1. the computer system

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1. the computer system

  1. 1. The Computer System
  2. 2. What is a Computer? The computer is an automatic, high speed, digital, electronic data processing machine used for performing program instructions to produce the desired output. It can choose, copy arithmetic operations. It is fast accurate manipulating system that is designed and organized to accept and store input data automatically, process and produce output results under the direction of a detailed step-by-step program of instruction
  3. 3. What is the importance of computer in education? • Computers have become an integral part of our daily lives. Since the advent of personal computers, they have become an integral part of the education system. Having computers as a part one’s education can prove very helpful. Being good in studies and computers can secure better job prospects, In this age and time computer knowledge is a must. • The computer networks these days have a powerful impact on the ways which individuals, private organizations can communicate with each other. • This age is known as the era of IT business, where every application is linked with computer technologies. The use of computers can make business transactions very accurate, thus keeping a proper record of profit and loss. Computers play a very vital role in education.
  4. 4. • • • • • • Elements of Computer People – refers to the people involved in the data processing operation such as the computer programmers, computer operators, system analysis, computer technicians, staff, etc. Software- refers to the program or set of instructions that enable the computer system to operate effectively. These include the system software, application software, programming languages, and logical steps and procedures in the program. Hardware- refers to physical electronic devices and tangible parts that constitute the computer system. These include the keyboard, monitor, disk drive, CPU, printer, etc.. Data-refers to data needed in the processing operations include texts, numbers, sounds, images and video that we input into the computer for processing. Connectivity – means that a computer must be connected to other computers specially through internet. Using internet, people can share and access data greatly expands ones capability and reach. Procedure – are step by step instructions to follow when using hardware, software and data. The procedures are normally written in manuals of hardware and software manufacturers.
  5. 5. What is a computer system? • The computer system is a group of integrated parts that have the common purpose of performing various operations. It consists of a computer, all the support equipment necessary for its use, instructions that specify the performance of certain tasks, procedures that people must follow to use the computer, and the people who use the system. The purpose of a computer is to accept data, processing data, and procedure output as useful information.
  6. 6. What is Computer Hardware? The term HARDWARE is used to describe all the physical components of a computer system. It includes the external and internal device components of computer system External devices
  7. 7. Does a typical computer owner need to mess around inside the system unit? Internal devices Memory/ RAM
  8. 8. Hardware The hardware are the parts of computer itself including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips and microcircuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and drives (floppy, hard, CD, DVD, optical, tape, etc...). Other extra parts called peripheral components or devices include mouse, printers, modems, scanners, digital cameras and cards (sound, color, video) etc... Together they are often referred to as a personal computers or PCs.
  9. 9. What is a Personal Computer? – A personal computer, (usually called a “PC”) is a computer made to be used by one person. Other kinds of computers are often designed to be used by many people at the same time. – The Personal Computer has Monitor, System Unit, Keyboard and Disk Drives
  10. 10. What are the Components of a Computer Hardware? • • • • • • Input devices Processing devices Memory devices Output devices Storage devices Communication devices
  11. 11. Components of Computer System • Input Unit • It is the component of computer system designed for data entry operations. It allows direct human or machine communication while others requires data to be recorded on an input medium. The input device reads and transmits data to the main memory of the computer. Data are entered into this device by pressing appropriate keys. One example is a card reader. • Output Unit • It is the component of computer system that gives out the users the results of the processed data. The information is transmitted from CPU to this output device, where it is printed or recorded.
  12. 12. Component of Computer System • • • • Central processing Unit (CPU) It is the physical device that controls the computer operations. It accepts and stores the program and the data in the memory or primary storage. One of the program and data are stored, the CPU executed and processes the data. It is known as the “brain of the computer”. It is composed of three parts, namely: Primary Storage, Arithmetic Logic Unit, and Control Unit. Auxiliary Storage Unit It is the component system that stores information subsequently used by the CPU or a more permanent basis is secondary or auxiliary storage. Examples of auxiliary storage devices are disk drives, magnetic disk and magnetic tapes.
