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  • 3. INTRODUCTION• Hydroelectric power plants convert the kinetic energy contained in falling water into electricity. The energy in flowing water is ultimately derived from the sun, and is therefore constantly being renewed. Energy contained in sunlight evaporates water from the oceans and deposits it on land in the form of rain. Differences in land elevation result in rainfall runoff, and allow some of the original solar energy to be captured as hydroelectric power• Hydropower is currently the worlds largest renewable source of electricity, accounting for 6% of worldwide energy supply or about 15% of the worlds electricity. Figure 1 shows a ranking of top hydro generating counties. Traditionally thought of as a cheap and clean source of electricity, most large hydro-electric schemes being planned today are coming up against a great deal of opposition from environmental groups and native people. 3
  • 4. HISTORY OF HYDEL POWER PLANT • - Nearly 2000 years ago the Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat into flour • - In the 1700s, hydropower was broadly used for milling of lumber and grain and for pumping irrigation water • - Appleton, Wisconsin became the first operational hydroelectric generating station in the United States, in 1882, producing 12.5 kilowatts (kW) of power • - The total electrical capacity generated was equivalent to 250 lights • - Within the next 20 years roughly 300 hydroelectric plants were operational around the world • - The invention of the hydraulic reaction turbine created the sudden expansion of hydropower • - 40% of the United States electricity was provided by hydroelectric power in the early 1900s 4
  • 5. Hydro electric (Hydel) Power Plant• Working principle• Potential energy is the energy which a substance has due to its position or state. The water behind a dam has potential energy because of its position. The water can fall from this position and exert a force over a distance and therefore do work.• In a Hydro-electric power plant the force is used to drive a turbine, which inturn drives the electric generator.• Because gravity provides the force which makes the water fall, the energy stored in the 5 water is called gravitational
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  • 9. Layout of Hydro electric power plant • Water reservoir: • In a reservoir the water collected from the catchment area is stored behind a dam. • Catchment area gets its water from rain and streams. • The level of water surface in the reservoir is called Head water level.Note : Continuous availability ofwater is a basic necessity for ahydro-electric power plant. • Dam : • The purpose of the dam is to store the water and to regulate the out going flow of water. • The dam helps to store all the incoming water. It also helps to increase the head of the water. In order to generate a required quantity of power it is necessary that a sufficient head is 9 available.
  • 10. Layout of Hydro electric power plant…• Spillway:• Excess accumulation of water endangers the stability of dam construction. Also in order to avoid the over flow of water out of the dam especially during rainy seasons spillways are provided. This prevents the rise of water level in the dam.• Spillways are passages which allows the excess water to flow to a storage area away from the dam.• Gate :• A gate is used to regulate or control the flow of water from the dam.• Pressure tunnel:• It is a passage that carries water from the reservoir to the surge tank. 10
  • 11. Layout of Hydro electric power plant… • Surge tank: • A Surge tank is a small reservoir or tank in which the water level rises or falls due to sudden changes in pressure.Purpose of surge tank: • To serve as a supply tank to the turbine when the water in the pipe is accelerated during increased load conditions and as a storage tank when the water is decelerating during reduced load conditions. • To reduce the distance between the free water surface in the dam and the turbine, thereby reducing the water-hammer effect on penstock and also protect the upstream tunnel from high pressure rise.Water-hammer effect : • The water hammer is defined as the change in pressure rapidly above or below normal pressure caused by 11 sudden change in the rate of water
  • 12. Layout of Hydro electric power plant…• Penstock:• Penstock is a closed pipe of steel or concrete for supplying water under pressure to the turbine.• Inlet valve :• Water from the penstock flows to the turbine through the inlet valve. The valve may be partially closed or open thereby regulating the pressure of water flowing to the turbine.• Hydraulic turbine(Prime mover) :• The hydraulic turbine converts the energy of water into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy(rotation) available on the turbine shaft is coupled to the shaft of an electric generator and electricity is produced. The water after performing the work on turbine blades is discharged through the draft tube. 12• The prime movers which are in
