Chapter 10: Fluency Instruction Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2 nd  edition
Fluency Instruction <ul><li>To develop fluency instruction one must focus on the three elements of fluent reading: accurac...
Assisted Reading <ul><li>Students need to hear proficient fluency models to learn how a reader’s voice can help make sense...
Repeated Oral Reading <ul><li>Practice is the key to fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated readings involve rereading a text...
Methods of Repeated Oral Reading <ul><li>Timed repeated oral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Self-timed repeated oral reading </...
Choosing the Right Text <ul><li>Texts students read to develop fluency should be chosen carefully. Criteria include </li><...
How to Determine the Level of Text Difficulty <ul><li>Administer a one minute timed reading assessment of a 100-120 word p...
When to Teach <ul><li>Not every student needs instruction for fluency building. Assessment determines  if  and  what kind ...
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Chapter 10 Fluency Instruction

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Chapter 10 from Teaching Reading Sourcebook, 2nd edition

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  • Instructional methods focused on connected text can be grouped into three main categories: independent silent reading, assisted reading, and repeated oral reading. In actual practice, these categories often overlap. A fourth category focuses on integrated fluency instruction.
  • Teacher-assisted reading: expressive reading modeled through reading aloud. Peer-assisted reading: paired reading with feedback from more fluent reader. Audio-assisted reading: expressive reading modeled by computer, CD or audio tape.
  • Number of readings: Students either read and reread a text until a level of fluency is met or they read text a set number of times (three to four benefit most). Instructional groupings: Include individually with adult, pairs, small groups, or a whole class. Purpose for reading: Students devote each reading to a different purpose ( 1 st read: identify character motivation, 2 nd read identify setting, etc.).
  • See Research-Based Methods of Repeated Oral Reading chart on page 365 for descriptions of each.
  • Passages should vary in genre with short stories, magazine and newspaper articles, poetry etc.
  • Chapter 10 Fluency Instruction

    1. 1. Chapter 10: Fluency Instruction Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2 nd edition
    2. 2. Fluency Instruction <ul><li>To develop fluency instruction one must focus on the three elements of fluent reading: accuracy, rate, and prosody. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional methods can be grouped into three categories, which in actual practice overlap. </li></ul><ul><li>A fourth category focuses on the integration of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent silent reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated oral reading </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Assisted Reading <ul><li>Students need to hear proficient fluency models to learn how a reader’s voice can help make sense of text. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of assisted reading include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-assisted reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-assisted reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio-assisted reading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All forms emphasize extensive practice to improve students’ fluency. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Repeated Oral Reading <ul><li>Practice is the key to fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated readings involve rereading a text to build both automaticity and fluency. (i.e. choral reading, Readers Theatre, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated oral reading is flexible and can be adapted in many ways such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of readings; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the instructional groupings; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the purpose for reading. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Methods of Repeated Oral Reading <ul><li>Timed repeated oral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Self-timed repeated oral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Partner reading </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase-cued reading </li></ul><ul><li>Readers Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Radio reading </li></ul><ul><li>Choral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Duet reading </li></ul><ul><li>Echo reading </li></ul><ul><li>Reading with Recordings </li></ul>
    6. 6. Choosing the Right Text <ul><li>Texts students read to develop fluency should be chosen carefully. Criteria include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text length: 50-200 words with shorter passages for beginning and struggling readers and longer passages for better readers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text content: choosing the right passage can be the key to motivation; the more that words overlap between texts with common themes, the more transfer there is of fluent reading; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of text difficulty: an essential requirement for repeated oral reading is that the text be at the correct level of difficulty for each student. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. How to Determine the Level of Text Difficulty <ul><li>Administer a one minute timed reading assessment of a 100-120 word passage to calculate the CWPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the percent of words read correctly or percent of accuracy. (If a student read 112 words correctly out of a 120 word passage: 112 divided by 120 = .93 or 93% accuracy.) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the student’s accuracy level with the levels of text difficulty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95-100% Independent level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90-94% Instructional level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 90% Frustration level </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. When to Teach <ul><li>Not every student needs instruction for fluency building. Assessment determines if and what kind of fluency instruction is needed (e.g. accuracy, rate, prosody). </li></ul><ul><li>In grades K-2, students need daily opportunities to hear text read aloud in a fluent, prosodic manner. </li></ul><ul><li>In grade 1, students need daily opportunities for guided repeated oral readings; in grades 2-5, practice reading aloud with corrective feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Although most oral reading fluency rates do not significantly increase beyond grade 6, all students need ample amounts of reading practice in a wide range of texts. </li></ul>

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