Steering systems
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Steering systems

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Steering systems Steering systems Presentation Transcript

  • Steering systemsParts and function copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering systemcomponents  Steering wheel, column and shaft – driver inputs  Steering gear – changes direction – rotating steering wheel into linear motion  Steering linkage – connects steering gear to steering arms  Ball joints – allows movement of steering components and suspension copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering wheel  Attaches to steering column and shaft by 1 or more fasteners, most single nut  Have an interference fit on the shaft – very tight fit, may need a puller  May contain an airbag assembly, radio controls, cruise controls, etc copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering wheel copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Puller copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering column  Contains and supports the steering shaft  May have a tilt mechanism  May have telescoping mechanism  Also houses ignition switch  May be designed to collapse during front impact – has plastic or soft metal rivets that are easily damaged or broken from improper use or removal copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering column copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering column copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering columncoupler  Steering column couplers allow pivot points in the column  Like a universal joint  Loose or worn couplers will result in a loose steering feel, vibration, noise, or sticky steering feel copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering columncoupler copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Impact If the vehicle is involved in a front impact, always inspect the steering column and wheel Squeaking, chirping or rubbing sounds indicate damage Catching, binding and play indicate damage Especially if the airbag deploys! copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering ratio  Steering ratio is a measurement of how many turns of the steering wheel it takes to go from a full lock to the other full lock  Basically how many turns from all the way left to all the way right  Also measured from the center (straight) to a full lock turn  Fast ratio is 3 turns lock to lock  Slow is about 4 or 5 times lock to lock  15:1 ratio – wheels move 15deg for 1 deg of steering wheel movement copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Variable ratio steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering gear systems  Recirculating ball  Rack and pinion  Power assist  Electronic assist copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Recirculating ball  Recirculating ball is used on trucks in modern vehicles  Used on most vehicles prior to 1980 and the use of front wheel drive  Uses balls on a worm gear  Has a pitman arm copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Recirculating ball  Balls inside the gear ride inside guide paths  Move from one end of the ball nut through guides, back to the bottom of the housing  Uses a Parallelogram Linkage steering arm system  Pitman arm moves steering tie rods copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Recirculating ball copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Recirculating ball copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Rack and pinionsteering  Uses a rack and pinion gear  Pinion meshes with a gear on end of steering shaft  As gear rotates, pinion rotates and moves rack left or right copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering linkage  Steering linkage is anything connected to the wheels and the steering gear  Tie rods  Steering arms  Steering knuckles  Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering linkage copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Tierods  Tierods are attached to pivot points on each front wheel  The other end is attached to the steering gear or rack  Allows for suspension movement  Used to adjust TOE of the car – tires face in / or out / when driving straight copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Tierods copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Tierods copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering arms  Tierods attach to the front wheels at the steering arms  The steering arm is attached to the steering knuckle, which includes the spindle  Used to get proper steering angle during turns copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering arms copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering knuckle andspindle copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering knuckle andspindle copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Ball joints  Allow suspension movement up and down, as well as turning movement  Located in control arms – in lower, as well as upper control arm if so equipped  Wear items – need replacement periodically copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Steering designs  Parallelogram – used on cars with recirculating ball gear steering  Rack and pinion – used on cars with a steering rack and pinion gear copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Parallelogram  Uses tierods connected to a center link  Uses a pitman arm to move steering linkage  Also uses an idler arm to support the linkage on the passenger side copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Parallelogram steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Pitman arm copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Rack and pinion  Fewer moving parts than the recirculating ball  Smaller and more compact  Can be a center link type as well copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Power steering  Used to aid in steering  Can be hydraulic – uses a pump driven by the engine, or an electric motor, to pump fluid through the power steering rack/box to aid driver in turning the steering wheel  Can be electric – uses electric motor mounted on rack/box to help driver turn the steering wheel copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Power steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Power steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • Electronic powersteering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • 4 wheel steering  Used by some manufacturers to aid handling  Front wheels do most of the steering  At low speeds, rear wheels steer opposite front to tighten turning radius  At high speeds, rear wheels turn with front to improve handling and cornering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • 4 wheel steering  Can be hydraulic or electric  Front steering is usually “normal” power steering  Rear wheel steering can be driven hydraulically or by electric motor copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  • 4 wheel steering  3000GT VR4 All Wheel Steering demo – Yo copyright 2011 - eric jaromin