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PORTS OF HOLLAND
From the second half of the sixteenth century the import and export activities of a number of
ports were restored, but the structure of the port system was not changed. As ports like Hoorn
and Enkhuizen had specialized in the import and export of only a few products, intraregional
trade in the area north of the IJ remained of vital importance. This specialization bears some
resemblance to the process of decentralization
In the Rhine-Meuse estuary, Dordrecht was surpassed by Rotterdam, but here too there was a
form of specialization: Dordrecht concentrated on river trade whereas Rotterdam had sea
trade. Although the gateway towns in the delta area could remain reasonably independent of
Amsterdam, it should be emphasized that trade relations of a city like Rotterdam were on the
whole limited to western Europe and especially to England and France.
Unlike Africa and Australia, Holland had, during the Middle Ages and the early modern
period, a great number of waterways. Consequently, according to the standards of the period,
the area was remarkably accessible.
Shipping and port operations is one of the main sources of netherlands in economy. Since
2005, the number of cargo vessels in transportation with the badge engaged of netherlands is
750. The total numbers of the ports in Hollanda are 12, and some ports are grouped under a
single port operation. Rotterdam Port Authority
Amsterdam Port Authority
Groningen Port Authority
Harlingen Port Authority
Del Helder Port Authority
Vlaardingen Port Authority
Moerdijk Port Authority
Dordecht Port Authority
Zeeland Port Authority
Ilmuiden Port Authority
Port Authority of Groningen
Groningen Port Authority is in the north of Netherlands, operates the ports of Delfzijl and
Port of Delfzijl
Port of Delfzijl is a haven of modern equipment and specializing in particular in the field of
chemistry.there is a 850 metres -long quay port Delfzijl port for loading - unloading activities.
mostly wooden, container, paper, tree trunks, general cargo and China clay are processed in
Two chemical park in the port of Delfzijl: a metal park, an environmental and energy park,
Port of Eemshaven
There is a quay length of 1150 meters in the port of Eemshaven. ın the port, the ships mostly
carry roll on / roll off cargo, containers and general cargo .
Eemshaven Port includes bulk cargo park, RoRo park, park in the energy, recycling, parks,
Port of Harlingen
Port of Harlingen is the property of the Council and is managed by the Harlingen Port
Authority . In the port industry, fisheries, transport and marine are the activities displayed.
In Port of Harlingen the dock is used for the study of loading – unloading, is 1500 meters
long. At the same time, there are special cooling for the refrigerated cargo, storage, and
freezer storage rooms. medium-sized cargo ships which do not wish to form up on a waiting
list to enter the port of Amsterdam and Rotterdam and Heavy traffic, they prefer to enter the
port of Harlingen.
Den Helder Port Authority
The Port of Den Helder Is notable with serving in many areas. These are the activities in the
port: industry, fisheries, coast guard, marine, transportation, and a floating museum at the
same time Port of Den Helder has links with European highways and a very modern airport.
Port Authority of Vlaardingen
Port of Vlaardingen is in a position very close to the port of Rotterdam. This port used to be
known as a fish port.Today, in the Vlaardingen port, the products of the companies which
performs in ports are carried out .
Port of Moerdijk
Port of Moerdijk is in the region very close to the Port of Rotterdam as the port of
Vlaardingen. This port serves for different areas of the harbor.
In this port, Oftenly track freight, , container, bulk cargo (glass, wood, construction
materials, sand and pebbles), steel, construction material and scrap are carried out by the
cargoships. Loading-unloading operations are privatized to achieve services of port fast and
The depth of the harbor is 8.9 meters and Total quay length of 5 km.
Dordrecht Port Authority
Dordrecht Harbor has been developed between the years 1950 - 1960 After World War II
The depth of the port covering an area of 52 hectares, is 9.45 meters. There is a
bulk cargo which contains Open and closed sections, covers 18,000 m2 area.
Quay length is 290 meters with the Railway connection. Het Mallegat terminal formed for
the cargo and container ships. Het Mallegat terminal linked to the the highway A16 directly.
Zeeland Port Authority
Vlissingen and Terneuzen port authorites are managed by the Zeeland Port Authority. The
depths of the port of Terneuzen and Vlissingen are 12.5 and 16.5 m. meters. loading unloading operations are shown in the each of two port
Last year, the total cargo handled 35 million tons. The ships which carry petroleum and
petroleum products, chemicals, dry and liquid cargo, bulk cargo, fertilizers, metals and
minerals, edge to the Ports of Terneuzen and Vlissingen . Last year, totally 2500 ships
benefited from the services of the Port of Terneuzen . Last year, totally 4,600 cargo vessels
benefited from the services of the Port of Vlissingen.
