Mário Melo
mmlmelo@hotmail.com
Guilhermina Lobato Miranda
gmiranda@ie.ul.pt
Instituto de Educação da Universidade de Lisbo...
Summary
1. The Model Background
1.1. The Information Processing Framework
1.2. The Learning Tasks
1.3. The Cognitive Theor...
Modal Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin)
[source: http://boweremember.wikispaces.com/Day+5+Memory+Model]
Interview with Ri...
[source: http://graymattertherapy.com/comprehensive_memory_assessment/]
Interview with Alan Baddeley on development of wor...
1.2. The Learning Tasks (source: Child, Psychology and the teacher, 1986)
1. The Model Background
Students Entry Condition...
1.3. The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning ( Richard Mayer et al.)
1. The Model Background
Cognitive Theory of Multi...
1.2. The Cognitive Load Theory (John Sweller & colleagues)
Three types of Cognitive Load
Intrinsic
Extraneous
Germane
1. T...
2. The 4C-ID Model
Source: van Merriënboer et al. (2002)
2.1. Empirical Evidence for the Effectiveness of 4C/ID Model
2. The Model 4C-ID
Study Domain Mean effect size (d)
Nadolski...
3.1. The structure of the learning environment
Developed with Adobe Flash CS3®
3. An example of a Learning Environment Des...
3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles
of the 4C/ID Model
3.2. Methodology: Experimental (design quasi-experimental)
3.2.1. Participants:
• 3 teachers
• 131 students (81 EG and 50 ...
3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles
of the 4C/ID Model
3.2.2. Independent variable
• Lear...
3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles
of the 4C/ID Model
3.3. Results
3.3.1. Performance (s...
3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles
of the 4C/ID Model
3.3.2. Cognitive Load (scale 1-9 p...
3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles
of the 4C/ID Model
3.3.3. Instructional efficiency
Re...
3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles
of the 4C/ID Model
3.3.3. Instructional efficiency
3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles
of the 4C/ID Model
3.3.3. Instructional efficiency
4. General conclusions
• The results indicate that, relative to the control group, the
experimental group was more capable...
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IDEE Workshop: Applying the 4C-ID Model to the Design of a Digital Educational Resource for Teaching Electric Circuits: Effects on Student Achievement

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Comunicação apresentada no Workshop IDEE, 9 de junho de 2014, Albacete, Espanha

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  • Our communication reports the first results of a PhD research, conducted by Mario Melo with my supervision. We apply the 4C-ID Model to the Design and Implementation of a Digital Educational Resource for Teaching Electric Circuits and we study its effects on Student Achievement
    Due to professional reasons, Mário Melo can not be with us.
  • Here is a summary of our presentation.
    First we refer briefly our interpretation of the 4C-ID model assumptions or background
    Secondly we describe the components of the model and some research results
    Finally we analyzed the empirical work or empirical research
    Read what is written
  • The 4C-ID model assumes that our cognition is a representational system, composed of mental schemes which are mainly formed through inductive processes and where memory plays a central role. There are other ways of conceiving cognition namely the conexionist models, that some authors think they are a new form of associationism (eg., the North American philosopher Hilary Putnam). I do not, at this point, enumerate the main arguments adduced both for and against each one of these conceptions.
    In this slide is represented one of the earliest and most influential model of our mnemonic system of the representational approach of cognition: The Modal Memory Model from Atkinson & Shiffrin
  • Models of information processing give much importance to working memory or short term memory. The most famous and influential model on working memory was developed by Alan Baddely. This is the center of our conscious activity and is involved in all learning tasks. This memory has a limited capacity to process information (especially the new information) and therefore the designers of digital educational resources should pay a close attention to how the multimedia messages are developed. The 4C-ID model takes this limitation very seriously.
    In this slide is represented de components of working memory
  • All theories and models of instruction give a great importance to learning tasks. They are the center of the instructional process and they depend of the students entry conditions (mainly previous knowledge, capacities and interests) and they are going also to explain the results or output conditions.
    In the 4C-ID model, learning tasks are whole tasks and are recognizable in solving real life problems, as we will see later in this presentation.
  • This theory focuses on three assumptions in regards to multimedia learning environments:
    First: People possess separate channels (visual and auditory) to process information (it is the dual coding theory by Alan Paivio, 1986)
    Second: People have a limited capacity for how much information they can process at any given time (it is the assumption of the limited capacity of our working memory)
    Third: People participate in active processing of information by selecting relevant information, organizing information, and integrating knowledge acquired with representations of the information within their own minds. (p. 44).

  • From an instructional perspective, information contained in instructional material must first be processed by working memory. For schema acquisition to occur, instruction should be designed to reduce working memory load. Cognitive load theory is concerned with techniques for reducing working memory load in order to facilitate the changes in long term memory associated with schema acquisition.

