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Apa Webinar 9 16 2008 Oldstyle

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APA Style

APA Style

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  • 1. APA Style Reference List
  • 2. Why do I need to know how to cite right?
    • Because you need to cite your sources in a term paper or research paper.
    • Because it is right to give credit to others for their ideas and words.
    • Because proper citation helps others find your sources.
  • 3. Each APA citation usually includes:
    • Author’s name
    • Year of publication
    • Title of work
    • Publishing data
  • 4. Format
    • The reference list is double-spaced, and citation entries should have a hanging indent :
    • Lewis, L. A. (2006). All the way with APA! New York: Fantasy Books.
  • 5. Let’s take a closer look at…
    • The components of APA citation:
    • Authors
    • Publication Dates
    • Titles
    • Publication Information
    • Abbreviations
  • 6. Authors
    • FORMAT:
    • Lastname, F. M.
    • Last name comes first
    • Followed by initials for first and, if known, middle names
    • Space after period in initials
    • Finish author entry with a period
  • 7. Authors
    • ONE AUTHOR :
    • Author, A. A., Jr.
    • TWO AUTHORS:
    • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
    • - Use comma AND ampersand (&)
  • 8. Authors
    • THREE TO SIX AUTHORS:
    • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.
    • SEVEN OR MORE AUTHORS:
    • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., et al.
    • - Use “et al.” (and others) after the sixth name.
  • 9. Authors
    • EDITED BOOK:
    • Editor, E. E. (Ed.).
    • Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).
    • NO AUTHOR GIVEN:
    • Title . (2006).
  • 10. Publication Dates
    • (2006). – journals, books, A/V materials
    • (2006, June). – monthly magazines, newsletters, and newspapers
    • (2006, June 18). – dailies and weeklies
    • (n.d.). – no date available
  • 11. Titles
    • ARTICLE TITLE :
    • Title of an article: Subtitle words.
    • - NO quotation marks
    • - Only capitalize first word of title, subtitle (if any), and proper nouns
    • JOURNAL TITLE :
    • Title of a Journal , xx .
    • - Use upper and lowercase in journal title
    • - Use italics
    • - Volume number also in italics
  • 12. Titles
    • BOOK TITLE:
    • Title of a book: Subtitle words (2nd ed.).
    • - In italics
    • - Do NOT underline
    • - Capitalize first word of title, the first word after a colon or dash, and proper nouns
    • - Edition info (if any) is in parentheses and is NOT italicized
  • 13. Publication information
    • Location: Publisher.
    • Location where item is published comes first.
    • If two or more locations are given, use the first listed in the book.
    • Follow location with a colon (:) and a space.
    • Keep the publisher’s name as brief as possible.
    • Do NOT use Publisher, Co., or Inc.
    • DO use Books and Press.
    • End item with a period.
  • 14. Location
    • Generally give location in APA as city AND state or country.
    • For states, use 2-letter US Postal Service abbreviations.
      • Pittsburgh, PA:
    • Spell out countries in full.
      • Dusseldorf, Germany:
  • 15. Exception: University Press
    • If a university press has the state in its title, do NOT include the state in the location:
    • Boulder: University of Colorado Press.
  • 16. Exception: Cities that stand alone
    • Baltimore Amsterdam Paris
    • Boston Jerusalem Rome
    • Chicago London Stockholm
    • Los Angeles Milan Tokyo
    • New York Moscow Vienna
    • Philadelphia
    • San Francisco
    • * These are large cities that are major publishing centers. Do NOT use state or country.
  • 17. Publication information examples:
    • Location: Publisher.
    • Littleton, CO: Funky Granola Books.
    • Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell.
    • New York: McGraw-Hill.
    • Austin: University of Texas Press.
    • Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • 18. Abbreviations
    • APA has its own set of approved abbreviations.
    • ed. = edition
    • 2nd ed. = second edition
    • Ed. (Eds.) = Editor(s)
    • p. (pp.) = page(s)
  • 19. General Forms
    • Periodical
    • Nonperiodical
    • Part of a nonperiodical
    • Online periodical
    • Online document
  • 20. General Forms:
    • Periodical:
    • Author, A. A. (2006). Title of article. Title of Periodical , xx , xxx-xxx.
    • Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters, newspapers, etc.
  • 21. General Forms:
    • Nonperiodical:
    • Author, A. A. (2006). Title of work . Location: Publisher.
    • Nonperiodicals include items published separately: books, reports, brochures, manuals, audiovisual materials, etc.
  • 22. General Forms:
    • Part of a nonperiodical :
    • Author, A. A. (2006). Title of
    • chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title
    • of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location:
    • Publisher.
    • An example of a part of a nonperiodical is a book chapter .
  • 23. In print vs. Online
    • There are different formats for ONLINE sources .
    • Author, A. A. (2006). Title of article. Title of Periodical , xx , xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