  13. 13. Computers can perform the following data processing activities rapidly and reliably. • • • • Input and Output Operations- A computer can accepts and supply processed data to a wide range of devices. Calculation and Text Manipulation- A computer can perform calculations on numbers, nonnumerical letters, and other symbols used in words and sentences. Logic and Comparison Operations- A computer performs comparison for decision making. Storage and Retrieval Operations- A computer can internally accept data and program instruction and they may be called up for use.
  14. 14. Input Devices Consist of devices that take data and programs that people can read or comprehend and convert them to a form that a computer can process. – Text input devices • Keyboard – Pointing devices • • • • Mouse Trackball Track Point Touch Pad – Gaming devices • Joystick • Gamepad • Game controller – Scanning, Video input devices • • • • Bar-code readers Mark and Character-recognition system Image scanners Webcam – Audio input devices • Microphone
  15. 15. Text input devices • A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modeled after the typewriter keyboard. Keyboards are designed for the input of text and characters and also to control the operation of a computer. QWERTY keyboard layout
  16. 16. Pointing devices • A pointing device is any computer hardware component (specifically human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (ie, continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer. CAD systems and graphical user interfaces (GUI) allow the user to control and provide data to the computer using physical gestures point, click, and drag
  17. 17. An example of a Pointing device is a MOUSE . This is used to select and move items that are displayed on your monitor screen. Think of a mouse as an extension of your hand. It controls a pointer that identifies a location on your monitor screen. When you move your mouse on your desk, the pointer moves as well. Drag & Dr op lick MOUSE C OPERATIONS Doub le-cl ick t Poin
  18. 18. light pen • A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with the computer's CRT monitor. It allows the user to point to displayed objects, or draw on the screen, in a similar way to a touch screen but with greater positional accuracy.
  19. 19. Other Pointing devices
  20. 20. Gaming devices • A joystick is a personal computer peripheral or general control device consisting of a handheld stick that pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimensions to a computer.
  21. 21. Gaming devices • A gamepad, also called joypad or control pad, is a type of game controller held in the hand, where the digits (especially thumbs) are used to provide input.
  22. 22. Scanning devices • Translates images of text, drawings, photos into digital form – Bar-code readers – Mark and Character-recognition system – Image scanners
  23. 23. Scanning devices • A barcode reader, also called a price scanner or point-of-sale (POS) scanner, is a hand-held or stationary input device used to capture and read information contained in a bar code. A barcode reader consists of a scanner, a decoder (either built-in or external), and a cable used to connect the reader with a computer.
  24. 24. Scanning devices Mark and Character-recognition system and Optical mark recognition is the process of capturing data by contrasting reflectivity at predetermined positions on a page. By shining a beam of light onto the document the scanner is able to detect a marked area because it reflects less light than an unmarked surface. or
  25. 25. Scanning devices • a image scanner is a device that analyzes an image (such as a photograph, printed text, or handwriting) or an object (such as an ornament) and converts it to a digital image. – Flatbed – Drum – Hand
  26. 26. Video input devices • A web camera (or webcam) is a realtime camera (usually, though not always, a video camera) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web, instant messaging, or a PC video calling application.
  27. 27. Audio input devices • A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic is an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.
  28. 28. The Input devices: • • • • • • • keyboard mouse light pen sensor joystick modem scanner bar code reader microphone webcam
  29. 29. The Output Devices: • • • • printer- hardcopy speakers monitor- softcopy headphone
  30. 30. Processing device The processor or CPU is the CHIP in your computer that does all the calculations. This is based upon Intel’s x86 architecture, which includes 386, 486, Pentium series I, II, III, and IV.
  31. 31. What’s a computer chip? • integrated circuits - thin slices of silicon crystal packed with microscopic circuit elements – Wires – Transistors – Capacitors – Logic gates – Resistors
  32. 32. How does a microprocessor work? • The CPU has two parts • ALU (arithmetic logic unit) – Performs arithmetic operations – Performs logical operations – Uses registers to hold data being processed • The CPU’s control unit directs and coordinates processing
  33. 33. What do MHz and GHz have to do with computer performance? • Microprocessor clock-a timing device that sets the pace for executing instructions • Megaherz means a million cycles per second • Gigaherz means a billion cycles per second
  34. 34. System Unit It houses your Central Processing Unit (CPU), which is the brain of your computer.
