Opportunities and threats in the process of integrating the northern amazon of bolivia

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Region trinacional Peru, Brasil, Bolivia

Region trinacional Peru, Brasil, Bolivia

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  • 1. Opportunities and threats in the process ofintegrating the Northern Amazon ofBoliviaGuillermo Rioja BallivianDirector of Scientific and Technological Research (DICyT)Amazonian University of PandoBoliviaAbstract* The MAP region* The MAP Initiative and the construction of the problem* Departments – State of the Region MAP* Proposals for Integration in the Region MAP* Embrapa and the possibility of technological support to the region* Opportunities and threats to Pando in the context of regional integration MAP* BibliographySummaryPando Department, Bolivia, has 52,525 inhabitants, according to the latest population andhousing census in 2001. Of these, 28,940 are men and 23,585 women. Pando 20,820 live inurban areas and the remaining 31,705 in rural areas. The population density is 0.8inhabitants per square kilometer.The economic potential of Pando is located in the extraction of timber and non timberforest, and that at least 90% of the Department is evergreen rainforest. These features makePando is – with the Department of Madre de Dios in Peru and the State of Acre in Brazil –the heart of the area known as the “West Amazonia.” 1
  • 2. Since 1999, academic institutions, governmental and nongovernmental organizations aswell as indigenous and rural base, they have developed the MAP Initiative (Madre de Dios,Acre and Pando), which proposes regional integration from the perspective ofenvironmental conservation and use rational and sustainable use of renewable naturalresources of the forest. Prositropicos Also, IICA and the Federal University of Acre(UFAC) have been involved in Southwest Amazonia trying to trade and technologytransfer.Within this context, Pando is by far the most humble of tri potential partners, do not haveadequate institutional development to enable it to meet the challenges of regionalintegration impels; does not have an adequate system of border protection that able toexercise real sovereignty to begin talks with its neighbors on an equal footing and, finally,has designed a system of environmental impact mitigation to address the imminentconstruction of branches of the great road route to the Pacific that Brazil built steps bounds.However, despite all this, Cobija commercial advantages that can potentially supportsustainable development of the Department to be a free zone, a fact which has not beengiven due attention to strategic investments. Finally, there are interesting opportunities forthe Department Pando – and by extension throughout the northern Amazon region ofBolivia – at this juncture of trinational program interventions, as long as conditions arecreated objective of responsiveness, generation, management and implementation ofprograms and projects local, national and trinational.IntroductionFor decades the world discussed two concepts conservation approach the problem ofenvironmental degradation and the actions needed to mitigate them. On the one hand it wasestablished that conservation should aim to emergency rescue of species of flora and faunaspecies (species conservation) and the other that conservation should be focused on globalissues in ecosystems (Ecosystems conservation). Organizations like the World WildlifeFund (WWF) opted initially for the first option. The second example is ConservationInternational, which based on the concept of “hot spot” established its policy on theconservation of high-risk regions, ie endangered ecosystems.Currently there are few conservation organizations and foundations that are in disagreementon what is important is “priority” ecoregions preserving integrity. Thus, the BiodiversityConvention at the Fifth Conference of Parties, held in May 2000, adopted decision V / 6,which adopts a policy of conservation of ecosystems. IUCN, through its Committee onManagement of Ecosystems and UNESCO, through its MAB Programme, decided thesame way to join forces to support the decision V / 6WWF also established since the mid-nineties, the Ecoregion Based Conservation program,one of the main so-called southwestern Amazonia.All the Department of Pando, Bolivia, as well as the State of Acre, Brazil and theDepartment of Madre de Dios in Peru are part of the southwestern Amazon, geopoliticalanalysis in this paper. 2
