Chapter 10 Fluency Instruction

Uploaded on

Chapter 10 from Teaching Reading Sourcebook, 2nd edition

Chapter 10 from Teaching Reading Sourcebook, 2nd edition

More in: Education , Sports
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide
  • Instructional methods focused on connected text can be grouped into three main categories: independent silent reading, assisted reading, and repeated oral reading. In actual practice, these categories often overlap. A fourth category focuses on integrated fluency instruction.
  • Teacher-assisted reading: expressive reading modeled through reading aloud. Peer-assisted reading: paired reading with feedback from more fluent reader. Audio-assisted reading: expressive reading modeled by computer, CD or audio tape.
  • Number of readings: Students either read and reread a text until a level of fluency is met or they read text a set number of times (three to four benefit most). Instructional groupings: Include individually with adult, pairs, small groups, or a whole class. Purpose for reading: Students devote each reading to a different purpose ( 1 st read: identify character motivation, 2 nd read identify setting, etc.).
  • See Research-Based Methods of Repeated Oral Reading chart on page 365 for descriptions of each.
  • Passages should vary in genre with short stories, magazine and newspaper articles, poetry etc.


  • 1. Chapter 10: Fluency Instruction Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2 nd edition
  • 2. Fluency Instruction
    • To develop fluency instruction one must focus on the three elements of fluent reading: accuracy, rate, and prosody.
    • Instructional methods can be grouped into three categories, which in actual practice overlap.
    • A fourth category focuses on the integration of the following:
      • Independent silent reading
      • Assisted reading
      • Repeated oral reading
  • 3. Assisted Reading
    • Students need to hear proficient fluency models to learn how a reader’s voice can help make sense of text.
    • Methods of assisted reading include
      • Teacher-assisted reading
      • Peer-assisted reading
      • Audio-assisted reading
    • All forms emphasize extensive practice to improve students’ fluency.
  • 4. Repeated Oral Reading
    • Practice is the key to fluency.
    • Repeated readings involve rereading a text to build both automaticity and fluency. (i.e. choral reading, Readers Theatre, etc.)
    • Repeated oral reading is flexible and can be adapted in many ways such as
      • the number of readings;
      • the instructional groupings;
      • the purpose for reading.
  • 5. Methods of Repeated Oral Reading
    • Timed repeated oral reading
    • Self-timed repeated oral reading
    • Partner reading
    • Phrase-cued reading
    • Readers Theatre
    • Radio reading
    • Choral reading
    • Duet reading
    • Echo reading
    • Reading with Recordings
  • 6. Choosing the Right Text
    • Texts students read to develop fluency should be chosen carefully. Criteria include
      • Text length: 50-200 words with shorter passages for beginning and struggling readers and longer passages for better readers;
      • Text content: choosing the right passage can be the key to motivation; the more that words overlap between texts with common themes, the more transfer there is of fluent reading;
      • Level of text difficulty: an essential requirement for repeated oral reading is that the text be at the correct level of difficulty for each student.
  • 7. How to Determine the Level of Text Difficulty
    • Administer a one minute timed reading assessment of a 100-120 word passage to calculate the CWPM.
    • Calculate the percent of words read correctly or percent of accuracy. (If a student read 112 words correctly out of a 120 word passage: 112 divided by 120 = .93 or 93% accuracy.)
    • Compare the student’s accuracy level with the levels of text difficulty
      • 95-100% Independent level
      • 90-94% Instructional level
      • Less than 90% Frustration level
  • 8. When to Teach
    • Not every student needs instruction for fluency building. Assessment determines if and what kind of fluency instruction is needed (e.g. accuracy, rate, prosody).
    • In grades K-2, students need daily opportunities to hear text read aloud in a fluent, prosodic manner.
    • In grade 1, students need daily opportunities for guided repeated oral readings; in grades 2-5, practice reading aloud with corrective feedback.
    • Although most oral reading fluency rates do not significantly increase beyond grade 6, all students need ample amounts of reading practice in a wide range of texts.