Architect Walter Groupius

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  • 1. WALTER GROPIUS
  • 2. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONWALTER GROPIUS FULL NAME - GEORGE WALTER ADOLFGROPIUS.BORN IN BERLIN ON 18 MAY 1883.WAS A GERMAN AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND AN EDUCATOR.HE WAS AN INFLUTENTIAL PROPONENT OF MODERN DESIGNAND FURTHERED HIS IDEAS THROUGH BAUHAUS SCHOOLDESIGN, THROUGH HIS OWN ARCHITECTURAL WORKS AND HISLONG YEARS OF TEACHING AT HARVARD.HE WAS TAUGHT BY HIS FATHER, HE ALSO WAS AN ARCHITECTAND LEARNED THE STUDY OF PROPORTIONS WITH ACTUALARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSIONS BY HIS UNCLE.HE TOOK 7 MONTHS STUDY IN SPAIN AND MET PETER BEHRENSIN 1908 AND WORKED UNDER HIM.IN 1934, HE MOVED TO U.K. LONDON, WHERE HE WAS THECONTROLLER OF DESIGN.IN 1937, HE DEPARTED LONDON FOR NEW YORK AND HARVARDUNIVERSITY.AT AN AGE WHEN MOST MEN RETIRE, GROPIUS BEGAN HISCARRIER IN FULL VITALITY AND ENTHUSIASIM.UNFORTUNATELY, ARCH COMMISIONS DID NOT MATCH WITHTHAT ENTHUSIASIM.
  • 3. PSYCHOLOGY OF HIS THOUGHTSGROPIUS WAS NOT ONLY AN ARCHITECT BUT ANEDUCATOR TOO, HIS PSYCHOLOGY WASINFLUENCED BY THE CONSTANT SOURCE OFLEARNING AND IMPARTING THAT KNOWLEDGEAROUND HIMSELF.HIS INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS WERE DIFFERENTIN THE TEACHING AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY.HIS DESIGN HAS FULL COMMAND OF THEELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE, WHICH WERE TOCONSTITUTE THE INTERNATIONAL MODERNSTYLE, THAT IS GLASS CURTAIN WALLS,UNRELEVANT TO BE BIG BLOCK AND CORNERLEFT FREE OF VISIBLE SUPPORTS.HE BELIEVED THAT ALL ARTIST MUST BEFAMILIAR WITH THE CRAFTS AND INITIALTRAINING FOR ARTIST AND CRAFTMAN SHOULDBE SAME i.e. INTRODUCTION TO FORM, COLOUR,NATURE OF MATERIAL.
  • 4. HIS PROGRAMME WAS WRITTEN TOENCOURAGE COLLABORATIVE EFFORTSWITH LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE ANDPLANNING DEPTT. THROUGHORGANANISATION BY STUDENTSTHEMSELVES.IN THOSE TIMES THE USE OF MACHINEWAS ENCOURAGED BECAUSE OF THEPHASE OF INDUSTRILASATION.HE REALIZED THE INTERDEPENDENCEOF MACHINE AND ARCHITECTURE, THUSENCOURAGED THE USE OFPREFABRICATED UNITS.IN HIS BELIEF PRE-FABRICATION IS ALOGICAL PROGRESSIVE PROCESS AIMEDAT RISING STANDARD OF BUILDING.
  • 5. HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS IT WAS BUILT AT CAMBRIDGE( 1945-50) IT IS A GROUP OF EIGHT BUILDINGS ARRANGED AROUND SMALL AND LARGE COURTYARDS ON THE OXBRIDGE PATTERN, HAS A GOOD COMMUNITY FEEL ABOUT IT AND IS HUMANLY SCALED. VARIOUS BUILDING HOUSED DORMITORIES, COMMON ROOMS, REFECTORY AND A LOUNGE CONVERTIBLE INTO A MEETING HALL FOR 250 PLAN PEOPLE. THE DORMITORY BLOCKS ARE CONSTRUCTED IN REINFORCED CONCRETE AND THE COMMUNITY BUILDINGS IN STEELWORK. HORIZONTAL EMPHASIS WHICH IS BALANCED BY VERTICALS TOGETHER WITH THE RECTANGULAR WINDOWS MOVING TOWARDS SQUARE AND LARGE AREAS OF PLAIN WALLS ALWAYS WELL HARVARD GRADUATE PROPORTIONED TO CREATE A FEELING OF CENTER. AIR VIEW REPOSE AND SIMPLICITY.