  35. 35. Types of CASE
  36. 36. Motherboard • Also called the system board, is the main circuit board in the system unit. It consists of a flat board that fills the bottom of the system unit. • This board contains the microprocessor, any microprocessor chips, RAM chips, ROM chips, some other types of memory, and expansion slots, where additional circuit boards, called expansion boards, may be plugged in.
  37. 37. How do chips fit together to make a computer?
  38. 38. Memory Devices Or RAM (Random Access Memory) is the main type of memory in your computer, it allows your program to run. The bigger Memory your computer has, the faster it works, the more applications you can run simultaneously. Memory is measured in bytes, Kilobytes, and Megabytes
  39. 39. How much RAM does my computer need? • RAM is primary storage (main memory) – Measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB) • Today’s computers have between 128 MB and 2 GB of RAM • You can purchase additional RAM • A computer can use disk storage to simulate RAM. This is called virtual memory – Not as fast as RAM
  40. 40. Types of RAM • SDRAM - synchronous dynamic random access memory which is a type of solid state computer memory. • DDR - double-data-rate, is a class of memory integrated circuit used in computers. • RDRAM – rambus dynamic random access memory
  41. 41. Types of RAM • SDRAM • DDR • RDRAM
  42. 42. Read-Only Memory: How is ROM different from RAM? • ROM (read-only memory) is one or more chips containing instructions that help a computer prepare to process tasks • ROM is permanent and non-volatile • Only way to change the instructions on a ROM chip is to replace the chip
  43. 43. CMOS memory: Where does a computer store its basic hardware settings? • A computer needs a semi-permanent way of keeping boot data, such as the number of hard disk sectors and cylinders • CMOS memory - holds data but requires very little power to retain its contents – Retains important computer settings after you turn the power off – Can run by a battery on the motherboard – Housed within the same chip carrier as ROM BIOS
  44. 44. What is an expansion slot? • Expansion slot - long, narrow socket on the motherboard into which you can plug an expansion card – Graphics card (for connecting monitor) – Modem (for transmitting data over phone or cable lines) – Sound card (for connecting speakers) • Expansion card - small circuit board that provides computer with ability to control storage, input or output device • Most computers have 4 - 8 expansion slots
  45. 45. What is an expansion slot?
  46. 46. What are the major types of expansion slots? • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) – Used today only for some modems and other relatively slow devices • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) – Offers fast transfer speeds and a 32-bit or 64-bit data bus • AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) – Provides a high-speed data pathway primarily used for graphics cards
  47. 47. Do notebook computers also contain expansion slots? • Most notebook computers are equipped with a special type of external slot called a PCMCIA slot (personal computer memory card international association) • Typically a notebook only has one slot, but the slot can hold more than one PC card (PCMCIA expansion cards)
  48. 48. Expansion Cards • A video card, (also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms), is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. NVIDIA GeForce 6600GT
  49. 49. Expansion Cards • A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface controller) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network.
  50. 50. 70
  51. 51. Output Devices -provides the user with the means to view and use the information produced by the computer system. -- information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. -Examples are monitor, printer, speaker or any audio output devices, LCD projectors, plotters etc.
  52. 52. Monitor Is another component of your computer. The text and images generated by your computer are displayed on its screen. itor is mon nce our rma Y pon O u erfo dent IDE p pen e of V de typ are the D you CAR g. usin
  53. 53. Printer The PRINTER produces a paper copy of the information displayed on your screen or contained in a document.
  54. 54. How does an ink jet printer work? • Nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper to form characters and graphics
  55. 55. How do laser printers compare to ink jet printers? • A laser printer uses the same technology as a photocopier to paint dots of light on a light-sensitive drum – Higher quality than ink jet – More expensive to buy than ink jet – Less expensive to operate than ink jet
  56. 56. Is a laser better than an ink jet?
  57. 57. What is a dot matrix printer? • Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires – Introduced in 1970s – Low quality output – Used for “back-office” applications that demand low operating cost and dependability – Can print multipart carbon forms
  58. 58. Why would anyone want a dot matrix printer?
