IMPACT ON HEALTH
-: Dr. Gulrukh Hashmi
“In nature there are neither rewards
nor punishments; there are only
—Robert Green Ingersoll
Impact on health
Vector borne diseases
Water borne diseases
•Global warming is the increase in the average
measured temperature of the Earth.
• It is mainly caused by “Greenhouse Effect”.
from paddy field,
• Without greenhouse gases the temperature of earth
would average around 33º C.
• Due to increased greenhouse gases in atmosphere
there has been 0.8 ºC rise in global temperature.
• Within next 100 years the temperature could rise upto
Impact of global warming on health
Changes due to global warming Impact on Human Health
•Warmer Temperatures and stagnant air
•Increased risk of heat strokes ,heat
• Changes in vector borne transmitted
•Heavy precipitation events
•Intense weather events (Cyclones,
•Loss of Life, injuries, life long handicaps.
• overcrowding, poor sanitation.
• Air pollution Respiratory illnesses
• Ozone depletion •Increased skin cancers and cataracts
• Globally there are 150,000 deaths and 5million deaths
attributed to global warming.
• Global loss of 5.5 million Disability Adjusted life
• South East Asian countries contributing to loss of 2.5
• In India, about 27% DALYs lost and about 30%
• Episodes of extreme heat have been associated with
• Frequency of hot days and multiple-day heatwaves
has increased in past century
• Extreme heatwaves causes more harm to elderly
people and young children.
• City dwellers are most affected due to “urban heat
island effect” .
•For every 1ºC increase above 29ºC there was 3.94%
increase in mortality.
• 14,800 deaths in France due to heatwaves in August 2003.
• 18 heatwaves were reported in India between 1980 & 1998
causing 1300 deaths.
• The year 2010 was recorded as hottest year in india with
temperature reaching 50 ºC
Year Number of deaths
Death toll due to heat waves in India
• Increase in temperature speeds the process of smog
• Rising carbon dioxide causes plants to produce more
• Exposure causes
Increased irritation of eyes, throats and lungs.
Triggers asthma attacks
EXPOSURE TO UV RAYS
• Excessive solar UVR exposure has caused the loss of
approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life
years (DALYs) (0.1% of the total global burden of
disease) and 60,000 premature deaths in the year
• The greatest burden is by UV induced
cutaneous malignant melanoma
• Global warming causing heat stress affects both
indoor and outdoor worker.
• Working in hot environments causes
diminished ability to carry out physical tasks,
diminishes mental task ability,
Increases accident risk
Leads to heat exhaustion or heatstroke
VECTOR BORNE DISEASES
• The distribution of vector-borne infectious diseases
such as malaria is influenced by the spread of vectors
and the climate dependence of the infectious
• The insect-borne infectious diseases strongly
modulated by global warming include
• Climate change is likely to expand the geographical
distribution of several vector-borne diseases,
including malaria, dengue and leishmaniasis to higher
• India has about 2 million confirmed cases of malaria
per year while 15000 die from it per year
• 65% cases are reported from Orissa, Jharkand,
Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, West Bengal and
• Globally greater than 200-400 million
population will be at risk by 2020.
• In India there will be
shift to south western and northern states
transmission will increase in western states
new foci will be in Himalayan regions
Increased intensity in northeastern states.
• Water borne diseases:
• Water borne diseases can occur both in droughts and
due to floods.
• Poor sanitation and hygiene can also contribute to the
• Vibrio species also proliferate. in warm marine
• For every 1ºC rise in temperature cases of diarrhea
increased by 8%
WATER BORNE DISEASES
• Diarrheal diseases alone causes more than 2 million
• Accounts for 4.8% of DALYs of total global burden
• In India, the figures for estimated disability adjusted
life years (DALY) lost were 23,801,447 in 2006 and
by 2016, 21,486,636 DALYs are projected .
• Major storm and flood disasters have occurred in the
last two decades.
• In terms of deaths and populations affected, floods
and tropical cyclones have the greatest impact in
South Asia and Latin America.
• Flood health impacts range from deaths, injuries,
infectious diseases and toxic contamination, to mental
• Serious and recurrent floods in Bangladesh, Nepal
and north-east states of India during 2002, 2003
• A record 944 mm of rainfall in Mumbai, India on
26 to 27 July 2005 led to loss of over 1,000 lives
with loss of more than US$250 million
• Floods in Surat, Barmer and in Srinagar during
summer monsoon season of 2006.
• The effects of drought on
decreased food crop
production and water
• Population displacement can lead to
a lack of safe water, food and shelter
Increased levels of stress causing increase in
• Increases in malnutrition and consequent disorders, with
implications for child growth and development;
• Increased deaths, disease and injury due to heatwaves, floods,
storms, fires and droughts;
• Increased burden of diarrhoeal disease;
• Mixed effects on the range and transmission potential of malaria;
• Increased frequency of cardio-respiratory diseases due to higher
concentrations of ground-level ozone related to climate change;
• Altered spatial distribution of some infectious-disease vectors.
(IPCC Fifth Assessment report)
• Environmental monitoring and surveillance
• Geospatial technology
• Human and technical capacity
• The risk of global warming is substantial
• There should be more studies to assess the linkages
between global warming and specific health
outcomes especially in India.
• There is need to develop integrated survellience
system to identify vulnerable regions.
• Effective education measures to spread awareness
regarding global warming.
• IPCC, 2007: climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and
vulnerability,contribution of working group II to the fourth
assesssment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate
change,cambridge university press,cambridge,uk.
• WHO: climate change and human health - risk and responses
• Kathleen F. Bush, Impacts of climate change on public Health
in India: Future Research Directions.
• Nitesh Dogra, Sangeet Srivastava : Climate Change and
Diseases Dynamics In India, executive summary, Energy and
• Indur M. Goklany. Global Health Threats: Global Warming in
Perspective. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons.
• Patz and Olson. Climate change and health: global to local
influences on diseases risk. Annals of Tropical Medicine and
• Andrew K. Githeko. Climate change and vector-borne
diseases:a regional analysis.Special Theme – Environment and
Health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000,