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Common Denominators in Successful Female Statecraft: The Political Legacies of Queen Elizabeth I, Margaret Thatcher, & Indira Gandhi.
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Common Denominators in Successful Female Statecraft: The Political Legacies of Queen Elizabeth I, Margaret Thatcher, & Indira Gandhi.

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2011 Oxford Round Table presentation

2011 Oxford Round Table presentation

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  • 1. COMMON DENOMINATORS IN SUCCESSFUL FEMALE STATECRAFT: THE LEGACIES OF QUEEN ELIZABETH I, INDIRA GANDHI & MARGARET THATCHER Sandra Wagner-Wright, Ph.D. University of Hawai`i Oxford Round Table July 31 – August 5, 2011
  • 2. STANDARD LITERATURE ON FEMALE LEADERSHIP STYLES Sampling: • Carol Gilligan. In A Different Voice. (1993) • Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Beyond the Double Bind. (1995) • S. Trevis Certo, et. al. A Decade of Corporate Women. (1999) Findings: • Female nurturing, consensus-building skills not valued • Successful women deny feminine characteristics in favor of masculine attributes
  • 3. Sara Louise Muhr – 2011 “Caught in the Gendered Machine: On the Masculine and Feminine in Cyborg Leadership” Findings: • Successful female leaders are androgynous “cyborgs” • Transcend gender • Overcome alienation • Male attributes of efficient intellectual ability • Female attributes of appearance & commitment to Motherhood Gender, Work & Organization. Vol. 18. no. 3 (2011): 337-357
  • 4. ELIZABETH I (1533-1603) QUEEN OF ENGLAND 1558-1603 SEMPER EADEM ~ (Always the Same) VIDEO ET TACEO ~ (I see and say nothing)
  • 5. FAMILY HISTORY PARENTS: HENRY VIII (1491-1547) ANNE BOLEYN (1507-1536) SIBLING RIVALS: EDWARD VI (1537-1553) MARY I (1516-1558)
  • 6. DOCTRINE OF THE KING’S TWO BODIES “Body Natural” ~~ physically imperfect, female “Body Politic” ~~ immortal, timeless IMAGERY: VISUAL & RHETORICAL
  • 7. Velasquez ELIZABETH AS THE QUEEN OF HEAVEN Ordained to Rule by God
  • 8. THE SCEPTER OF JUSTICE THE GLOBE OF EMPIRE ON LAND AND SEA THE CROWN, A DIADEM OF GLORY ERMINE ROBES, A SYMBOL OF THE VIRGIN
  • 9. DOMESTIC POLICY Uniformity Act of 1559 Governor of the Church Economic Reform Encourage Loyalty at all Levels
  • 10. VICTORY OVER THE SPANISH, 1588 Wearing breastplate and “Riding about through the ranks of armed men . . . With a Leader’s Truncheon in her hand.” “I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too… I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge and rewarder.” FOREIGN POLICY MARRIAGE POLITICS MODERNIZE ARMY & NAVY
  • 11. INDIRA PRIYADARSHINI GANDHI (1917-1984) PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA 1966-1977, 1980-1984
  • 12. J. Nehru Indira Kamala Nehru NEHRU FAMILY, c. 1927
  • 13. 1942 ~ MARRIED FEROZE GANDHI (1912-1960) Rajiv Gandhi (1944-1989) Sanjay Gandhi (1946-1980)
  • 14. PROFESSIONAL TIMELINE 1964 • Prime Minister Nehru died • Gandhi appointed Minister of Information 1965 ~ Gandhi “the only man in a Cabinet of old women” 1966 • Prime Minister Shastri died • Gandhi named Prime Minister 1971 ~ Gandhi re-elected 1975 ~ Gandhi institutes Emergency Powers 1977 ~ Gandhi loses election 1980 ~ Gandhi returned to power 1984 ~ Gandhi assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards
  • 15. President Richard M. Nixon & Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Arrival Ceremony Nov. 4, 1971 NIXON: Mrs. Gandhi is “a cold blooded practitioner of power politics.”
  • 16. CRISIS IN EAST PAKISTAN, 1971 • Dec 1970 – Awami League in East Pakistan sweeps elections • Mar 1971 – Pakistan represses dissent • Refugees pour into India “The world must know something about what is going on here and must do something about it….We cannot let Pakistan continue this holocaust.” • Diplomatic initiative – rebuffed • Plea for U.S. to intercede – rebuffed • Dec 3, 1971 – Pakistan launches air strike. India responds. • U. S. sends 7th Fleet w/ nuclear air craft carrier Enterprise to Bay of Bengal. • Dec 6 – India recognizes new state of Bangladesh
  • 17. INDIRA GANDHI AS INCARNATION OF DURGA AND SHAKTI December 12, 1971 ~ Pakistan surrenders
  • 18. PROJECT OF THE SMILING BUDDHA INDIA DETONATES A NUCLEAR DEVICE, MAY 18, 1974 Photo from US Dept. of Energy Subsidence crater at the instant of formation.
  • 19. “I’m not interested in a long life. I am not afraid of these things. I don’t mind if my life goes in the service of the nation. If I die today every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation.” – Indira Gandhi at Orissa, October 30, 1984 [Quoted by William E. Smith, “Death in the Garden” Time Magazine. Nov. 12, 1984. Vol. 124, Issue 20.] Gandhi Assassinated, October 31, 1984
  • 20. MARGARET HILDA ROBERTS THATCHER (1925-2013) PRIME MINISTER OF GREAT BRITAIN (1979-1990)
  • 21. FAMILY TIES PARENTS: Alfred Roberts, Grocer, One-time Mayor of Grantham Beatrice Roberts, Wife & Mother SPOUSE: Denis Thatcher (1915-2003), married 1951 CHILDREN: Twins Carol & Mark, born 1953 “The main interest which my father and I shared while I was a girl was a thirst for knowledge about politics and public affairs.” Thatcher, The Downing Street Years, 1995.