  • 3. MAP RegionThe three socio-political units are located in the southwestern corner of the Amazon are theState of Acre in Brazil, the Department of Madre de Dios in Peru and the PandoDepartment in Bolivia. Presumably because of their remoteness from national capitals notreceive enough attention in their demands for development.Both the Pando Department and the Department of Madre de Dios are the least populatedof Bolivia and Peru respectively, while the state of Acre is the third smallest population,surpassing only Amapa and Roraima. This information, however should not blind us to theregional perspective as the extension of this state in Brazil is far superior to that of itsneighbors Peru and Bolivia, also taking greater population density.Source: Authors based on statistical information consultedThis density creates a strong pressure on natural resources manifests itself in environmentaldegradation, as seen in Figure 1 of the annexes.In the last decade throughout the region Madre de Dios-Acre-Pando (MAP and itsderivative) has undergone a process of colonization and of irrational exploitation of naturalresources with a high environmental price mainly due to migration of settlers from ejectorinner-city population in the Andean case of Madre de Dios and Pando, and Northeast ofBrazil in the case of Acre.Similarly, development proposals planned by the three countries in the effort to unite withroadside routes along the Atlantic to the Pacific through the Amazon deforestation willincrease dramatically and cause, likely very short-term, difficult environmental problemssolution.Illustrative in this regard is an article published by U.S. News Service on 18 January 2002,reports a new study by a team of U.S. and Brazilian scientists and suggests that thedestruction of forests in the Amazon Brazil has accelerated over the last decade, the rate ofdeforestation in the Amazon have increased sharply since 1995. Countering this, theBrazilian government said that threats to Amazonian forests declined in recent years due tothe improvement of environmental laws and public attitudes. With this premise, thegovernment plans to invest in the coming years more than 40,000 million dollars in newroads, railways, electricity lines and gas pipelines in the Amazon, said that these projectswill have only limited effect in the region.One of these projects is the construction of roads linking Rio Branco in Acre to PuertoMaldonado in Madre de Dios and the time is now alfaltada up near the town of AssisBrasil, tri-border point where there are also populations I~napari, Bolpebra Peru andBolivia. From Puerto Maldonado I~napari and there is a dirt road affirmed. That is, muchof the MAP region will be found soon greatly impacted by this road. 3
  • 4. A recent study states that in an area of 100 km., The zone of influence of the road RioBranco – Puerto Maldonado covers about 110,000 km ^2: 45,000 km ^2 in Madre de Dios,44,000 km ^2 in Acre and 21,000 km ^2 in Pando, the region Madre de Dios-Acre-Pandocovers about 220,000 km. ^2 in its entirety.The population of this area is approximately 500,000. It is easy to imagine that thesocioeconomic and environmental impact of the road – given the poverty of the region –can be catastrophic in the short term if they maintain the current paradigms of land usedevoted to agriculture and ranching and therefore the natural resource depletion of theAmazon forest. This without taking into account the immigration of settlers who tends tooccur. Thus, direct and indirect social and environmental impacts of this road will be verysevere, the more so because the ability to respond to them, legal and institutional terms, isvery limited.Indirect impacts of roads, especially in Amazonian conditions are very serious because theroad are deforestation and land invasion supposedly protected in the case of the MAPregion are indigenous territories (TCO Yaminahua-Machineri in Pando) and conservationareas (Sonene Mother of God and Manuripi in Bolivia). On the other hand, it was foundthat three quarters of total deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil, is made in this ageof less than 100 km along the road. In this way, the road Rio Branco-Puerto Maldonadoencourage illegal logging, which involves the loss of biodiversity resources.In the Department of Pando, in Bolivia, a road that can be considered branch of the roadRio Branco-Puerto Maldonado is the one that connects the city of Cobija in the populationof Extreme at 300 meters from Puerto Maldonado I~napari-section, soon to be asphalt andwill allow Peru to export beef so now it shows an alarming rise of extensive cattle ranchingin the area of influence.The MAP Initiative and the construction of the problemThis is, in very general terms, the context from where the “MAP initiative” with the initialattempt to undertake research to maximize benefits and minimize the environmental impactof road construction in Southwest Amazonia. In 1999, representatives of universities in thetri-national region, research centers and agencies came together and suggested how theseregional institutions could make effective their isolated efforts. The recommendations ofthis meeting were reflected in the Declaration of Rio Branco on Global Climate Change. ”In summary, these recommendations suggest that research should focus their interest toclimate change that will occur in the MAP region, promoting multidisciplinary andconsidering traditional knowledge in scientific studies. The results of this research shouldbe disseminated to all segments of society in the political, academic and local communities.In Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios, in April 2001, six universities, various governmentaland non governmental organizations met to discuss a joint program of research and actionregarding the mitigation of environmental impacts of the road between Rio Branco and thePacific. 4