  59. 59. Speakers Audio / sound can be hard through either an internal or external speakers.
  60. 60. Communication Devices - facilitates the connection between computers and between groups of connected computers called networks.
  61. 61. MODEM A MODEM (Modulator-Demodulator) connects your computer to the INTERNET over a telephone line. A FAX MODEM can also serve as your Fax or answering machine
  62. 62. SOFTWARE • IS A SET OF INSTRUCTIONS THAT TELLS THE COMPUTER WHAT TO DO AND HOW TO ARRIVE AT A DESIRED RESULT. • ARE INSTRUCTIONS THAT PROCESSES THE DATA ENTERED INTO THE COMPUTER.
  63. 63. TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOFTWARE 1. SYSTEM SOFTWARE -IS A COLLECTION OF PROGRAMS WHICH INCLUDES THE: A. OPERATING SYSTEM – is a program basically responsible for the coordination, management and sharing of hardware resources and tasks in the computer B. UTILITY SYSTEM – is a program that performs maintenance tasks for the computer’s resources, such as clean up, and organizing files and programs so they would load and work faster. C. DEVICE DRIVER – is a program that allows a particular hardware device to work and communicate with the computer system.
  64. 64. TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOFTWARE 2. APPLICATION SOFTWARE -A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PERFORMANCE OF A SPECIFIC TASK SUCH AS WORD PROCESSING, SPREADSHEET, GRAPHICS OR PRESENTATION
  65. 65. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 1. WEB BROWSER SOFTWARE - is a program that allows you to browse the World Wide Web and its resources. The most common web browsers are as follows: a. Microsoft Internet Explorer b. Mozilla Firefox c. Google Chrome d. Opera e. Safari f. Altavista, aj, msn
  66. 66. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 2. WORD PROCESSOR -is a program that allows the user top create and change documents, letters, reports, memos and other text documents. Examples are: a. Microsoft Word – 2007, 2010, 2013 b. Corel Wordperfect c. OpenOffice.org Writter d. AppleWorks
  67. 67. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 3. SPREADSHEETS PROGRAMS - are rows and columns of data organized and calculations are performed. Examples are: a. Microsoft Excel b. AppleNumbers c. OpenOffice.org Calc
  68. 68. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 4. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER (PIM) - is a program that includes an address book, calendar of appointments, notes and other information you want to manage and access when needed. Examples are: a. Microsoft Outlook b. Apple iCal
  69. 69. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 5. PRESENTATION SOFTWARE -is a software that is used to convey information, ideas, messages or products to a target group of persons. Examples area: a. Microsoft PowerPoint, 2007, 2010, 2013 b. OpenOffice.org Impress c. Apple keynote d. Adobe Persuasion
  70. 70. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 6. DATABASE PROGRAMS -are programs created to organized data and information in a manner desired by the user or in a format for its convenient recovery and access. Examples are: a. Microsoft Access b. FileMaker Pro c. MySQL d. Oracle e. OpenOffice Base
  71. 71. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 7. GRAPHICS SOFTWARE -are programs for drawing and coloring. They can also edit pictures. Examples area: a. Microsoft Paint b. Adobe Illustrator c. Adobe Photoshop d. CorelDraw e. OpenOffice Draw
  72. 72. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 8. VIDEO SOFTWARE -are programs to create, modify and enhance, add and remove segments and other effects a user may want to apply to video files. Examples are: a. Adobe Premiere b. Apple Final Cut c. Microsoft Movie Maker d. Sony Vegas
  73. 73. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 9. CAD - COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SOFTWARE -are programs optimized for designing and drawing of homes, buildings, cars, airplanes and other machineries. Examples are: a. Auto CAD b. Vectorworks
  74. 74. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 10. WEB PAGE AUTHORING PROGRAM -is a software made to assist the users to create their own Web pages. Examples are: a. Adobe Dreamweaver b. Microsoft Frontpage c. Joomla
  75. 75. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 11. REFERENCE SOFTWARE -is a program that provides information for people. The most common reference programs includes encyclopedias, dictionaries, maps and directories. Examples are: a. Encarta Encyclopedia b. Merriam-Webster’s Medical Desk Dictionary
  76. 76. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 12. ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE -is a program designed for integrated accounting applications for any business including schools. Examples are: a. Peachtree Accounting b. MYOB Accounting c. Quickbooks Accounting