  • 22. THE MANY FACES OF MARGARET THATCHER Boudicea ~ Mother of the Nation ~ Flirt ~ Matron ~ Housewife ~ Screeching Harridan ~ “IRON LADY” “I stand before you tonight, in my Red Star chiffon evening gown, my face softly made-up and my fair hair gently waived – the Iron Lady of the western world, a cold Warrior, an Amazon Philistine, even a Peking plotter.” (1976)
  • 23. “Britain is now seventh out of nine nations of Europe and among the poorest after Ireland and Italy. THAT IS NO PLACE FOR BRITAIN.” 1979
  • 24. FALKLANDS WAR, 1982 April 2, 1982 – Argentina invades Falkland Islands April 3 – Argentina invades George Island April 26 – Britain secures George Island May 21 – British Operations begin in Falkland Islands June 14 – Argentina surrenders
  • 25. “I’m standing up for the right of self-determination. I’m standing up for our territory. I’m standing up for our people. I’m standing up for international law.” ~Thatcher
  • 26. “I REGARDED IT AS MY DUTY TO DO EVERYTHING I COULD TO REINFORCE AND FURTHER PRESIDENT REAGAN’S BOLD STRAGETY TO WIN THE COLD WAR.”
  • 27. “Come into politics if you have a passion for politics …. It’s a tough life, particularly when you start to climb the greasy pole to get to the top.” 1996 Thatcher arrives for President Reagan’s funeral, 2004
  • 28. ASSESSMENT Cyborg – “a fictional or hypothetical person whose physical abilities become superhuman.” Muhr on female managers “tough gendered machines fighting their way to the top”
  • 29. COMMON DENOMINATORS: QUEEN ELIZABETH I, P.M. INDIRA GANDHI, P. M. MARGARET THATCHER • Strong, Politically Active Fathers ~ Comparatively Passive Mothers • No competing male consort • Public images linked to national symbols • A single defining event ~ • Elizabeth facing down Spanish Armada, 1588 • Gandhi overseeing the Birth of Bangladesh, 1971 • Thatcher victorious over Argentina, 1982 Thank you for your attention.
  • 30. ACKNOWLEGEMENTS SLIDE 4 Workshop of Nicholas Hilliard (1547-1619) Hardwick Hall Portrait of Elizabeth I, 1599 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 7 Diego Valazquez (1599-1660) Coronation of the Virgin, 1645 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 8 Late 16C Copy of Lost Original Coronation Portrait Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 11 P.M. Indira Gandhi at National Press Club ,Washington, 1966 Library of Congress, Work for Hire by Staff Photographer US News & World Report No Known Restrictions, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 12 Nehru Family, 1927 Back: Jawaharlal Nehru, Vigaya Lakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesingh, Indira Nehru Gandhi, Ranjit Pandit Seated: Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru, Kamala Nehru Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 13 Marriage of Feroze Gandhi and Indira Nehru Gandhi, March 26, 1942 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 15 Arrival Ceremony of P.M. Indira Gandhi, with President Nixon, Nov. 4, 1971 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons Quotation from Jain, B. M. Global Power: India’s Foreign Policy, 1947-2006. Lexington Books. 2009.
  • 31. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, CONT. SLIDE 17 Durga Mahishasura-mardini, Slayer of the Buffalo Demon, c.1910 Author: Anant Shivaji Desai, Ravi Varma Press Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 18 Aerial photo of subsidence crater at the point of formation, with dust clouds US Dept. of Energy Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 19 Quotation IN Smith, William E. “Death in the Garden.” Time Magazine, Vol. 124, Issue 20, Nov 12, 1984. SLIDE 20 Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Provided by Chris Collins of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation Creative Commons Attribution, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 24 Falklands Campaign, 1982 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 25 End of Hostilities, 1982 HMS Cardiff anchored outside Port Stanley Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 26 President Reagan & PM Thatcher at the White House, 1987 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
  • 32. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, CONT. SLIDE 27 Margaret Thatcher Arriving for Ronald Reagan’s Funeral, June 11, 2004 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons SLIDE 28 • Rainbow Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, c.1600 Attributed to Isaac Oliver (1558-1617) or Marcus Gheeraerts, the Younger (1561-1636) Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons • P.M. Indira Gandhi at National Press Club ,Washington, 1966 Library of Congress, Work for Hire by Staff Photographer US News & World Report No Known Restrictions, Wikimedia Commons • Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Provided by Chris Collins of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation Creative Commons Attribution, Wikimedia Commons

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