    The cognitive load theory states that learning tasks can induce three types of cognitive load: intrinsic, extraneous and germane or appropriate. Designers of the learning tasks and learning environments should eliminate the extraneous cognitive load, reduce the intrinsic cognitive load and work with the appropriate or germane cognitive load because learning requires effort and the construction of shemas in the long-term memory. The 4C-ID model takes very seriously these recommendations.
  • Here a
  • IDEE Workshop: Applying the 4C-ID Model to the Design of a Digital Educational Resource for Teaching Electric Circuits: Effects on Student Achievement

    1. 1. Mário Melo mmlmelo@hotmail.com Guilhermina Lobato Miranda gmiranda@ie.ul.pt Instituto de Educação da Universidade de Lisboa Applying the 4C-ID Model to the Design of a Digital Educational Resource for Teaching Electric Circuits: Effects on Student Achievement
    2. 2. Summary 1. The Model Background 1.1. The Information Processing Framework 1.2. The Learning Tasks 1.3. The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning 1.4. The Cognitive Load Theory 2. The Model 4C-ID 2.1. Empirical Evidence for the Effectiveness of 4C/ID Model 3. Empirical Work: Conception and Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment Modeled with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model 3.1. The structure of the learning environment 3.2. Methodology 3.2.1. Participants 3.2.2. The Independent variable 3.2.3. The dependents variables 3.3. Results 3.3.1. Performance 3.3.2. Cognitive load 3.3.3. Instructional efficiency
    3. 3. Modal Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin) [source: http://boweremember.wikispaces.com/Day+5+Memory+Model] Interview with Richard Shiffrin: http://thesciencenetwork.org/programs/cogsci-2010/richard-shiffrin 1.1. The Information Processing Framework: The Modal Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) 1. The Model Background
    4. 4. [source: http://graymattertherapy.com/comprehensive_memory_assessment/] Interview with Alan Baddeley on development of working memory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mT0NLihOK30 1.1. The Information Processing Framework: Working memory (Alan Baddeley, 1986) 1. The Model Background
    5. 5. 1.2. The Learning Tasks (source: Child, Psychology and the teacher, 1986) 1. The Model Background Students Entry Conditions (1, 2) Learning Results (6) (1) Cognitive predisposition - capacities - knowledge - skills (2) Affective disposition: - interests - attitudes - motivation - Self-concept Cognitive Results Instructional Results Afective Results (3,4,5) The quality of instruction depends on: - How you organize knowledge - How you sequence knowledge - How you present knowledge - how you reinforce (incentives and feedback) INSTRUCTION (3, 4,5) LEARNING TASKS
    6. 6. 1.3. The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning ( Richard Mayer et al.) 1. The Model Background Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (adapted from R. E. Mayer, 2001)
    7. 7. 1.2. The Cognitive Load Theory (John Sweller & colleagues) Three types of Cognitive Load Intrinsic Extraneous Germane 1. The Model Background
    8. 8. 2. The 4C-ID Model Source: van Merriënboer et al. (2002)
    9. 9. 2.1. Empirical Evidence for the Effectiveness of 4C/ID Model 2. The Model 4C-ID Study Domain Mean effect size (d) Nadolski (2005) Law + 0,12 Nadolski (2006) Law + 0,50 Rosenberg-Kima (2012) ICT + 0,82 Flores (2011) Mathematics + 0,21 Lim (2006) ICT + 0,30 Lim & Reiser (2009) ICT + 0,84 Lim & Park (2012) ICT + 1,68 Sarfo & Elen (2007) Arts + 1,39
    10. 10. 3.1. The structure of the learning environment Developed with Adobe Flash CS3® 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model Learning class 1 (concepts of electric current and potential difference) Learning class 2 (ability to design an electrical circuit schema ) Learning class 3 (concepts of serial and parallel association of lamps) General themes
    11. 11. 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model
    12. 12. 3.2. Methodology: Experimental (design quasi-experimental) 3.2.1. Participants: • 3 teachers • 131 students (81 EG and 50 CG) with 14 years old (mean = 14,31, SD = 0,54) of the 9th grade from a private school in Lisbon, placed in 5 intact classes and distributed according to the table: 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model Class n Experimental group Control group Teacher 1 28 x A 2 25 x B 3 27 x B 4 25 x C 5 26 x C
    13. 13. 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model 3.2.2. Independent variable • Learning environment. 3.2.3. Dependents variables • Performance (learning reproduction and learning transfer); • Cognitive load; • Instructional efficiency.
    14. 14. 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model 3.3. Results 3.3.1. Performance (scale 0-20 points) Reproduction test Transfer test Mean SD Mean SD Experimental group 12,19 1,58 11,18 1,88 Control group 11,41 2,13 8,77 2,64
    15. 15. 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model 3.3.2. Cognitive Load (scale 1-9 points) Reproduction test Transfer test Mean SD Mean SD Experimental group 2,77 0,73 2,64 1,15 Control group 2,92 1,21 4,21 1,52
    16. 16. 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model 3.3.3. Instructional efficiency Reproduction test Transfer test Mean SD Mean SD Experimental group 1,95 1,36 0,55 0,87 Control group 0,028 1,09 -0,42 1,01
    17. 17. 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model 3.3.3. Instructional efficiency
    18. 18. 3. An example of a Learning Environment Designed with the Principles of the 4C/ID Model 3.3.3. Instructional efficiency
    19. 19. 4. General conclusions • The results indicate that, relative to the control group, the experimental group was more capable to do learning transfer in the context of the Electric Circuits theme; • Learners in the experimental group were better able than the control group learners to transfer the skills they learned to a new situation, in this case with some concepts related to electric circuits; • Learners in the experimental group were better able than the control group learners to transfer the skills they learned to a new situation, in this case with some concepts related to electric circuits.
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