Chapter 10 Fluency Instruction

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Chapter 10 from Teaching Reading Sourcebook, 2nd edition

Chapter 10 from Teaching Reading Sourcebook, 2nd edition

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  • Instructional methods focused on connected text can be grouped into three main categories: independent silent reading, assisted reading, and repeated oral reading. In actual practice, these categories often overlap. A fourth category focuses on integrated fluency instruction.
  • Teacher-assisted reading: expressive reading modeled through reading aloud. Peer-assisted reading: paired reading with feedback from more fluent reader. Audio-assisted reading: expressive reading modeled by computer, CD or audio tape.
  • Number of readings: Students either read and reread a text until a level of fluency is met or they read text a set number of times (three to four benefit most). Instructional groupings: Include individually with adult, pairs, small groups, or a whole class. Purpose for reading: Students devote each reading to a different purpose ( 1 st read: identify character motivation, 2 nd read identify setting, etc.).
  • See Research-Based Methods of Repeated Oral Reading chart on page 365 for descriptions of each.
  • Passages should vary in genre with short stories, magazine and newspaper articles, poetry etc.

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 10: Fluency Instruction Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2 nd edition
  • 2. Fluency Instruction
    • To develop fluency instruction one must focus on the three elements of fluent reading: accuracy, rate, and prosody.
    • Instructional methods can be grouped into three categories, which in actual practice overlap.
    • A fourth category focuses on the integration of the following:
      • Independent silent reading
      • Assisted reading
      • Repeated oral reading
  • 3. Assisted Reading
    • Students need to hear proficient fluency models to learn how a reader’s voice can help make sense of text.
    • Methods of assisted reading include
      • Teacher-assisted reading
      • Peer-assisted reading
      • Audio-assisted reading
    • All forms emphasize extensive practice to improve students’ fluency.
  • 4. Repeated Oral Reading
    • Practice is the key to fluency.
    • Repeated readings involve rereading a text to build both automaticity and fluency. (i.e. choral reading, Readers Theatre, etc.)
    • Repeated oral reading is flexible and can be adapted in many ways such as
      • the number of readings;
      • the instructional groupings;
      • the purpose for reading.
  • 5. Methods of Repeated Oral Reading
    • Timed repeated oral reading
    • Self-timed repeated oral reading
    • Partner reading
    • Phrase-cued reading
    • Readers Theatre
    • Radio reading
    • Choral reading
    • Duet reading
    • Echo reading
    • Reading with Recordings
  • 6. Choosing the Right Text
    • Texts students read to develop fluency should be chosen carefully. Criteria include
      • Text length: 50-200 words with shorter passages for beginning and struggling readers and longer passages for better readers;
      • Text content: choosing the right passage can be the key to motivation; the more that words overlap between texts with common themes, the more transfer there is of fluent reading;
      • Level of text difficulty: an essential requirement for repeated oral reading is that the text be at the correct level of difficulty for each student.
  • 7. How to Determine the Level of Text Difficulty
    • Administer a one minute timed reading assessment of a 100-120 word passage to calculate the CWPM.
    • Calculate the percent of words read correctly or percent of accuracy. (If a student read 112 words correctly out of a 120 word passage: 112 divided by 120 = .93 or 93% accuracy.)
    • Compare the student’s accuracy level with the levels of text difficulty
      • 95-100% Independent level
      • 90-94% Instructional level
      • Less than 90% Frustration level
  • 8. When to Teach
    • Not every student needs instruction for fluency building. Assessment determines if and what kind of fluency instruction is needed (e.g. accuracy, rate, prosody).
    • In grades K-2, students need daily opportunities to hear text read aloud in a fluent, prosodic manner.
    • In grade 1, students need daily opportunities for guided repeated oral readings; in grades 2-5, practice reading aloud with corrective feedback.
    • Although most oral reading fluency rates do not significantly increase beyond grade 6, all students need ample amounts of reading practice in a wide range of texts.