IJmuiden Port Authority
The Port of IJmuiden was created in 1846, after Canal Noordzee completed. The port has a
strong market position due to its favourable geographical location and the commercial clusters
which are present. The sea, the mouth of the North Sea Canal and the presence of four clusters
of activity (fish, offshore, ferry and cruise shipping and shortsea) are the strong points of the
The favourable market position of many companies offers concrete leads for further
expansion and in-depth development of the sectors which are active in the port, namely:
• fresh fish,
• deep-frozen fish,
• cooling and deep-freeze sector,
• off-shore activities,
• ro-ro traffic,
• ferry and cruise shipping
The Spatial Development Of A Port System İn Relation To Domestic Trade:
The economic development of Holland during the Late Middle Ages was accompanied by a
gradual differentiation among Dutch ports, a differentiation which became increasingly
discernible during the fifteenth century. Within the region the ports in the the Rhine-Meuse
delta can be distinguished from those on the Dutch Zuyder Zee coast and the IJ. The former
were linked to what had traditionally been the economic centre of the province. Here
Dordrecht was the main port. As it was extremely favourably situated along the trade routes
between the German Rhineland and the valley of the Meuse River on the one hand, and the
provinces of Flanders, Brabant, Holland and the North Sea coastal countries on the other,
Dordrecht merchants succeeded in obtaining their share in the exchange of goods. Dordrecht's
position was strengthened by the fact that the counts of Holland had made the city the centre
of their toll system.
While the ports in the Rhine-Meuse delta acted as intermediaries in the east-west exchange of
goods, the Dutch Zuyder Zee ports played a role in the north-south exchange. Here
Amsterdam in particular became an important centre. Not only was this town equipped with a
suitably deep harbour in the IJ, it also had excellent connections with a relatively large
hinterland. From Amsterdam the area north of the IJ was easily accessible via inland
waterways, just as were the industrial centres in the southern part of Holland, the Zeeland
delta and the densely populated and highly developed provinces of Flanders and Brabant.
During the course of the fifteenth century Amsterdam became the main intermediary for the
exchange of goods between these areas and northern and northeastern Europe. This
Intermediary function was partly of a passive nature as long as the town acted only as a port
of transshipment for goods shipped by freighters not based in Amsterdam. It became active in
nature due to the commercial activities of Amsterdam merchants who developed a trade
interest in the Baltic area. It is therefore not surprising that Amsterdam played a leading role
in the trade conflicts with the Hanseatic towns.
The Port Of Amsterdam
Amsterdam Port Authority, tasked to operate the port by the Municipality of Amsterdam. Port
of Amsterdam harbor area which covers 1900 hectares and 600 hectares of water area, has
been operating. In Amsterdam totally 38,000 people are employed in the port of Amsterdam.
Port of Amsterdam, the annual handling capacity of 85 million tons. Types of cargo handled
at the port : dry cargo, liquid cargo, container, piece goods and food products. Amsterdam
Port terminals have formed the specific hardware. These terminals are specialized in the
• types of moisture-sensitive cargo terminal
• Container terminal
• Bulk cargo terminal
• Food products terminal
• Roll on / roll off terminal
• Cruise terminal
Maritime Information (The Map of Havens of The Port of Amsterdam)
Construction of the Afrikahaven was completed in 2001 to address the challenge of space
shortage in the port.
There are a large number of transhipment companies for bulk, general cargo and containers in
the Westhaven area. The port's biggest transhipment company is also located in the
The Amerika harbour is a multipurpose port for oil, coal and edible oils. The area between the
Australië harbour and Azië harbour was specifically designed for the transhipment and
processing of building materials.
Petroleum, Coen and Mercurius Harbour
Oil harbour regulations apply in the entire Petroleum harbour. The company Main is located
on the peninsula and processes bilge water and waste oil for companies in the port area. There
are no public moorings in this area. Container transhipment takes place to the north of the
Petroleum harbour in the side canal H.
A large part of the Coen harbour (harbour basin A and the north-west side of the harbour) is
leased and does not contain any public moorings. Harbour basin C does have public
Various kinds of goods such as wood, cocoa, food, and fertiliser are transhipped in the
Mercurius and Vlot harbour area. Coastal shipping and inland-shipping waiting berths are
located in the Minerva harbour. The southern end of the Mercurius harbour also has a standby berth for inland shipping.
The entrance to the Nieuwe Hout harbour is located directly after the mouth of the Mercurius
The Nuon electricity generating plant is on the southern bank at the end of the Jan van
Riebeeck harbour. There are also a number of berthing possibilities located here. At
the southern end of the Usselincx harbour is a stand-by quay for vessels carrying dangerous
goods. The Aden harbour has a car drop-off point designated for tankers.
De Ruijterkade and Oostelijke Handelskade
The berths in this area are mainly used for passenger shipping. A reservationregulation
applies to the entire area.
This area forms the approach to the IJsselmeer and the entrance to the Amsterdam Rhine
Canal via the Oranje locks. Moorings are located here for inland shipping vessels.
Over one third of all goods transport to and from Amsterdam seaports takes place through
inland shipping. The port of Amsterdam is close to the Rhine. In this way, both industrial and
consumer markets in the Netherlands, Germany, Austria and Switzerland can be served
quickly and efficiently.
Environmentally friendly Short Sea or coastal navigation is becoming more and more popular.
One third of the total transhipment of the Port of Amsterdam is transported from Amsterdam
to the rest of Europe by Short Sea.