  • 5. On May 19, 2001 a seminar was held in Assis Brazil with the participation of authoritiesand local society which was suggested by a document called “Letter from Assis Brasil:Building Sustainable Development in the Tri-Border.” In late August of that year, also inAssis Brazil conducted a workshop on “Diagnosis of logging activity in the Tri-Border:Prospects for the Future”Finally, between 9 and 12 September 2002, will be held in Cobija, Pando, the “Third TriMAP Workshop: Sustainable Development in the Region.”In summary, the MAP initiative three years has established its field research in the contextof sustainable development, involving social actors who inhabit the region to develop analternative plan to mitigate the environmental impact of trans-Amazon highway, especiallywith regard to global climate change. Among the biggest challenges faced by the MAPinitiative of the lack of knowledge of neighboring countries.Departments – State of the Region MAPBolivia, Brazil and Peru share the MAP region and, as we have seen, environmental issuesthereof. However, the magnitude of problems and institutional capacities to find solutionsdiffer greatly because of the uneven development of the countries of the region.Only – for illustration – Consider the following data:Source: Authors based on statistical information consultedIs a notorious difference between the infant mortality rate of Acre and Pando, the Mother ofGod is in the middle. This indicator is important because it implicitly contains suchcategories as nutrition, health and poverty. Regarding the latter, and referred to theDepartment Pando, consider the following opinion:The department of Pando, with a rich diversity of natural resources, is scarce and scatteredpopulation and geographic location allows you to articulate yet economically with the restof the country. These conditions, among others, make it be considered alongside PandoPotosi and Chuquisaca as one of the departments with the highest poverty rates (…)This view – also reflect the situation in which the debate Pando – is important in the sensethat, referring to Madre de Dios and Acre, one can assert the same, from the viewpoint ofeach country. However, assessments of economies of scale can not be comparedhorizontally to Brazil with Bolivia and Peru. And not just in the field of economics, butalso, by extension, institutional strengths, as it aims Dourojeanni (2001) in relation Brazil –Peru with respect to mitigating the environmental impact of roads:The legal and institutional differences between the two countries, in relation to the Amazonand works as the Transoceanic are really big. The existence of solving managementmechanisms at national, state and municipal levels in Brazil, creates a gap in theenvironmental treatment on both sides of the border. In Brazil, these mechanisms combined 5
  • 6. with the existence of a public prosecutor acting, creating increasingly effective mechanismsto support the Ministry of Environment, state secretaries and federal and stateimplementing agencies in their efforts to implement the legislation. They also serve tocontrol the actions of the authorities, including environmental. In Peru, the Ministry ofAgriculture and INRENA are alone, when purporting to act in defense of the environment,which is not common, given the obvious conflict of interests within the same Ministry, whois judge and party to the agricultural use land and the exploitation of natural forest.This quote can also be applied to the relationship Bolivia – Brazil, in this and other topics.Following the regulations, we can assert that the laws on social groups within the MAPregion show different perspectives and conceptualizations that are difficult even anyattempt at integration. Consider and compare – for example – the Articles of theConstitution of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia apply to indigenous peoples in the MAP region.In all three countries, the state constitutions broadly include the recognition and promotionof indigenous / native. His legal devices sector (economic, political, social and cultural) arepartial developments relating to the protection and promotion of indigenous rights, but witha different projection rules. For example, in Peru’s Constitution states clearly, in Article 88the right to own land, whether private or communal or any other form of association. Thisis also stressed in Article 89 when it is said that the peasant and native communities areautonomous and free use of their lands. This contrasts sharply with the PoliticalConstitution of Bolivia provides in its Article 165 that the land belongs to the originaldomain of the nation and for the state distribution, regrouping and redistribution. That is, inPeru there is a possibility of privatization of land community members, followingconsensus of the majority, while in Bolivia the right is not established.In the Brazilian Constitution, Article 231 stipulates that indigenous territories are