Teaching Reading Sourcebook
Each reader brings unique competencies
that affect comprehension.
Comprehension builds upon the reader’s
speed and accuracy of decoding;
general world knowledge;
specific comprehension strategies.
Dimensions of Text
Content: subject matter
Genre: category of literature
Structure: narrative story structure or informational
Language: author’s expression of ideas: tone, voice
Adept diction: skillful and precise use of words
Writing quality: text clarity and coherence
Complexity: readability: words, sentences, concepts
Graphic design features: physical features of text
Media: means of communication: print, web-based
Elements of Comprehension
Purpose for reading: identifying reading task
Processes for reading: determining approach for
Consequences of reading: increased knowledge,
Social and cultural factors: school, family, community
What Good Readers Do
Set goal or purpose
Preview text; make predictions
Connect to world knowledge, make inferences
Adjust reading by skimming, focusing, rereading,
Check and adapt predictions, summarize passages
Ask questions, respond and evaluate text
Monitor comprehension, check and repair
Reread, summarize, reflect
Determine how information can be used and recalled
Recognizing text structure
guides reader in identifying and recalling key information.
involves world knowledge and cues in text and helps the
reader set purpose and recall text.
involves the reader’s knowledge and control of cognitive
Connecting to world knowledge
involves activating schema and applying known to new in
about the text fosters comprehension and provides self-
helps, as answers may be found in the text itself and in the
students’ own knowledge.
helps students’ awareness of text structure and
relationship between ideas in text.
Constructing Mental Images
promotes active processing of text and provides structure
for organizing and remembering text.
Explicit Strategy Instruction
Process: shifting responsibility for learning from
teacher to student
Tools: graphic organizers, prompts, cooperative
learning, read-aloud methods
Occurs in the context of reading conceptually
challenging, relevant, high-interest texts.
Meaning is constructed through interaction
between the reader and the text.
Different readers respond in different ways.
Readers in collaboration often produce
meanings no single reader could.
Discussion and writing are effective ways to
foster reader response.
Discussion Oriented Instruction: teacher guided/
student-led discussions, book clubs, literacy circles
Writing into (before), writing through (during), writing
Instruction for ELLs
Reading comprehension is closely tied to oral
language proficiency .
Promote language production and vocabulary
acquisition while working on comprehension skills.
Explicit and direct instruction actively engages
students in monitoring their use of strategies in
For novice readers in their primary language: provide
explicit word-level skills instruction to help them attain
the level of performance of native English speakers.
For able readers in their primary language: emphasize
transferring strategies from their native language to