Globalization and Environment

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deals with basic consept related to linkages in between Globalization and the degradation of the environment. …

deals with basic consept related to linkages in between Globalization and the degradation of the environment.
also suggests possible options to meet the chalange of environmental degradation in globalized environment

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  • 1. Dr. Gunwant Joshi Scientist
  • 2. • As Ecological Processes do not respect National Boundaries, and the Environmental problems often have impacts beyond Borders.
  • 3. The Story of a Goose that laid Golden Eggs
  • 4. • Deforestation • Soil degradation • Desertification • Loss of biodiversity • Air Pollution • Acid rain • Greenhouse effect • Ozone depletion • Water contamination • Importation & Disposal of Toxic Wastes
  • 5. World Population Growth - AD 01 to 2000
  • 6. More People : More Resources: More Goods “A persons Foot Print is the total area in Global Hectares required to sustain his/her Lifestyle” Bill Rees & Math Wackernagel,1996 Africa : 1.36 (Mozambique:0.47 & Burundi : 0.48) China : 1.54, India : 1.5 UK: 5.35, US : 9.7
  • 7. If human race has to survive on the planet, we must reorganize our ability to Act and Think on a global scale with more responsibility The Way what we call…..
  • 8. “The Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need” The current debate on globalization is however de-linked from it’s Environmental roots and Context
  • 9. “ Globalization describe the cross-border relations between countries.” , i.e., the growth in international exchange and interdependence. It is an on going process of global integration of :  Economies & Production processes that includes trade, capital- flows and investment .  System of Polity, Governance, and bureaucratic set-up.  Information & Information Technology.  Culture.
  • 11. The onset of often casts what is known as “ The extent of Environmental impact of a Nation state in jurisdiction beyond it’s sovereign control ” (Dauvergne, 1997)
  • 12. Milestones in World dialogue • 1972: UN conference on Human Environment – 26 pt declaration on Human Environment – Action Plan with 109 recommendations – Resolution on Institutional & Financial arrangements – Decision to launch UNEP • 1987: Brundtland Commission – Concept of Sustainable Development defined • 1992: Rio summit – Agenda Global Sustainable Development • 2002: Johanesberg summit – Sustainable Development reviewed
  • 13. The Great (North :South) Divide
  • 14. Name of the agreement Opened Entered into force Website International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling 1946 1948 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as 1971 1975 Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar) Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping 1972 1975 Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of 1973 1975 Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living 1980 1982 Resources (as part of the AntarcticTreaty System) Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 1987 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of 1989 1992 Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 1993 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS) 1982 1994 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those 1994 1996 Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention 1998 Not in force on Climate Change as of July2004 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) 2001 2004
  • 15. Technological Innovation with Significant Environmental Impact Innovation Form of Primary Secondary Primary Change Investment Environmental Effect Motivation Coal scrubbers End-of-pipe Reduced SO2 Increased energy Environmental emissions use (-) Electric arc Process Energy consumption use of scrap (+/-) Economic furnace Reduced Increased HCFCs Input Reduced ozone Environmental substitution depletion Biodegradable Product change Reduced waste Reduced waste from Environmental packaging accumulation plastics manufacturing (+) Thermo-mech. Process Reduced waste Increased energy Economic pulping water discharges use (-) Low-solvent paint Product change Reduced smog Environmental Reverse osmosis End-of-pipe Reduced waste Increased solid Environmental purification water discharges waste (-) Counter-current Process Reduced heavy Reduced metal Environmental/ rinsing metal waste inputs (+) Economic Source: Johnstone, N. "Globalization, Technology, and Environment" OECD, 1997
  • 16. Wealth from Globalization • Poverty alleviation, better Education, Population Control and stronger capacity of States & Global Institutions to implement Sustainable Development • Technological Innovations & less harmful form of Production, Shift from Industry & Agriculture to Service & Knowledge • Corporate Investments exports Environmentalism by transfer of Funds, New Technologies and higher Environmental Standards • Opportunities to use creative policies and incentives to tunnel through Kuznet’s curve
  • 17. Tunneling Effect of Globalization Industrialization Stronger Economic growth Increased Societal aspirations Stringent Environmental Standards Stronger Enforcement Cleaner means of Production Improved Environment
  • 18. Curse of Globalization • Developed North may burden South with unequal Environmental costs and Low Environmental Standards. • Allows the Multinational Corporatations to plunder the Globe’s fragile ecosystems. • Generate consumer prices that ignore the true Environmental & Societal costs of Production. • Drive Over-Consumption in North and un-balanced Consumption in South putting Total Global Consumption well beyond Earth’s Carrying Capacity.
  • 19. Global Warming? Clean Development Mechanism!
  • 20. What do we leave for our children?