Steering systems

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Steering systems

  1. 1. Steering systemsParts and function copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  2. 2. Steering systemcomponents  Steering wheel, column and shaft – driver inputs  Steering gear – changes direction – rotating steering wheel into linear motion  Steering linkage – connects steering gear to steering arms  Ball joints – allows movement of steering components and suspension copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  3. 3. Steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  4. 4. Steering wheel  Attaches to steering column and shaft by 1 or more fasteners, most single nut  Have an interference fit on the shaft – very tight fit, may need a puller  May contain an airbag assembly, radio controls, cruise controls, etc copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  5. 5. Steering wheel copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  6. 6. Puller copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  7. 7. Steering column  Contains and supports the steering shaft  May have a tilt mechanism  May have telescoping mechanism  Also houses ignition switch  May be designed to collapse during front impact – has plastic or soft metal rivets that are easily damaged or broken from improper use or removal copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  8. 8. Steering column copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  9. 9. Steering column copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  10. 10. Steering columncoupler  Steering column couplers allow pivot points in the column  Like a universal joint  Loose or worn couplers will result in a loose steering feel, vibration, noise, or sticky steering feel copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  11. 11. Steering columncoupler copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  12. 12. Impact If the vehicle is involved in a front impact, always inspect the steering column and wheel Squeaking, chirping or rubbing sounds indicate damage Catching, binding and play indicate damage Especially if the airbag deploys! copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  13. 13. Steering ratio  Steering ratio is a measurement of how many turns of the steering wheel it takes to go from a full lock to the other full lock  Basically how many turns from all the way left to all the way right  Also measured from the center (straight) to a full lock turn  Fast ratio is 3 turns lock to lock  Slow is about 4 or 5 times lock to lock  15:1 ratio – wheels move 15deg for 1 deg of steering wheel movement copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  14. 14. Variable ratio steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  15. 15. Steering gear systems  Recirculating ball  Rack and pinion  Power assist  Electronic assist copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  16. 16. Steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  17. 17. Recirculating ball  Recirculating ball is used on trucks in modern vehicles  Used on most vehicles prior to 1980 and the use of front wheel drive  Uses balls on a worm gear  Has a pitman arm copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  18. 18. Recirculating ball  Balls inside the gear ride inside guide paths  Move from one end of the ball nut through guides, back to the bottom of the housing  Uses a Parallelogram Linkage steering arm system  Pitman arm moves steering tie rods copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  19. 19. Recirculating ball copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  20. 20. Recirculating ball copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  21. 21. Rack and pinionsteering  Uses a rack and pinion gear  Pinion meshes with a gear on end of steering shaft  As gear rotates, pinion rotates and moves rack left or right copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  22. 22. Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  23. 23. Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  24. 24. Steering linkage  Steering linkage is anything connected to the wheels and the steering gear  Tie rods  Steering arms  Steering knuckles  Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  25. 25. Steering linkage copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  26. 26. Tierods  Tierods are attached to pivot points on each front wheel  The other end is attached to the steering gear or rack  Allows for suspension movement  Used to adjust TOE of the car – tires face in / or out / when driving straight copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  27. 27. Tierods copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  28. 28. Tierods copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  29. 29. Steering arms  Tierods attach to the front wheels at the steering arms  The steering arm is attached to the steering knuckle, which includes the spindle  Used to get proper steering angle during turns copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  30. 30. Steering arms copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  31. 31. Steering knuckle andspindle copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  32. 32. Steering knuckle andspindle copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  33. 33. Ball joints  Allow suspension movement up and down, as well as turning movement  Located in control arms – in lower, as well as upper control arm if so equipped  Wear items – need replacement periodically copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  34. 34. Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  35. 35. Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  36. 36. Ball joints copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  37. 37. Steering designs  Parallelogram – used on cars with recirculating ball gear steering  Rack and pinion – used on cars with a steering rack and pinion gear copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  38. 38. Parallelogram  Uses tierods connected to a center link  Uses a pitman arm to move steering linkage  Also uses an idler arm to support the linkage on the passenger side copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  39. 39. Parallelogram steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  40. 40. Pitman arm copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  41. 41. Rack and pinion  Fewer moving parts than the recirculating ball  Smaller and more compact  Can be a center link type as well copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  42. 42. Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  43. 43. Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  44. 44. Rack and pinion copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  45. 45. Power steering  Used to aid in steering  Can be hydraulic – uses a pump driven by the engine, or an electric motor, to pump fluid through the power steering rack/box to aid driver in turning the steering wheel  Can be electric – uses electric motor mounted on rack/box to help driver turn the steering wheel copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  46. 46. Power steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  47. 47. Power steering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  48. 48. Electronic powersteering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  49. 49. 4 wheel steering  Used by some manufacturers to aid handling  Front wheels do most of the steering  At low speeds, rear wheels steer opposite front to tighten turning radius  At high speeds, rear wheels turn with front to improve handling and cornering copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  50. 50. 4 wheel steering  Can be hydraulic or electric  Front steering is usually “normal” power steering  Rear wheel steering can be driven hydraulically or by electric motor copyright 2011 - eric jaromin
  51. 51. 4 wheel steering  3000GT VR4 All Wheel Steering demo – Yo copyright 2011 - eric jaromin

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