes and Nose, Damage to Plant [ NOx ] leaves, Corrosion of Metals, Acid Rain, Smog Carbon Monoxide Causes headache, Dizziness, Nausia, [CO] Competes with Oxygen in Respiratory Metabolism
  7. 7. The Effects of Various Air Pollutants The Effects of Various Air The Cause Pollutants The Effects Oxidants eg.[Ozone] Disturbs lung Function, Induces coughing. Irritation of Eyes, Nose & Throat. Discolors Leaves and Objects. Forms Smog. Hydrogen Fluorides Respiratory diseases, General irritation. [HF] Hydrogen Sulfides Odor nuisance, Irritation of Respiratory [H2s] system. Chlorine Irritation of Eyes and Nose and respiratory [ Cl2 ] system. Respiratory Diseases Lead [Pb] Carcinogenic, Effects CNS, Causes impotency. Causes Mental retardation.
  8. 8. Major Air Pollution Episodes Major Air Pollution Episodes World Over 1 Occurrence Time World Over Excess Deaths Location December,1930 Meuse Valley, Belgium 63 Humans & Most Cattle October,1948 Donora, Pennsylvania, USA >20 November,1950 Pozarica, Mexico >22 December,1952 London, United Kingdom 400 November,1953 New York, USA 220 January, 1956 London, United Kingdom 1,000 December, 1957 London, United Kingdom 750 December, 1962 London, United Kingdom 700 December, 1963 New York, USA 300 December, 1966 New York, USA >168
  9. 9. Major Air Pollution Episodes Major Air Pollution Episodes World Over 2 Occurrence World Over Excess Deaths Location Time December,1984 Bhopal, India 3000+ 1991 - 1992 Gulf War, Middle East Not Known December, 1994 Cheng Quinn, China Not Known November, 1997 Manila, Philippines >300+ December, 1998 Mexico City, Mexico >138+ September,2001 WTC Tower,New York 350+ November,2001 Afghanistan,War on Terrorism Not Known
  10. 10. The Ambient Air Various Air The Effects of Pollution and Related Unnatural Deaths in Cities Pollutants CITY TSPM [ µg/m3] CONDITION UNNATURAL DEATHS STATUS 1991-93 1995 Kolkata 344 Critical 5,726 10,646 + Delhi 410 Critical 7,491 9,359 + Mumbai 246 Critical 4,477 7,043 + Chennai 241 High 863 1,299 + Kanpur 470 Critical 1,894 3,639 + Ahmedabad 268 Critical 2,979 3,006 + Hyderabad 179 High 768 1,961 + Patana 330 Critical 725 1,182 + Moderate = 71 to 140, High = 141 to 210, and Critical = >210
  11. 11. The Ambient AirVarious Air The Effects of Pollution and Related Unnatural Deaths in Cities Pollutants CITY TSPM [ µg/m3] CONDITION UNNATURAL DEATHS STATUS 1991-93 1995 Nagpur 186 High 506 607 + Shimla 142 High 32 25 + Banglore 147 High 254 254 +/- Kota 241 Critical 209 364 + Kochhi 113 Moderate 146 146 +/- Bhopal 263 Critical 663 653 - Indore 388 Critical 1341 1527 + Jamshedpur 118 Moderate 118 158 + Moderate = 71 to 140, High = 141 to 210, and Critical = >210
  12. 12. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Sites Air QualityIndore City Sites at at Monitoring Indore City
  13. 13. Percentage Exceedence of Observed values Percentage exceedence of at Indore City Over the Prescribed Limits observed values at Indore city Locality [Limits] TSPM PM10 SO2 & Nox Over the Prescribed values [ mean range ] [ mean range] [ mean range] Telephone Nagar [Residential] 88.6 98.0 Well [ TSPM : 200 µg/m3] within [253 - 406] [177 - 347] [ PM10 : 100 µg/m3] [ SO2 and NoX : 80 µg/m3 ] Limits Kothari Market [Commercial] 95.0 98.5 Well [ TSPM : 200 µg/m3] within [327 - 579] [308 - 492] [ PM10 : 100 µg/m3] [ SO2 and NoX : 80 µg/m3 ] Limits Pologround [Industrial] 56.4 97.0 Well [ TSPM : 500 µg/m3] within [458 - 635] [360 - 529] [ PM10 : 150 µg/m3] [ SO2 and NoX : 120 µg/m3 ] Limits
