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IPv6 introduction
 

IPv6 introduction

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IPv6的簡介

IPv6的簡介

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    IPv6 introduction IPv6 introduction Presentation Transcript

    • IPv6 Introduction
    • Agenda• IPv6 Addressing– What is IPv6– ICMPv6 (Stateless)– DHCPv6 (Stateful)• IPv6 Routing– Static Routing– Adaptive Routing• IPv6 Service– DNSv6– IPv6 to IPv4 Transition• Linux IPv6 Implementation
    • IPv4/IPv6 Protocol Stack
    • What is IPv6• IPv4 (32bits) → IPv6 (128 bits)– 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000• 2001:db8:1a2b:15:0:0:1a2f:0– (0 can ignore)• 2001:db8:1a2b:15::1a2f:0– multiple “0” block can combine to :: (only once)• Prefix is network address– 2001:0:0:b3::1234/64• Address type– Unicast– Multicast [Multicast Listener Disscovery]– Anycast (router only)
    • IPv6 Unicast Address• Unicast address type– Global• Unique• Start 001x+ network addr + 64 bits interface addr– Local Link• Cannot pass through Router• fe80:: + 64 bits interface addr / 10• EUI-64 (transfer MAC to IPv6 interface address)– 7thbit change to complementation– Add FFFE in the 3th and 4th• 00:ab:cd:12:34:56 → 02ab:cdff:fe12:3456• IPv6 address method– manual, auto-configuration (stateless, stateful)
    • IPv6 Auto Configuration
    • Stateless Auto Configuration• ICMPv6 ()– Fault management• Ping6• traceroute6– Multicast Listener Discovery (MLDv2)• Replace IGMPv3– Neighbor Discovery• Router Solicitation (RS)• Router Advertisement (RA)• Neighbor Solicitation (NS)• Neighbor Advertisement (NA)• Redirect
    • Router Advertisement Header• M– 1 : get Prefix from DHCP server– 0 : get Prefix from Router• O– 1 : get DNS from DHCP server– 0 : get DNS from Router
    • ICMPv6 Router Discovery
    • ICMPv6 Router Discovery
    • ICMPv6 Address Resolution
    • ICMPv6 Address Resolution
    • Stateful Auto Configuration• DHCPv6 (RFC 3315)– DHCPv6 client can request multiple IPv6 address– 4-way messages exchange (Stateful)• M=1, O=0• Solicit(C) / Advertise(S) / Request(C) / Reply(S)– 2-way messages exchange (Stateless)• Information-request(C) / Reply (S)• DHCP Roles• M=0, O=1– Client– Server– Relay Agent
    • DHCPv6 working
    • Auto Configuration Process• Allows a host to create a unicast address from:– Its MAC address– Prefixes sent by neighbor routers• Several steps:– Link-local addresses creation– Duplicate addresses detection (DAD)– Discover the routers on-link (RS/RA)– " Configure hosts global addresses– Configure other parameters: default router, link MTU, …• Addresses are not automatically registered in the DNS– Need for DNS Dynamic Update (RFC 2136 and RFC 3007)
    • Auto Configuration Flowchart
    • IPv6 Routing• Routing Algorithm– Increase throughput– Decrease average delay
    • Routing Type• Static routing (Peer to Peer, Host)– The same as IPv4• Specify source, destination, distance• Adaptive routing (Router to Router)– Distance Vector Concept• RIPng (RFC2080)– Link-State Concept• OSPFv3 (RFC 5340)
    • Distance Vector Concept
    • Link-State Concept
    • Distance Vector Routing v.s.Link-StateRouting
    • IPv6 Routing Protocols
    • RIPng• Same as IPv4– Distance vector, radius of 15 hops, split horizon, and– poison reverse– Based on RIPv2• Updated features for IPv6– IPv6 prefix, next-hop IPv6 address– Uses the multicast group FF02::9 for RIP updates– Uses IPv6 for transport– Updates are sent on UDP port 521• Named RIPng
    • OSPFv3• Based on OSPFv2, with enhancements• Distributes IPv6 prefixes• Runs directly over IPv6• Ships in the night with OSPFv2• Adds IPv6-specifific attributes:– 128-bit addresses– Link-local address– Multiple addresses and instances per interface– Authentication (now uses IPsec)– OSPFv3 runs over a link, rather than a subnet
    • DNSv6• Domain Name System version 6– Mapping Domain name and IP• Client / Server Architecture• Application– ISC BIND-9.2.2 (Linux)• Support IPv4 & IPv6 DNS query• AAAA records• renumbering– Windows Server 2008
    • IPv6 to IPv4 Transition• Dual Stack– Support IPv4 & IPv6 on the same time– IPv4 only, IPv6 only, Dual Stack– Need one IPv4 and one IPv6 address
    • IPv6 to IPv4 Transition• Tunneling– Add IPv4 header
    • IPv6 to IPv4 Transition• Translator– Network Address Translation – ProtocolTranslation– Like IPv4 NAT– IPv4 Address pool + sock port number– It is deprecated on 2007/7
    • Linux IPv6 implementation• IPv6 Addressing– Linux 2.6.x ~• ipv6 protocol stack, ip6tables, …– DHCPv6 (ISC DHCP-4.1.2)• IPv6 Routing– IPv6 router (radvd-1.1.5)• ICMPv6 RA, ipv6 routing– IPv6 routing protocol (quaga-0.98)• BGP4, BGP4+, OSPFv2, OSPFv3, RIPv1, RIPv2, RIPng• IPv6 Service– DNSv6 (bind-9.2.2), Tunnel Broker (gogoc), NTP (ntp-4.2.4), SMTP (mailx-12.4), SNMP (netsnmp-5.2.1),PPP(ppp-2.4.4), WWW(boa-0.94.13), …
    • How to enable IPv6 Router(radvd)# yum search radvd // search radvd# yum install radvd // install radvd# vi /etc/radvd.conf // edit configuationinterface eth0{AdvSendAdvert on;MinRtrAdvInterval 3;MaxRtrAdvInterval 10;prefix 2001:db8:0:f101::1/64{AdvOnLink on;AdvAutonomous on;AdvRouterAddr on;};};# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/default/forwarding#service radvd start
    • Reference• http://www.ngnet.it/e/ipv6proto/ipv6-proto-6.php• http://www.ipv6.hinet.net/index.html• http://www.rd.ipv6.org.tw/• IPv6 應用及路由實務 - 訓練教材• http://www.ithome.com.tw/itadm/article.php?c=66363&s=6• http://interop.ipv6.org.tw/index.php