  • 13. Layout of Hydro electric power plant… • Draft tube: • It is connected to the outlet of the turbine. • It allows the turbine to be placed above the tail water level. • Tail water level or Tail race: • Tail water level is the water level after the discharge from the turbine. The discharged water is sent to the river, thus the level of the river is the tail water level. • Electric generator, Step-up transformerand Pylon : • As the water rushes through the turbine, it spins the turbine shaft, which is coupled to the electric generator. The generator has a rotating electromagnet called a rotor and a stationary part called a stator. The rotor creates a magnetic field that produces an electric charge in the stator. The charge is transmitted as electricity. The step-up transformer increases the voltage of the current coming from the stator. The electricity is distributed through power lines also called as pylon. 13
  • 14. Classification of Hydro electric powe plants• Hydro –electric power plants are usually classified according to the available head of water.High head power plants : Head of water is more than500 metres. The turbine used in such plants is Pelton wheel.Medium head power plants : Head of water rangesfrom 80 to 500 metres. Theturbine used in such plants is Francis turbine.Low head power plants : Head of water ranges from1.5 to 80 metres. Theturbine used in such plants is Kaplan turbine andFrancis turbine. 14
  • 15. Pelton wheel or Pelton turbine 15
  • 16. Francis turbine 16
  • 17. Kaplan turbine 17
  • 18. Advantages of hydel power plant• Water is a renewable energy source.• Maintenance and operation charges are very low.• The efficiency of the plant does not change with age.• In addition to power generation, hydro-electric power plants are also useful for flood control, irrigation purposes, fishery and recreation.• Have a longer life(100 to 125 years) as they operate at atmospheric temperature.• Water stored in the hydro-electric power plants can also be used for domestic water supply.• Since hydro-electric power plants run at low speeds(300 to 400 rpm) there is no requirement of special alloy steel construction materials or specialised mechanical maintenance. 18
  • 19. Hydro electric (Hydel) Power Plant…• Disadvantages of hydel power plant :• The initial cost of the plant is very high.• Since they are located far away from the load centre, cost of transmission lines and transmission losses will be more.• During drought season the power production may be reduced or even stopped due to insufficient water in the reservoir.• Water in the reservoir is lost by evaporation. 19
  • 20. CONCLUSION• Should hydroelectric power be encouraged? I believe the answer to be a• cautious ‘Yes’.• Weighing up the benefits and environmental disadvantages is difficult. Until• recently, projects deemed to be for ‘the greater good’ of the country were• carried out regardless of the local human and environmental cost. This has• changed recently, but it is still very difficult to balance. For example, Egypt’s• communities have benefited from receiving electricity, yet the effect of building• the Aswan dam has been to starve the farming communities of nutrient-rich silt• that used to be brought down on the floods each year.• The benefits of electricity are undisputable for both economic and social• development, and if the balance is between providing electricity that reduces• the human mortality rate and protecting the environment, the former must be• chosen. To choose the latter is arrogance on our part, sitting in well-lit comfy• buildings, legislating for an effect that will never harm us.• The theoretical amount of hydroelectric power available world-wide is about four• times more than has been exploited at the present time (Lamark et al., 1998). It• is clear that the actual amount of hydroelectricity generated will be much less• than this total, due to the growing anxiety about environmental costs and the• economic cost of developing many of these sites.• Although it is feasible for large scale hydroelectric power projects to be• developed I do not believe this to be desirable because of the huge• environmental impact. However an increase in SHP schemes should be• encouraged to meet local needs. 20
  • 21. REFERENCES• Diesendorf, M. (2004) "Comparison of employment potential of the coal and• wind power industries" Int. J. Environment, Workplace, and Employment,• 1, 82-90.• Fearnside, P. M. (2002) "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Hydroelectric• Reservoir (Brazils Tucurua Dam) and the Energy Policy Implications"• Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 133, 69-96.• Fearnside, P. M. (2004) "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydroelectric Dams:• Controversies Provide a Springboard for Rethinking a Supposedly• "Clean" Energy Source." Climatic Change, 66, 1-8.• Graham-Rowe, D. (2005) In New Scientist.• Hoey, J. and Postl, B. (1998) "Determinants -- and determination" CMAJ, 158,• 1467-1468.• IHA. 2003. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs. International• Hydropower Association 21
  • 22. THANK YOU 22