Global warming impact on health

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Global warming impact on health

  1. 1. GLOBAL WARMING IMPACT ON HEALTH -: Dr. Gulrukh Hashmi
  2. 2. “In nature there are neither rewards nor punishments; there are only consequences” —Robert Green Ingersoll
  3. 3. Overview  Defination  Greenhouse effect  Impact on health  Heat stress  Respiratory illnesses  Vector borne diseases  Water borne diseases  Disasters  Mental health  Recommendations
  4. 4. GLOBAL WARMING •Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth. • It is mainly caused by “Greenhouse Effect”.
  5. 5. Global warming Nitrous oxide from exhausts of cars, disposal of waste and fertilizer use. methane released from paddy field, marshes, animal husbandry and landfills Carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels, power stations, deforestation
  6. 6. • Without greenhouse gases the temperature of earth would average around 33º C. • Due to increased greenhouse gases in atmosphere there has been 0.8 ºC rise in global temperature. • Within next 100 years the temperature could rise upto 5 ºC.
  7. 7. Impact of global warming on health Changes due to global warming Impact on Human Health •Warmer Temperatures and stagnant air masses •Increased risk of heat strokes ,heat exhaustion • Changes in vector borne transmitted diseases •Heavy precipitation events • Floods •Water pollution •Intense weather events (Cyclones, Storms) •Loss of Life, injuries, life long handicaps. •Diseases outbreak. • overcrowding, poor sanitation. • Air pollution Respiratory illnesses • Ozone depletion •Increased skin cancers and cataracts
  8. 8. • Globally there are 150,000 deaths and 5million deaths attributed to global warming. • Global loss of 5.5 million Disability Adjusted life Years (DALYs). • South East Asian countries contributing to loss of 2.5 million DALYs. • In India, about 27% DALYs lost and about 30% deaths.
  9. 9. •Heat waves •Air pollution •Ozone depletion • Heat stroke •Heat exhaustion •Respiratory diseases •Cardio-vascular illness •Skin cancers •Cataracts
  10. 10. HEAT STRESS • Episodes of extreme heat have been associated with increased mortality. • Frequency of hot days and multiple-day heatwaves has increased in past century • Extreme heatwaves causes more harm to elderly people and young children. • City dwellers are most affected due to “urban heat island effect” .
  11. 11. •For every 1ºC increase above 29ºC there was 3.94% increase in mortality. • 14,800 deaths in France due to heatwaves in August 2003. • 18 heatwaves were reported in India between 1980 & 1998 causing 1300 deaths. • The year 2010 was recorded as hottest year in india with temperature reaching 50 ºC
  12. 12. Year Number of deaths 1998 2000 1999 91 2000 29 2003 3000 2012 200 Death toll due to heat waves in India
  13. 13. RESPIRATORY ILLNESSES • Increase in temperature speeds the process of smog formation. • Rising carbon dioxide causes plants to produce more pollens. • Exposure causes  Increased irritation of eyes, throats and lungs.  Triggers asthma attacks
  14. 14. Premature deaths from ground-level ozone
  15. 15. EXPOSURE TO UV RAYS • Excessive solar UVR exposure has caused the loss of approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) (0.1% of the total global burden of disease) and 60,000 premature deaths in the year 2000. • The greatest burden is by UV induced  cortical cataracts,  cutaneous malignant melanoma  sunburn
  16. 16. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH • Global warming causing heat stress affects both indoor and outdoor worker. • Working in hot environments causes  diminished ability to carry out physical tasks,  diminishes mental task ability,  Increases accident risk  Leads to heat exhaustion or heatstroke
  17. 17. •Warmer temp • Disturbed rainfall patterns •Increased precipitation Vector borne diseases
  18. 18. VECTOR BORNE DISEASES • The distribution of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria is influenced by the spread of vectors and the climate dependence of the infectious pathogens. • The insect-borne infectious diseases strongly modulated by global warming include  malaria,  dengue fever  schistosomiasis
  19. 19. • Climate change is likely to expand the geographical distribution of several vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue and leishmaniasis to higher altitudes • India has about 2 million confirmed cases of malaria per year while 15000 die from it per year • 65% cases are reported from Orissa, Jharkand, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, West Bengal and Northeast