    • People need to be able to locate the item online (either via database name, DOI or URL).
    • Date of retrieval tells when the item was found at a URL.
  • 24. Online sources
    • Documents available online:
      • Articles from periodicals (in databases or online journals)
      • Stand-alone documents (e.g., research paper, government report)
      • Uniquely Web-based format (e.g. Web page)
  • 25. Online source guidelines
    • # 1 – Direct people as closely as possible to the info being cited – whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home pages or menu pages.
    • # 2 – Provide Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information whenever possible (find DOIs in the online databases themselves or at sites such as CrossRef.org)
    • HINT: Cut and paste URLs or DOIs to avoid errors.
  • 26. Minimum for citing an Internet source
    • Document TITLE or description
    • DATE (Date of retrieval and, if available, date of publication or update)
    • Address (URL), name of database, or DOI
    • Whenever possible, identify AUTHOR as well.
  • 27. Internet Source
    • BASIC FORMAT :
    • Personal or corporate author. (Year, Month Day). Title in italics . Retrieved Month Day, Year, from source.
    • NOTE: If the source is an Internet address (URL), do NOT underline URL and do NOT end citation with a period.
  • 28.
    • APA EXAMPLES
  • 29. Article in a journal/magazine
    • JOURNAL ARTICLE (print version)
    • McCabe, S. E., Teter, C. J., & Boyd, C. J. (2006). Medical use,
    • illicit use, and diversion of abusable prescription drugs.
    • Journal of American College Health, 54 (5), 269-278.
    • NOTE1: Do NOT use p. or pp. with journal articles.
    • NOTE2: Journal issue number is placed in parentheses AFTER the volume number and is NOT in italics.
  • 30. Article in a journal/magazine
    • JOURNAL ARTICLE (from an online database)
    • McCabe, S. E., Teter, C. J., & Boyd, C. J. (2006). Medical use, illicit use, and diversion of abusable prescription drugs. Journal of American College Health, 54 (5), 269-278.
    • With the exception of hard-to-find books and other documents of limited circulation delivered by electronic databases, the database name is no longer a necessary element of the reference.
  • 31. Article in a journal/magazine
    • JOURNAL ARTICLE (from an online database with DOI available)
    • Shanahan, M. (2005). Perception as abduction: Turning sensor data into meaningful representation. Cognitive Science, 29 (1), 103-134. doi:10.1207/s15516709cog2901_5
  • 32. Article in a journal/magazine
    • JOURNAL ARTICLE (from an online journal)
    • Garrity, C., & Emam, K. E. (2006). Who’s using PDAs? Estimates of PDA use by health care providers: A systematic review of surveys. Journal of Medical Internet Research , 8 (2), Article e7. Retrieved from http ://www.jmir.org /
    • 2005/2/e19
    • NOTE: Online journals often don’t have page numbers. Sometimes they have article numbers assigned, as above.
  • 33. Article in a journal/magazine
    • MAGAZINE ARTICLE (monthly)
    • Galinsky, E., & Ginsberg, S. (2006, April). What parents can do about teens drinking. Work & Family Life , 2.
    • MAGAZINE ARTICLE (weekly)
    • Smith, K. T. (2006, May 10). Alcohol and
    • the teenage brain: A bad mix. Time ,
    • 24-26.
    • NOTE: Do NOT use p. or pp. with magazine articles.
  • 34. Newspaper article
    • NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (in print)
    • Toland, B. (2006, February 26). Neighborhood groups begin
    • to collect information on casinos. Pittsburgh Post- Gazette , p. B3.
    • NOTE1: DO use p. or pp. with newspaper articles.
    • NOTE2: Newspaper articles often have section letter AND page number(s).
  • 35. Book
    • BOOK
    • Keegan, J. (2004). The Iraq War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • 36. Book chapter, essay, or article
    • ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK
    • Gomez, G. G., & Kruse, C. A. (2004). Isolation and culture of human brain tumor cells. In S. P. Langdon
    • (Ed.), Cancer cell culture: Methods and protocols (pp. 101-109). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
    • NOTE1: DO use p. and pp. for pages of an article, chapter, or essay in an edited book.
  • 37. Internet source
    • STAND-ALONE DOCUMENT (no author indicated, no date)
    • GVU’s 10th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2006, from
    • http://www.cc.gatech.edu/user_surveys/
    • survey-1998-10/
    • Title goes first, in italics .
    • Split URLs after a slash or before a period.
    • Do NOT end citation with a period.
  • 38. Internet source
    • DOCUMENT ON A COMPLEX WEBSITE (e.g., university, organization, or government agency)
    • Rogers, J. L. (2005, June 4). Impact of an honor code on college student integrity . Retrieved September 3, 2006, from Georgiana University, Institute of Academic Integrity Web site: http://www.iai.gu.edu/pubs/050604.html
    • NOTE1 - Identify host organization and relevant department or program and include the words “Web site”
    • NOTE2 - Place a colon (:) after “Web site” and before the URL.
  • 39. Helpful APA resources:
    • APA manual
    • Concise rules of APA style
    • APA style for electronic references
    • APA style website