  14. 14. Pollution Status of Suspended Pollution Status of Suspended Particulates in Residential Area Particulates in Residential Area Status Concentration Percentage of Parameter [ in µg/m3 ] the Values [Limits] Observed Total Suspended Low 00 to 70 0.31 Percent Particulate Moderate 71 to 140 3.39 Percent High 141 to 210 9.70 Percent Matter Critical >210 86.6 Percent [ TSPM : 200 µg/m3] Respirable Dust Low 00 to 30 0.02 Percent or PM10 Moderate 31 to 60 0.32 Percent [ PM10 : 100 µg/m3] High 61 to 90 0.56 Percent Critical >91 99.1 Percent
  15. 15. Pulse Milling Areas at Indore City Pulse Milling Areas at Indore City
  16. 16. Emission Monitoring Activity Air Quality Monitoring Sites at Indore City
  17. 17. Public Awareness Campaign Public Awareness Campaign
  18. 18. Public Awareness Campaign public Awareness Campaign
  19. 19. Traffic on some important City Roads Traffic on some important City Name of Roads Place Road Capacity Actual Road Width (P.C.U.) Traffic(PCU) Road DIG Banglow A.B. Road 12 (m) 4,000 7,200 Sanwer Road Banganga 07 (m) 2,000 3,300 M.G. Road High-Court 10 (m) 3,000 5,200 Jawahar Mrg. Gurudwara 07 (m) 2,000 5,100 Subhash Mrg. Smruti Cinema 07 (m) 2,000 4,900 Sawarkar Mrg. University 07 (m) 2,000 4,500 Khandwa Road Rajbada 07 (m) 2,000 7,300 Bhanwar Kua Sindhi Colony 10 (m) 3,000 8,000 Imli Bazar Road Shiv Vilas Place 07 (m) 2,000 4,600
  20. 20. Road Side Ambient Air Quality (µg/m ) 3 1997,Road Side Ambient Air TSPM Locality Time M/N/E Time PM (minuets) TSPM 10 OBSERVED EQUATED24Hrs M Quality . Palasia Square 110 369.88 1425.88 621.5 Palasia Square N 106 225.49 1281.83 608.5 Palasia Square E 85 150.70 1207.04 588.78 Gandhi Pratima M 224 709.19 4531.47 886.7 Palika Square M 178 193.78 962.14 605.32 Kothari Market E 71 1496.3 5021.08 775.2 Nagar Nigam Square E 51 1472.1 766.66 806.87 Rajbada E 148 3783.4 5394.75 789.07 Subhash Pratima E 139 2476.2 3584.3 847.41 Patel Pratima M 100 824.83 2091.43 661.69 Bambai Bazar E 129 596.49 1868.41 672.65
  21. 21. Road Side Ambient Air Quality 1998-99,Road Side AmbientPM Locality TSPM Air 10 Quality [TSPM : 200 µg/m3] [ PM10 : 100 µg/m3] Khajrana Chauki 529.9 95.06 Vijay Nagar Chauki 610.13 90.65 Palasia Square 907.50 401.72 Chhavani 1157.60 322.34 University Campus 698.51 164.26 Marimata Square 992.18 130.87 Laxmibai Nagar 1470.14 249.99 Kalani Nagar 1187.79 194.28 Sethi Gate 916.42 115.9 Cancan Nagar 1493.05 649.92 CAT Campus 953.45 39.78