  77. 77. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 13. ENTERTAINMENT SOFTWARE -is a program made to play interactive games on the personal computer. Programs in this category also include programs to support a hobby. Examples are: a. Microsoft Flight Simulator b. Microsoft Train Simulator
  78. 78. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 14. EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE - is a program that teaches a certain skills. There are many educational software for any subject that you can think of. These include cooking, making origami, typing tutor, how to play basketball, how to play the guitar and many others. In academic applications, there are programs to assist students in learning math, science and reading. Some examples are: a. Math Success b. Rapid typing
  79. 79. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 15. COMMUNICATION SOFTWARE -is a program that allows the computer user to get in touch with other people. Most of the available communication programs are now internet-based and one good thing is that most of them are free and the only thing to do is to register. Examples are: a. E-mail Internet b. Telephony (Skype) c. Instant Messenger (Yahoo Messenger)
  80. 80. 16. Antivirus software • Antivirus software is a computer program that detects, prevents, and takes action to disarm or remove malicious software programs, such as Trojan horse,viruses and worms. You can help protect your computer against viruses by using antivirus software.
  81. 81. Virus • Computer viruses are software programs that are deliberately designed to interfere with computer operation, record, corrupt, or delete data, or spread themselves to other computers and throughout the Internet.
  82. 82. To prevent virus • To help prevent the most current viruses, you must update your antivirus software regularly. You can set up most types of antiviruses software to update automatically. • Here are two types of antivirus protection from Microsoft. • For continuous protection, try Windows Live OneCare, which automatically scans your computer for viruses. You can use it free for 90 days • For continuous protection, try Windows Live One Care safety scanner allows you to visit a Web site and scan your computer for viruses and other malicious software for free using Windows Live OneCare safety scanner.
  83. 83. Microsoft Word - is a word processing program used to create, format, save, print letters, reports, newsletter, manuscripts, signs, certificates, flyers, letters, invitations and other documents.
  84. 84. Microsoft Excel - is a computerized worksheet. - A worksheet is an on-screen spreadsheet that contains various cells in columns and rows. By entering information in the form of labels, values and formulas into worksheet cell, you create tables or spreadsheets, useful for summarizing tabulating, and analyzing data.
  85. 85. Microsoft PowerPoint - is a presentation graphics program that allows you to create slide shows. - Allows you to organize, summarize and format your materials, illustrate your presentation with images of ClipArt, animation, graphics and other multimedia components.
  86. 86. How should one take care of your computer? – Do not expose any computer to direct sunlight: put your computer away from windows and doors as much as possible. – The room temperature and humidity must be standard room temperature ( the room does not necessarily be airconditioned). – Do not strike the keyboard too hard or hit the computer. – Your hands must be clean when using the keyboard or touching any diskettes. – The table or space where the computer sits must be stable and free from vibrations. – Do not use so much electrical connections with just one outlet. Use a voltage regulator or surge protector; avoid using octopus plugs; extension cords are allowed. – Do not pull the plug to turn it off. Use the switch. – Use dust covers for your computer to avoid dust to accumulate inside the drives, CPU, or the keyboard; keep your computer laboratory clean at all times. – During trouble shooting, do not let anyone (teachers and students) attempt to open the casing of the computer unless he is a qualified computer technician.
  87. 87. What are the healthy ways of using your computer? • • • • • • • • The distance between your body (or face) from the monitor should be at least 2 feet (or arm’s length). Do not stare at the monitor for a very long period; blink from time to time or close your eyes for a few seconds after every 30 minutes of using the computer. The computer keyboard should be at least at the same level with your hands – not too high and not too low. The seats should be comfortable with back rest – not too high, not too low. It is best to buy low radiation monitor or buy screen fibers for each computer monitor. Do not open te computer CPU for any reason at all; if someone will do it the computer must be unplugged or switched off. Do not wash your eyes after hours of using the computer. Do not insert your fingers in the drives or any slots in the CPU or monitor.
  88. 88. THANK YOU!!!

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