  • 6. HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER, HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER. GLAZED TILECAMBIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS,1949 DESIGN. COMMON ENTRANCE HALL. HARVARD GRADUATE HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER. MURAL- MAIN DINING ROOM CENTER. BRICK MURAL
  • 7. FAGUS FACTORY ,ALFELD, GERMANYIT WAS BUILT AT ALFELD – AN– DER – LEINE IN1911.IT WAS IN COLLABORATION WITH ADOLF MEYER.IT WAS HIS FIRST INDEPENDENT COMMISSION.MOST STRIKING THING: SIMPLICITY ANDCONFIDENCE OF THE ARCHITECTURE.IN FAGUS WORKS, GROPIUS BROUGHT THEACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS.IT WAS DESIGNED BY GROPIUS KEEPING IN MINDTHE SURROUNDINGS.IT WAS CALLED BY GROPIUS AN ARTISTIC AND GROUND FLOOR PLAN- FAGUS SHOEPRACTICAL DESIGN. FACTORY.THE MODULARFAGUS BUILDING WAS THE FIRST TO EXTRACT SIMPLICITY IS REPEATED IN THETHE FULL AESTHETICALLY REVOLUTIONARY INTERIORIMPACT FROM THE STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT.FAGUS STRUCTURE WAS ACTUALLY A HYBRIDCONSTRUCTION OF BRICK COLUMNS, STEELBEAMS AND CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS ANDSTAIRWAYS.IT WAS A STEEL FRAME SUPPORTING THEFLOORS, GLASS SCREEN EXTERNAL WALLS.PILLARS ARE SET BEHIND THE FAÇADE SO THATITS CURTAIN CHARACTER IS FULLY REALIZED. ELEVATION- FAGUS SHOE FACTORY.
  • 8. GLASS SCREEN WAS USED ALL OVER THE WALLS TO HAVE PROPER VIEW FROM INSIDE. WALLS ARE NO LONGER SUPPORTERS OF THE BUILDING BUT SIMPLE CURTAIN PROJECTING AGAINST INCREMENT WEATHER. IT WAS DOMINATION OF VOIDS OVER SOLIDS. PLANE SURFACES PREDOMINATE IN THIS FACTORY. FAGUS FACTORY ENTRANCE THE GLASS AND WALLS ARE JOINED CLEANLY AT THE CORNERS WITHOUT THE INTERVENTION OF PIERS.EXTERNAL VIEW FAGUS FACTORY- IINTERNAL VIEW
  • 9. GROPIUS HOUSE , LINCLON, MASSACHUSETTSIT WAS DONE IN PATRNERSHIP WITHMARCEL BRELLER IN LINCLON (1937-38 )THERE WAS AN EXTENSIVE USE OFTIMBER REINFORCED WITH SOME STEELMEMBERS , LENDS A DIFFERENT ANDSOFTER CHARACTER TO THE BUILDING.TIMBER CLADDING WAS HUNG GROPIUS HOUSE, LINCLON,VERTICALLY. MASSACHUSETTSINCONSISTENT USE OF ELEMENTS LIKESPIRAL STAIR TO ROOF TERRACE ANDSUN LOUNGE.THE PLAN WAS WITHOUT CORRIDORSAND ESSENTIALLY A COMPACT ,FUNCTIONAL SOLUTION TO THEREQUIREMENTS OF MODERN HOUSEPLANNING.
  • 10. GROUND FLOOR PLANFIRST FLOOR PLAN
  • 11. GROPIUS HOUSE , LINCLON , MASSACHUSETTS GROPIUS HOUSE- GARDEN ELEVATION- LIVING AND DINING ROOMEXTERIOR VIEW FROM SOUTH
  • 12. BAUHAUS, DESSAU, GERMANYDESIGNED BY GROPIUS AND HIS PARTNERMEYER WITH CERTAIN AMOUNTOFPARTICIPATION FROM STUDENTS.THE COMPLEX CONSISTS OF FIVE MAINELEMENTS FULLY GLAZED 3 STOREYED: WORKSHOP BLOCK. TEACHING BLOCK. SOCIAL AREAS. BAUHAUS, DESSAU PLAN A 5-STOREYED STUDY BLOCK. AN ADMINISTRATIVE WING SPANNING THE ROADWAYTO PRODUCE A SEPARATION OF EACH OF THESEFUNCTIONS FROM OTHERS, AT THE SAME TIMENOT ISOLATING THEM BUT BRINGING THEMTOGETHER INTO EFFICIENT INTEGRATION.WORKSHOPS NOTICEABLY MORE INDUSTRIAL,PARTICULARLY IN THEIR WINDOW BLOCK VIEW OF BAUHAUS BUILDING: 1. WORKSHOP 2. DINING HALL 3. STUDIO WORKSHOPTHE SQUARE PENALLED METAL WINDOWS ARE 4. ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICETYPICAL OF MASS PRODUCED INDUSTRIAL 5. TRADE SCHOOLUNITS.