  22. 22. National Ambient Air Quality Standards National Ambient Concentrations in mg/m Name of the Time Air Quality 3 weighted Industrial Residential,Rural Sensitive Pollutant AverageStandards & Other Areas Area Areas Sulfur di Annual Avg.* 80 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 Oxide (SO2) 24 hrs. 100 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 Avg.** Oxides of Annual Avg.* 80 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 Nitrogen (NOx) 24 hrs. 100 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 Avg.** Total Suspended Annual Avg.* 360 µg/m3 140 µg/m3 70 µg/m3 Particulate 24 hrs. 500 µg/m3 200 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 matter Avg.** (TSPM) Respirable Dust Annual Avg.* 120 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 50 µg/m3 ( RPM or PM10 ) 24 hrs. 150 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 75 µg/m3 Avg.** Lead (Pb) Annual Avg.* 1.0 µg/m3 0.75 µg/m3 0.5 µg/m3 24 hrs. 1.5 µg/m3 1.0 µg/m3 0.75 µg/m3 Carbon Monoxide Avg.** Avg.* Annual 100 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 (CO) 24 hrs. 100 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 Avg.** etic Mean of minimum 104 measurements in year twice a week, 24 hourly 8 hourly values shall be met 98 % time in year. Only 2 % of time it may scribed values but not on two consecutive days
  23. 23. Vehicular emission status status at City at Indore Vehicular & Petrol Vehicles] emission [Diesel Indore City [Diesel&Petrol Vehicles]
  24. 24. Vehicular Pollution status at Indore Vehicular PollutionVehicles]at City [Diesel & Petrol status Parameter Indore City [Diesel&Petrol 1998 1970 1980 1990 1995 1996 1997 2 & 3 Wheel (Petrol Driven) 3,350 Vehicles] 2,49,847 2,75,847 3,39,325 26,256 1,52,211 2,26,486 4 Wheel (Petrol and Diesel Driven) 3,200 9,222 23,220 40,719 49,700 42,498 43,577 LMV 4 Wheel+ (Diesel 1,350 8,237 16,152 26,593 30,827 56,988 57,913 Driven ) M M V and H M V Total Number of 7,900 43,715 1,91,583 3,00,738 3,37,314 3,75,046 4,44,815 Automobiles Number Checked --- --- 320 1,680 2,042 3,176 2,034 Polluting Vehicles --- % --- % 63 % 58 % 53 % 42 % 35 % Emission Load 6.72 13.05 137.17 228.90 259.73 291.46 331.9
  25. 25. Vehicular emission status at Indore City [Diesel Vehicles] Vehicular emission status at Indore City [Diesel Vehicles] Smoke – density test Results [H.S.U.] Category Sample <60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 >95 Private 846 163 122 357 189 12 03 (100%) (19.3%) (14.5%) (42.1%) (22.3%) (1.4%) (0.35%) Govt. 122 22 00 12 22 12 54 (100%) (18.0%) (0.0%) (9.83%) (22.0%) (9.83%) (44.3%)
  26. 26. Vehicular emission status at Indore City [Petrol Vehicles] Vehicular emission status at Indore City [Diesel Vehicles] CO Emission Test Results Category Sample <3.0% 4-5 % 5-6 % 6-7 % 7-8 % 8-10 % Private 339 163 28 64 38 07 09 (100%) (48.1%) (8.2%) (18.8%) (11.2%) (2.1%) (2.65%) Govt. 055 29 03 03 04 07 09 (100%) (52.7%) (5.45%) (5.45%) (7.2%) (12.7%) (16.4%)
  27. 27. in µg/m3
  28. 28. 80 70 60 50 2 Wheel Auto 40 L. Auto 30 4 Wheel 20 10 0
  29. 29. 80 70 60 50 Tempo 40 4 Wheel 30 L. Metadore 20 Mini Bus 10 0 Petrol Vehicles
  30. 30. Seasonal Changes in SPM Concentration SPM in microgram/m3 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 Rain Winter Summer Rain Winter Summer Telephone Ngr. Kothari Market Pologround
  31. 31. Seasonal Changes in SPM Concentration 2500 2000 1500 Pologround Kothari Market 1000 Telephone Ngr. 500 0 25 49 1 9 17 33 41 57 65 73 81 89

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