INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY Is the study of HUMAN BEHAVIOR in the work-related aspects of life and the application of knowledge of human behavior in minimizing human problems at work.
HUMAN WORK IS CONCERNED WITH THEPRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF GOODSAND SERVICES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OFECONOMY. THE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THEPAST HUNDRED OF YEARS HAVE BROUGHTABOUT MAJOR CHANGES IN THE NATURE ANDORGANIZATION OF HUMAN WORK LIKEMANUAL WORK TO THE PRESENT AUTOMATEDWORK THEREBY CREATING JOBS IN THECREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MACHINES. THE CONTINUING TREND TOWARDAUTOMATION IS FURTHER ALTERING THE NATUREOF MANY JOBS.
PREMISES OF INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY1. That INDUSTRY should produce thosegoods and services that fulfill the reasonableneeds of consumers considering theirphysical welfare and personal values.2. That it is desirable to increase theeffectiveness of human involvement in theproduction and distribution of goods andservices.
3. That in the PRODUCTION it is desirable to maintainor enhance certain HUMAN VALUES (health, safety, job satisfaction,etc)4. That marked disparities between the aboveobjectives and their reasonable fulfillment are thesources of most of the human problems in industry.5. That knowledge of and insight into humanbehavior gained through psychological researchand through experience can help minimize suchproblems.
DEVELOPMENT OF IND’L.PSYCHOLOGYTHE EARLY INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGISTSWERE CONCERNED ONLY WITHPROBLEMS OF PERSONNEL SELECTION,BUT THEIR INTEREST GREW AND EMBRACEOTHER AREAS , SUCH AS ADVERTISINGAND SELLING, ACCIDENTS, ANDEMPLOYEE RATING PROCESSES.
FOCAL CHANGES IN IND’L.PSYCHOLOGYToday, considerable interest is added inHUMAN RELATION aspects of PersonnelManagement with especial concern forgroup interaction,supervision andleadership process, communicationsand Job Satisfaction.
Parallel to this development during thepast decades has been thedevelopment of HUMAN FACTORSENGINEERING or simplyERGONOMICS...as it is called in othercountries.The objective of ERGONOMICS orHUMAN FACTOR ENGINEERING is todesign physical equipment and facilitiestailored to human abilities andlimitations.
PSYCHOLOGISTS CALL THISSEGMENT OF INDUSTRIALPSYCHOLOGY as ENGINEERINGPSYCHOLOGY
OBJECTIVE OF INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGYTo provide the basis for minimizing someof the human problems in the industry.
MODUS OPERANDI OF INDUSTRIALPSYCHOLOGY1.Identification of problems to betreated.2.The use of various methods ofcollection and analysis of relevant data.3.The findings resulting from thesemethods and associated analyses.4. The application of such findings to theproblems at hand.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEMS1.Organizational ineffectiveness2.Inadequate job performance ofpeople3.High personnel turnover rates4.Injuties5.Poor employee morale6.Dissatisfaction7.Controversy and occasional conflict8.Failure to fulfill the reasonable needs ofconsumers
Two Faces Of IndustrialPsychology1. As a RESEARCHER applyingScience.2. As a PROFESSIONAL applyingknowledge and insight to solvepractical problems.
Industrial Psychology as aPROFESSIONExamples:CONSULTANTSPROGRAM DEVELOPERINDIVIDUAL EVALUATION
Consultants:management developmentequipment designtraining methodsPROGRAM DEVELOPMENT:develop and install training or personnelselection programINDIVIDUAL EVALUATION:assess potentials of individuals for specificpositions or promotionscounselling individuals themselves
CHAPTER 2BEHAVIORAL RESEARCHJob Related Behavior As AFactor For PRODUCTIVITYJob related behaviors varyalong two dimensions.1.QUANTITATIVE – could bemeasured.
2. QUALITATIVE – could bequalified.TYPES OF MEASUREMENT OFVARIABLES FOR BEHAVIOR
1. Nominal Scale – categorizedasmale or female, rural orurban(places of residence), jobclassification(carpenter, plumber etc.), ineducation..degree holder, H.S.graduate
2. ORDINAL SCALE – is used tocharacterize the rank order onsome variable of individualcases in a sample, such as...Rankings of a group ofemployees according to jobperformance or the ranking ofjobs according to pay level.
3. INTERVAL SCALE – it is used toknow or understand humanabilities and attributes... Such asa player’s statisticalperformance
4. RATIO SCALE – this is used toknow the variables of physicalmeasurement in carrying outvarious types of job activities.
BASIC RESEARCH STRATEGIESImportance of Research:#To answer some questions.#Come up with a possibleanswer to the result obtained.
RESEARCH STRATEGY CAN BEDEVELOPED STARTING WITH THEFOLLOWING QUESTIONS.1. What variables need to bestudied ?2. How should these variables betreated ?3. In what settings should theresearch be undertaken ?