landstraditionally occupied by Indians (sic) on a permanent basis and used for productiveactivities, essential for the preservation of environmental resources needed for reproductionand physical and cultural, according to their habits, customs and traditions. These customsand traditions are those who define themselves as “Indians” and to be kept permanently. Inthe same article states that the land in this article are inalienable, exhausted, and the rightstherein, inalienable, being, as stated in Article 20, property of the Union.In short we can say that the treatment of the indigenous in the MAP region can beconceptualized as a continuum from the “Indian reserve” and “indigenous park” in Brazil,which prevents any attempt autocivilizatoria understood as acculturation “to the possibilityof selling the Indian territory in Peru, through the exclusive right of indigenous peoples ofBolivia to make commercial use of renewable natural resources within their communitylands or Indian lands.With regards to protected areas of the MAP region we find the same situation as thecategories of management from different conceptualizations. In Bolivia the Law of theEnvironment assumes certain categories established by the International Union forConservation of Nature (IUCN) and not others as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCOestablished its program Man and Biosphere (MAB), however, the facts, at least two 6
  • 7. protected areas in Bolivia are named the “biosphere reserve”, but not assimilated to theconservation program this term denotes. In Peru Biosphere Reserve Manu, who is both theNational Park.However, despite these conceptual differences arising from different state approaches totopical issues in the MAP region, there are serious attempts bifronteriza integrationbetween Bolivia and Peru, Brazil and Peru, but at the time have remained on paper,developments show the need for common plans that aim at sustainable development of thisregion, the nerve center of the so-called South-West Amazonia.Proposals for Integration in the Region MAPIn addition to roadside integration efforts and research to propose tri mitigating theenvironmental impacts of development – which were described above – there are morecomprehensive proposals that have been advocated by various national and international.We turn first review two of them, the Program for Integrated Development of the Peruvian-Brazilian Border Communities and Integrated Action Programme Peruvian Bolivian –PAIPB.The institutional history of both programs is:The Amazon Cooperation Multinational Project of the OAS General Secretariat is working,since 1985, with members of the TCA. This project aims to provide technical cooperationin binational or multinational activities in watersheds or regions bordering the region tosupport activities of the Amazon Cooperation Council and its Secretariat pro tempore in thefield of natural resource development and environmental management, and to cooperate inobtaining external funds for specific projects.The document of the Integrated Development Program of the Peruvian-Brazilian BorderCommunities outlines the main characteristics of the binational area and identifies itsstrengths and limitations.In terms of features reads as follows:The total area covered by the program, amounts to about 10,200 km2, of which 4,377 km2(43%) for the Brazilian and 5,823 km2 (57%) to Peru. The Brazilian area includes theentire length of the Municipality of Assis Brasil, located southeast of the State of Acre,between the left bank of the Rio Acre and Rio Yaco right. The area of Peru is located in theDepartment of Madre de Dios, Tahuamanu Province and includes the districts of I~napari,Iberia and Tahuamanu, representing 74% of the area of the department.That is, the program area is located in the Brazilian and Peruvian portions of the MAPregion.According to this study, agroforestry fitness area, classified according to the capacity ofland use, resulting in the 66, 9% of the area is reserved for conservation areas and 33, 1%, 7
  • 8. as an area for development of the Development of the Peruvian-Brazilian BorderCommunities. It says more than 11,000 ha. have been altered or operated by man foragricultural, livestock and other uses. Agricultural production in project area (bothBrazilian and Peruvian) is negligible featuring extremely low productivity ratios. Theactivity is directed predominantly towards subsistence crops for which use rudimentaryproduction techniques, focusing mainly on small family farms, almost always among thesiringales.According to this study, the region is conducive to economic development, with thefollowing potentials: development of industries processing agricultural and aquaticresources, production of permanent crops and pastures based on the establishment of nativespecies agricultural uses forestry and pastoral land with economic potential, exploitation offast growing tree species, production of forest trees on land suitable for permanent crops,with special attention to the chestnut, the creation of reserves for the conservation ofbiodiversity, development of building area techniques