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  • 1. Satellite CommunicationK.M.PrabusankarlalDepartment of Electronics &Communication1
  • 2. Electronic Communication2 Sending Receiving and Processing informationthrough electronic system
  • 3. Electromagnetic Spectrum3
  • 4. Communication System4
  • 5. Modulation and Demodulation5
  • 6. Olden days Systems6
  • 7. The Radio Experiment7 1897, Marconi sent the first ever wireless communication over opensea. The experiment, witnessed a message transversed over theBristol Channel a distance of 6 kms. The message read "Are youready"
  • 8. Transatlantic transmissions8 12 December 1901, using a 152.4-metre (500 ft) kite-supported antenna for reception, the message was received atSignal Hill in St Johns, Newfoundland (now part of Canada)signals transmitted by the companys new high-power stationat Poldhu, Cornwall. The distance between the two points wasabout 3,500 kilometres
  • 9. Wave Propagation9 Ground Wave Sky Wave Space Wave
  • 10. Sky Wave Propagation10 Radio waves radiated at a high angle and reflectedby these layers return to earth at a distance from thetransmitter.
  • 11. How does a satellite orbit?11
  • 12. Orbit Types12 There are three major orbits: geosynchronous orbit(GEO), middle earth orbit (MEO), and low earth orbit(LEO). The majority of communications satelites inuse are GEOs.
  • 13. Low Earth Orbit (LEO)13 LEO satellites are much closer to the earth thanGEO satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km abovethe surface. LEO satellites don’t stay in fixed position relative tothe surface, and are only visible for 15 to 20 minuteseach pass.
  • 14. Low Earth Orbit (LEO)14
  • 15. Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)15 A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8,000km and 18,000 km above the earth’s surface. MEO satellites are similar to LEO satellites infunctionality. MEO satellites are visible for much longer periods oftime than LEO satellites, usually between 2 to 8hours. MEO satellites have a larger coverage area thanLEO satellites.
  • 16. Iridium of Motorola16
  • 17. Iridium of Motorola17
  • 18. Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)18 These satellites are in orbit 35,863 km above theearth’s surface along the equator. Objects in Geostationary orbit revolve around theearth at the same speed as the earth rotates. Thismeans GEO satellites remain in the same positionrelative to the surface of earth.• A GEO satellite’s distance from earth gives it a largecoverage area, almost a fourth of the earth’s surface.
  • 19. Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)19
  • 20. Artificial Satellites20 The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 on Oct. 4,1957. The world’s first artificial satellite
  • 21. Artificial Satellites21Sputnik-2 equipped with a rudimentary life support systemto keep its passenger, a dog named Laika
  • 22. India’s First Satellite22Aryabhatta April 19, 1975 , Soviet Intercosmos rocket
  • 23. How do Satellites Work23 Two Stations on Earth want to communicate throughradio broadcast but are too far away to useconventional means. The two stations can use a satellite as a relay stationfor their communication One Earth Station sends a transmission to thesatellite. This is called a Uplink. The satellite Transponder converts the signal andsends it down to the second earth station. This iscalled a Downlink.
  • 24. GEO Communication Satellites24
  • 25. Sections of a Satellite25
  • 26. Satellite Frequency bands26
  • 27. Launching Vehicles27PSLV GSLV
  • 28. Satellite Debris28