Deep Sea is the name for intercontinental shipping. Sea-going vessels can make good use of
Amsterdam. The port is tideless with a very short transit time from pilot station on the coast
through the canal to the mooring, including lock passage, typically less than three hours for a
large vessel. This access time is thus substantially shorter than in the case of a number of
other seaports in northwest Europe. The terminals are safely accessible to ships with a draught
of up to 13.7 metres.
Some 240 international destinations are currently served by 'International Amsterdam Airport'
Schiphol - one of the four largest airports in Europe for goods and persons transport. Schiphol
is twenty minutes drive from the Port of Amsterdam and with the arrival of the 'Westrandweg'
in 2012, this connection will be even better. The airport can also be reached in fifteen minutes
by public transport form the city centre.
The Port of Amsterdam is situated right on the A10 and A9 motorways, in turn directly
connected to the international network of Europe.
The port of Amsterdam is well served with rail connections. Because of this, Europe as a
whole is very accessible. The port has its own marshalling yards and connections to main
The Port of Rotterdam
Rotterdam is one of the main ports and the largest logisc and industrial hubs of Europe. With
an annual throughput of 430 million tons of cargo in 2010, Rotterdam is by far the largest
seaport of Europe. The port is the gateway to an European market of more than 350 million
Rotterdam has an excellent geographic position which has the accessibility via the sea, the
hinterland connections and the many companies and organisations, active in the port and
industrial complex. The port stretches out over 40 kilometres and is about 10.500 ha .
Rotterdam, the ideal port of entry to the European market
Rotterdam serves a hinterland of more than 150 million consumers living within a radius of
500 kilometres of Rotterdam, and 500 million consumers all over Europe. This is a gigantic
market, representing a combined buying power of $ 600 billion. The European market is
accessible from Rotterdam via five competing modalities: road, rail, inland shipping, coastal
shipping and pipeline. Goods which arrive in Rotterdam in a morning can be in, for example,
Germany, Belgium, France or Great Britain the same afternoon. From Rotterdam, all major
industrial and economic centers in Western Europe can be reached in less than 24 hours.
One of the main advantages of Rotterdam is its location on the estuary of the rivers Rhine and
Maas. As a result, efficient and economical transport by inland vessel is possible deep into the
heart of Europe. The Betuwe Route is the new, 160-kilometre long goods line that links
Rotterdam directly with Germany. Feeder and short-sea ships connect Rotterdam by sea with
more than 200 European ports; often with several departures a day. The short-sea/feeder ship
is forming an increasingly important alternative to goods transport via Europe's busy roads.
Underground, Rotterdam has direct links with the major industrial centres elsewhere in
Northwest Europe. Pipeline is an ideal mode of transport for bulk chemicals, crude oil and oil
products. Despite all this, the truck remains indispensable, particularly when it comes to more
short-distance transport and door-to-door delivery.
Hinterland Of Rotterdam Port
Terminals and cargo
For every goods flow, several independent terminals offer competitive service for efficient
handling and storage. In and around the port, you can also find countless companies
specialising in every conceivable auxiliary service.
The map of connections
the harbour and industrial
city of Rotterdam,
Location of the Maasvlakte (green) in the municipality of Rotterdam (purple)
Maasvlakte 2: is a major civil engineering project in the Netherlands, constructing a new port
and supporting infrastructure on reclaimed land adjoining the Maasvlakte. Approximately
2000 hectares will be reclaimed, behind a 4 km dike; approximately 1000 hectares will be
used by ports related industries. It is an extension of the port of Rotterdam.Maasvlakte 2 is the
biggest civil engineering project in the Netherlands since the Delta Works.
Aerial View of The Maasvlakte
The Illustration of the Maasvlakte 2
The cycled areas indicates new areas gained by Maasvlakte 2
Why Maasvlakte 2:
The existing port and industrial area is quickly running out of space. It is expected that around
2012 - 2014 there will no longer be any large sites left. Expansion is essential for the port to
continue to meet the rising demand in future and to maintain its leading role. If the port fails
to grow, there is a good chance that shipping companies will pass Rotterdam by in the future.
Construction will start in 2008 so that the first containers can be processed in 2013.
Maasvlakte 2 will be a direct extension of the existing Maasvlakte and will have access to all
its connections with the European hinterland. Maasvlakte 2 will create a new toplocation in
the heart of the European market, with 1,000 hectares of space for deep sea related container
transshipment, distribution and chemical industry. These sectors have a great interest in the
industrial sites on the deep waterways of Maasvlakte 2. Nowhere else in Europe will the
largest ships in the world be able to moor 24 hours a day.
The ports which grew most were those which were accessible by means of railway lines and
roads, the so-called penetration lines.
An external boost, the establishment of settlements along the coast and the creation of an
infrastructure, caused the interior of a country to develop, thus starting a process of selective
growth among the ports.
(Lesger, Interregional Trade and the Port System in Holland.)
Baan, Donald; Port of Rotterdam Hinterland Projects Antwerpen, June 2009