of the native population, exploitationof genetic potential; siringales reforestation, and promotion of agro-industrial activity.In terms of limitations, the diagnosis shows the following: economic and social structuredependent, irrational exploitation of natural resources, use of inappropriate technology inthe exploitation of resources, scattered settlements, with strengthening the services sectoractivity extraction, to the detriment of the productive sector, growth sectors disjointed, withno agro-processing centers, low levels of public and private investment, lack of energy andcommunication infrastructure, lack of diversification for market population scatteringprevents economic delivery of services to the population and the provision of productioninfrastructure and marketing, demographic decline, in absolute terms, insufficient humanand financial resources.Probably because it was developed in 1992, the diagnosis shows a developmental trend thathas little to do now with the new proposals for sustainable development that are based moreon environmental service opportunities and wise use of forest resources with emphasis onnon-timber. It is also curious to note that this study gives little importance to the chestnutand this product that keeps the economy of the region. On the other hand refers to ademographic decline that date is paradoxical.If you follow the recommendations of this study, the road network designed andimplemented in major sections would become a panacea for – among other things – allowthe growth of towns, and the establishment of programs of agricultural and livestockdevelopment to the detriment of biodiversity at present is a possibility of revenue fromenvironmental services and ecotourism. On the other hand, irreversible decline in the priceof rubber (syrinx) shows that regeneration of this species, so induced, in plantations or exsitu, is not profitable at the time, nor is looming in the short and medium term profitability.The Integrated Development Program of the Peruvian-Brazilian Border Communitiesidentified 31 projects in the areas of productive development, social development,environment, indigenous, and urban development. Of these, 12 are nationals of Brazil, 13are nationals of Peru, and 6 are binational. The bilateral projects are expected to last 3 yearsrunning, with a total planned investment in the order of U.S. $ 57.8 million, of which U.S. 8
  • 9. $ 19.9 million for the Brazilian area and U.S. $ 37.9 billion under the area of Peru.Needless to say, these projects were not executed.The second proposed MAP area integration is the Integrated Action Programme PeruvianBolivian – PAIPB, conducted in 1998 and located your research area 112,300 km2 (11’230,000 ha.) Belonging to the Departments of Madre de Dios Peru and part of Beni and Pandoin Bolivia.This diagnosis is recognized that the most important activity of the study area is thechestnut harvest, “which takes place throughout the region with the potential toindustrialize to obtain oil and meal, usually small farmers whose main activity is thecollection of this product “.The study also states that in the northeast region, data is recorded about 500 species of treesand palms. Of these species are classified as species with potential economic value to 18timber species and 14 non-timber species including palms. Among the species are chestnuttimber, gum and copal. Among the species of palm are: Acai (huasai), nice, cusi, palmfronds and royal palm (Attalea regia or Maximiliana elegans).These data are interesting from the new perspective of sustainable development of the MAPregion and the search for new products will – tends – to diversify the use of naturalresources by removing the pressure on land caused by the agricultural activity, especially inbooming the State of Acre, but this area is not within the study PAIPB analyzed.With regard to the potential identified in this study, we can see that are closer to the currentperspective of sustainable development in the MAP region and referring explicitly to theuse of flora and fauna in a sustainable manner:availability of promising species forests, the rational exploitation of forests has interestingprospects. Overcoming the lack of knowledge about the use of species and establishingmanagement plans for exploitation in large areas, they would create optimal conditions forforest industries.Existence of many food plants, which produce oils, essences and medicines that could bedeveloped in the future (…)There are also important forest resources have not adequately quantified. High fisheriespotential (…).(…) Development of farming and animal breeding, so as to encourage native speciesThe wealth of wildlife, vertebrate and invertebrate species is important for research on theimportance of animals within the existing food chains, as well as for taxonomic studies ofwildlife, mainly on invertebrates (… ) 9