  • 13. AESTHETICALLY BAUHAUS WAS AN ADVANCEDBUILDING BUT TECHNOLOGICALLY- PROBABLYBECAUSE OF THE LIMITED FUNDS, IT WAS ,SOMEWAYBEHIND THE CONTEMPORARY WORKS.BAUHAUS IS ENCLOSED BY GLASS CURTAINSTHE CURTAIN GLASS WALLING WAS FIRST USED INFAGUS FACTORY -1911 AND THEN USED WITH CERTAINREFINEMENT. WORKSHOP WINGTHE WHOLE CUBE SEEMS LIKE TO IMMENSEHORIZONTAL PLAINS FLOATING ON THE GROUND.GIANT LIGHT CUBE DAZZLING WHITE LIGHT FROMEVERY WALL.THE HIGH GLASS WALLS REVEALING THE LIGHT STEELSTRUCTURE…. DELINEATED IN ALL ITS TRANSPARENCYBY THE IRON GRID OF ITS EXTERIOR STRUCTURE.
  • 14. --- GROUND FLOOR PLAN 3 VIEW OF THE COMPLEX IN WHICH THE ELEVATIONS 2 SHOW THE LINEAR NATURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL STRUCTURES. 4 1 THE COMPLEX IS DIVIDED INTO THREE MAIN WINGS. 5 THE STUDIO APARTMENTS ARE CONNECTED BY AUDITORIUM, CANTEEN, KITCHENS AND GYMNASIUM TOFIRST FLOOR PLAN THE LONG NARROW1. WORKSHOP2. DINING HALL THE WING ON LEFT IS THE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND3. STUDIO WORKSHOP4. ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE CRAFTS, WING ON THE RIGHT ACCOMMODATE THE5. TRADE SCHOOL WORKSHOP.
  • 15. FAÇADE OF THE STUDENTS STUDIOGENERAL VIEW OF THE APARTMENTS WITH THEIR BAUHAUS BUILDING CANTILEVERED BALCONIES AND LARGE OPENINGS
  • 16. BAUHAUS, DESSAU. ADMINISTRATION WING BAUHAUS, DESSAU. OVER THE STREET, CONNECTING THE STUDENT’S STUDIOS IN SCHOOL DIVISIONS. FOREGROUND BAUHAUS, DESSAU. BAUHAUS, DESSAU. INTERIOR, INTERIOR, WORKSHOP. CORRIDOR AND STAIRS
  • 17. BAUHAUS, DESSAU INTERIOR, BAUHAUS, DESSAU. INTERIOR, DIRECTORS OFFICE. STUDENTS WORK AND BEDROOM BAUHAUS, DESSAU. INTERIOR, AUDITORIUM
  • 18. CONCLUSIONGROPIUS IS RECOGNIZED AS ONE OF THE FOUR PIONEERS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE,THE OTHERS BEING MIES VAN DER ROHE, FRANK LYOD WRIGHT AND LE-CORBUSIER.GROPIUS WAS A FUNCTIONLIST MOST OF HIS BUILDINGS IN GERMANY, ENGLAND ANDAMERICA ARE CONSTRUCTED THAT AIM TO BE LOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF PURPOSEFOR INSTANCE:IMPINGTON VALLAGE SCHOOL, HARVARD GRADUATE CENTRE.GROPIUS WAS QUICK TO SEE THE ADVANTAGES OF ECONOMY IN THE BUILDINGS.GROPIUS WAS EXPERIMENTED IN HIS PROJECTS.BEING AN EDUCATOR HIS NATURE MADE HIM READY TO LISTEN TO OTHERS AND GIVETHEM THEIR FULL DUE. HE WAS ALWAYS READY TO CONSULT AND LEARN FROM OTHERS.GROPIUS WAS A CLASSICIST AS HIS MOST BEAUTIFUL BUILDINGS PROVE e.g.: HOUSESBUILT IN BAUHAUS.ALMOST ALL HIS BUILDINGS HAVE A SLIGHT HORIZONTAL EMPHASIS- BALANCED BYVERTICALS TOGETHER WITH THE RECTANGULAR WINDOWS MOVING TOWARDS SQUARESAND LARGE AREAS OF PLAIN WALLS ALWAYS WELL-PROPORTIONED CREATE A FEELINGOF CLASSIC REPOSE AND SIMPLICITY.ALMOST ALL HIS BUILDINGS HAVE FLAT ROOFS. IT WAS NOT ONLY AESTHETICALLY THATHE LIKED THE FLAT ROOF- HE ALSO REALIZED ITS FUNCTIONAL ADVANTAGE IN FREEDOMOF PLANNING.