  20. 20. • Globally greater than 200-400 million population will be at risk by 2020. • In India there will be shift to south western and northern states transmission will increase in western states  new foci will be in Himalayan regions Increased intensity in northeastern states.
  21. 21. •Heavy rainfall •Droughts •Cyclones,tornadoes • Water borne diseases: Cholera, diarrhea, • Malnutrition •Human displacement leading to overcrowding, poor sanitation
  22. 22. WATERBORNE DISEASES • Water borne diseases can occur both in droughts and due to floods. • Poor sanitation and hygiene can also contribute to the disease. • Vibrio species also proliferate. in warm marine waters • For every 1ºC rise in temperature cases of diarrhea increased by 8%
  23. 23. WATER BORNE DISEASES • Diarrheal diseases alone causes more than 2 million deaths globally. • Accounts for 4.8% of DALYs of total global burden of diseases. • In India, the figures for estimated disability adjusted life years (DALY) lost were 23,801,447 in 2006 and by 2016, 21,486,636 DALYs are projected .
  24. 24. NATURAL DISASTERS • Major storm and flood disasters have occurred in the last two decades. • In terms of deaths and populations affected, floods and tropical cyclones have the greatest impact in South Asia and Latin America. • Flood health impacts range from deaths, injuries, infectious diseases and toxic contamination, to mental health problems
  25. 25. • Serious and recurrent floods in Bangladesh, Nepal and north-east states of India during 2002, 2003 and 2004 • A record 944 mm of rainfall in Mumbai, India on 26 to 27 July 2005 led to loss of over 1,000 lives with loss of more than US$250 million • Floods in Surat, Barmer and in Srinagar during summer monsoon season of 2006.
  26. 26. • The effects of drought on health include  decreased food crop production and water availability  malnutrition (undernutrition, protein-energy malnutrition and/or micronutrient deficiencies)  infectious diseases
  27. 27. • Population displacement can lead to overcrowding a lack of safe water, food and shelter Increased levels of stress causing increase in psychiatric illnesses.
  28. 28. Mental health
  29. 29. • Increases in malnutrition and consequent disorders, with implications for child growth and development; • Increased deaths, disease and injury due to heatwaves, floods, storms, fires and droughts; • Increased burden of diarrhoeal disease; • Mixed effects on the range and transmission potential of malaria; • Increased frequency of cardio-respiratory diseases due to higher concentrations of ground-level ozone related to climate change; • Altered spatial distribution of some infectious-disease vectors. (IPCC Fifth Assessment report)
  30. 30. Recommendations • Environmental monitoring and surveillance • Geospatial technology • Human and technical capacity
  31. 31. Conclusion • The risk of global warming is substantial • There should be more studies to assess the linkages between global warming and specific health outcomes especially in India. • There is need to develop integrated survellience system to identify vulnerable regions. • Effective education measures to spread awareness regarding global warming.
  32. 32. References • IPCC, 2007: climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability,contribution of working group II to the fourth assesssment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change,cambridge university press,cambridge,uk. • WHO: climate change and human health - risk and responses • Kathleen F. Bush, Impacts of climate change on public Health in India: Future Research Directions. • Nitesh Dogra, Sangeet Srivastava : Climate Change and Diseases Dynamics In India, executive summary, Energy and Resources Institute. • Indur M. Goklany. Global Health Threats: Global Warming in Perspective. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 14(3);2009;69-75
  33. 33. References • Patz and Olson. Climate change and health: global to local influences on diseases risk. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology;100(5-6),535-549 (2006). • Andrew K. Githeko. Climate change and vector-borne diseases:a regional analysis.Special Theme – Environment and Health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78(9)
  34. 34. Thank you

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