  • 10. The potential of natural resources is the basis for sustainable development through theimplementation of programs and projects that will raise incomes.The ecotourism potential of the region can be advantageously used as a means to revitalizethe regional economy through the multiplier effectKnowledge of the native population (…) potential should be considered. It should workwith native communities to take an inventory of medicinal plants and dyeing (…) ensureproper management of the ecosystem with its own technology.This new approach to developing a practice that takes into account the conservation ofrenewable natural resources and emphasizes the need for indigenous knowledge aredisseminated as potential makes this an interesting possibility proposed start strategicinstitutional interventions MAP development in the region. The recommendations of thisinteresting study better circumscribe the object of institutional intervention that has nothappened at the time of utterance. Here are some relating to economic development with aveneer of sustainability:Research and develop sustainable production models that consider the ecological reality ofthe Amazon to preserve the ecosystems of the region, and simultaneously meet the needs ofthe population.Regularize the tenure of land and forest concessions to ensure proper management.Industrialization of the three most important products of the Amazon (Brazil nuts, rubberand wood). Micromill and marketing of products derived from nuts. Construction of (mini)rubber mills and incentives to industrialization. Increased value added in the export ofsemi-finished wood.Creating a research center application and use of Amazonian products, such as resins,fruits, medicinal and other products.Inventory of fish species that exist in the rivers of the region, study how the life cycle andbehavior in relation to the environment.Regularize the tenure of land and forest concessions to ensure proper management.Develop appropriate technologies to improve agricultural production, livestock.The penultimate point touches a very sensitive area in the region since the lack of legalcertainty is an unresolved problem in Peru with regard to forest concessions in Bolivia overland reclamationBut it is the last point that leads us to the latest proposal of integration discussed in thisbrief analysis of the MAP region. 10
  • 11. Embrapa and the possibility of technological support to the regionIn the second half of the 60′s and early 70′s, the Brazilian government established a newmodel of development and institutional matrix reorganized the country’s public sector. Inthe matrix of the agricultural sector, two partner organizations to track technologicalinnovation were created: the Brazilian Agricultural Research Company (EMBRAPA) andthe Brazilian Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (EMBRATER) in 1990 and hassince disappeared EMBRATER EMBRAPA has diversified its scope based on “scenariostudies to understand the social, economic, political, technological and institutional changesthat were shaping the global and emerging trends.” As a result of this account whenenvironmental departments, production engineering, food production, agro-industry andregional development.In Bolivia, when running programs EMBRAPA research and technology transfer withBolivian counterparts in the Department of Santa Cruz and the Chapare region, promotingalternative development from a perspective of sustainability. Do not have a program in thePando Department but now, because of the Workshop Cobija Tri MAP 2002, coincidingwith the Tri-National Meeting: Bolivia, Brazil and Peru, meeting business and technologyintegration for sustainable development Amazon to be held in Rio Branco – Acre, in theannual meeting AMAZONTECH roaming, has shown interest in supporting actions in theMAP region.This meeting is sponsored by Sebrae, Embrapa Acre, Acre State Government and FederalUniversity of Acre, 48 papers were presented, there will be 8 courses, 4 field days, 3workshops and 3 technical visits, will be out in the Business Center Sebrae and the FederalUniversity of Acre.The topics of the meeting are: current economic and environmental vision and foresight ofthe Amazonian ecosystem of the countries of the region, the agricultural technologyplatform and opportunities for sustainable development in the Amazon, the land in theAmazon countries to reconcile production agricultural environmental quality, present andfuture of development and technology integration and trade in the Amazon region ofBolivia, Peru and Brazil, policies and activities for technology integration and trade forsustainable development of Amazonia.As shown, all issues are of regional interest and are viewed from a perspective ofsustainable development, according to new investigative approaches and institutionalintervention in the MAP region and within the concept of Southwestern Amazonia incurrent use.Pando opportunities and threats in the context of regional integration MAPPando Department is unfavorable in regard to levels of economic, social and institutionalcapacity to successfully confront situations of horizontal integration with its neighbors.However, in the visions of sustainability and sustainability of small and medium scaleshows interesting advantages thanks to the good level of environmental conservation andthe low population density that greatly disturbs biodiversity. 11
  • 12. Furthermore, although the bi-oceanic highway causes and cause major environmentaldisturbances looking for exporters Pando is possible – already being explored – to take theirproducts for it to Manaus for that port navigable river with high capacity draft, to reachEuropean markets primarily interested in forest products like timber and Brazil nuts. This isa comparative advantage to other exporters of wood, such as transportation costs are muchlower than bringing the product to ports in Chile, crossing all of Bolivia.It is also notable informal exchange of forest products, legal and nonlegal between theDepartments / State of the MAP region. Currently the Brazilian Institute of Environment(IBAMA), responsible for forest control in Brazil, is trying to coordinate action on bordercontrol with the local office of the Forestry Superintendence of Bolivia and have found thatif you perform this task, the sawmill industry and carpentry neighboring cities to Cobija,and Epitaciolandia Brasileia would collapse for lack of raw material. On the other side ofthe coin, about 80% of the chestnut currently being processed in the city of Riberalta comesfrom Brazil, the states of Acre and Rondonia. Tahuamanu also buys Chestnut Acre state.For what is seen in a border expeditiously as Acre and Pando the best option to curb theillegal trade in forest products is legalized through commercial agreements that will benefitboth parties. In the same vein, the transfer of technology – especially post-harvest – is doneinformally, most often without technical criteria for quality control.Cobija commercial advantages that can potentially support sustainable development of theDepartment to be a free zone, a fact which has not been given due attention to strategicinvestments.Ecotourism also presents opportunities for improvement in Pando monetary income of theDepartment, with its exuberant nature. However, the objective conditions for initiating thisclean industrial activity are far from optimal because of inadequate infrastructure andlacking in the basic operation Department facilities.Institutional weaknesses and non-government is also noticeable in comparison to the MAPregional neighbors and that results in an overwhelming tendency of the Madre de Dios andAcre to the design and implementation of proposals, projects and policies tri. This is shownclearly in this moment, when the Department can not respond adequately to the challengeof regional integration processes have not yet sustainable institutions that promotesustainable development, because as noted Jose de Souza Silva, there will be no sustainableorganizations sustainable development. The development is a product of the intervention,no intervention, no development, only evolution.In summary, there are interesting opportunities for the Department Pando – and byextension the entire northern Amazon region of Bolivia – at this juncture of trinationalprogram interventions, as long as they achieve the institutional strengthening localgovernment and nongovernmental, that is, believe objective conditions of receptivity,generation, management and implementation of programs and projects at local, nationaland trinational.Bibliography 12
  • 13. * Ampuero, Ana Maria, 2001. Presentation, Antezana, Monica. Food Security in Pando,PIEB.* ANC: Information system for monitoring social, 2002. Madre de Dios, Lima.* Brown, Irving Foster, et.al. , Estrada de Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil years Portos do Pacific:As you maximize profits and minimize prejuizos you for or desenvolvimento sustentavel daAmazonia Sul-Ocidental. In press.* Caffrey, Patricia and Chelsea Specht, s.d. Sustainable Resource Management andConservation of Biodiversity, BOLFOR.* De Souza Silva, Joseph. 1997. Strategic Management of Institutional Change: The Caseof the Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research, EMBRAPA, EMBRAPA.* Dourojeanni, Marc, 2001. Likely social and environmental impacts of the transoceanichighway (Rio Branco-Puerto Maldonado-Ilo) and responsiveness of Peru, Revista“Habitat”, Bulletin No. 19* National Statistics Institute (INE), 2002. Population and Housing Census 2001, La Paz.* National Statistics Institute (INEI), Abstract 2001, Lima.* Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), is accelerating deforestation in theBrazilian Amazon, Journal Environmental Conservation. “, January 15, 2002* Marconi, Maria et al 2001. The Ecosystem Approach under the CBD: from concept toaction. IUCN / UNESCO-MAB* OAS, 1992. Integrated Development Program of Border Communities-I~napari AssisBrasil.* OAS, 1998. Integrated Action Plan Peruvian Boliviano (PAIPB)* Rioja Ballivian, Guillermo. 1998. Sociocultural diagnosis of Indigenous Peoples of thelowlands of Bolivia, National Assessment Indigenous VAIPO* Rioja Ballivian, Guillermo. 1999. Feasibility Study on Comprehensive Care forIndigenous Communities / Native, Sustainable Development Project in Amazon BorderAreas Integrated Action Programme Peruvian Boliviano (PAIPB), OEA 13
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