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The job of education was at one time thought of as simple enough to require the employment of one type of individual. This situation however has changed and is changing to such a degree that a number of activities have become necessary for better understanding of what is meant by the job. Among these activities are those of DEFINITION, CLASSIFICATION, SPECIFICATION, and RATING. These is very much and immediately the concern of the administration.
DEFINITION: The function, the job, or the totalobligation to be undertaken by the schoolsystem in the education of the child in accord Chapter 2with his needs and the dictates of the society towhich he belongs.Job Analysis and Job Design
DEFINITION: EVOLUTIONDuring the colonial period of Americanhistory, the entire job of education wasentrusted to the school master. In the Chapter 2increasingly rare one-room school systems,Job Analysis and Job Designthe teacher is still the sole executor of boardpolicies. In his activities are to be seen thebasic and specific functions andinterrelationships of such currently familiarfigures as superintendent, principal,classroom teacher, secretary, clerk andjanitor.
The total job of education is much thesame irrespective of population or timefactors. However, the school scene changes.Continued industrialization gives rise topopulation concentrations which promotelarge school systems and schools. Chapter 2 The job scene emerging is one ofincreasing specialization. The basic job ofJob Analysis and Job Designeducation has been broken down in manyplaces into a number of components, each ofwhich has become a job in itself. The jobsrange from the professional to those of thesemi or unskilled laborer.
Elementary School In fact it begins to look as if the elementary school is being confronted with prospects of further specialization. Chapter 2 Even in the elementary level, one is no longer a school master in the originalJob Analysis and Job Design comprehensive sense.Secondary School Counsellor Subject Matter Specialist Teachers
JOB LISTING Before real progress can be made in understanding jobs, the positions that have somehow come into being have to be identified and compiled into a list. Initially Chapter 2 such a list is made up informally andJob Analysis and Job Design without any particular sequence, grouping or analysis. The list will never be constant because functions tend to change when personnel changes take place and because there will be accretions, deletions and planned changes in jobs.
Every job listing at Job Service includes a combination of information that includes a brief description of the job, job applicant, qualifications Chapter qualities. These and desired 2 elements are the keys you will need inJob Analysis andInterview should order to prepare for an Job Design you be called to attend one.
This kind of listing may be illustrated bythe following: superintendent supervisor principal Teacher (by division and specialty) doctor dentist nurse psychologist
When you are viewing a Job Listing at Job service, look for keywords such as: TITLEQUALIFICATIONS DUTIES REQUIREMENTS
Every job listing at Job Serviceincludes a combination of information thatincludes a brief description of the job, jobapplicant, qualifications and desiredqualities. These elements are the keys you Chapter 2will need in order to prepare for anInterview should you be called to attendJob Analysis and Job Designone. The complete listing of all positions ina school system is preparatory to and afirst step toward gaining an understandingof each through job analysis.
JOB ANALYSISAnalysis of a job is the study orexamination by which that job gets to beseen in terms of its constituent parts. Chapter 2Analysis is basically a taking-apartoperation through which each componentJob Analysis and Job Designis separated from the others forinvestigation and consideration by itselfand in terms of its relationships to over-alljob.
Steps in Job Analysis1. Select Jobs for Analysis2. Determine what information to collect3. Determine how to collect theinformation4. Determine who collects the information5. Process the information6. Write Job Descriptions and JobSpecifications
These steps include the: Purpose Duties Responsibility Working Conditions Physical and Mental Activities Skill which characterize positions and differentiate them from others.
JOB DESCRIPTIONThe information gained through the jobanalysis provides the breakdown on eachposition. This is organized and written as a Chapter 2statement called the job description. Thisstatement should be detailed and explicit.Job Analysis and Job DesignTechnical language should either bereduced to understandable English in thetext or explained.
It’s Purpose:Job descriptions have the purpose ofclarifying the nature of the job in order thatthe job may be more accurately identified Chapter 2and definitively designated or titled,understood in terms of the likeness of theirJob Analysis and Job Designdistinguishing facets. In addition, the jobdescription serves as the detailedstatement on the basis of which workerqualifications may be specified.
Uses of Job Description: Recruiting Selection Orientation Training Employee Evaluations Promotions and Transfers
JOB CLASSIFICATIONPositions which have like characteristicsform a category, group, family or class ofjobs. Chapter 2Job AnalysisdifferentJob of an arrangement of and types Designemployment within a company orindustry, according to theskill, experience, or training required.
The primary objective of JOB CLASSIFICATION is todefine and describe accurately the current duties andresponsibilities of positions for the following purposes: To aid in recruitment by establishing meaningful qualification requirements To determine proper compensation To facilitate developing performance standards and performance appraisals. To identify career and promotional tracks in organizations To assign responsibilities related to the organization’s plans and strategies
2 Classifications within the School SystemJobs Requiring Certification The classification in this area will differ with the size of the district. However for purposes of illustration, the subclassifications would include (1) administrative, (2) staff or advisory, and (3) teaching jobs.Jobs Not Requiring Certification This will vary in number and kind with the school district and the size of the district. Four of the major subclassifications in the grouping would be (1) office, (2) operation, (3) maintenance, and (4) service jobs.
JOB SpeficicationDESCRIBES: - Knowledge - Skills Chapter 2 - EducationJob Analysis and Job Design - Experience and - AbilitiesEssential to performing a particular job
COMPONENTS OF A JOB SPECIFICATIONJob Information - The title should be chosen carefully as it provides importance and status for the employeeJob Purpose - To identify nature of jobMain Duties - To identify key duties of job
COMPONENTS OF A JOB SPECIFICATIONRequired Skills, Knowledge andCharacteristics - Skills, knowledge ad personal characteristics of individuals who have successfully performed the job. - Use the Job Analysis Data to determine the attributes you need from your “ideal candidate”. - Knowledge can include the educational or vocational qualifications and other related knowledge gained from learning. - Skills include on the job skills and any specialized competencies
COMPONENTS OF A JOB SPECIFICATIONExperience - Describe minimum experience required to perform job satisfactorily; may include preferred/desired experienceAbilities - Include, Physical, Mental and AptitudeLicenses/Certification
JOB RATINGOr Job Evaluation is the process ofanalyzing and assessing the various jobssystematically to ascertain their relative Chapter 2worth in an organization. Job is evaluatedon the basis of their content and is placedJob Analysis and Job Designin the order of their importance.It should be noted that in a Job Rating, thejobs are ranked and not the job holders.Job holders are rated through performanceappraisal.
PRINCIPLES OF JOB RATINGRate the job but not the employee. Rate theelements on the basis of the job demands.The elements selected for rating should beeasily understood.The elements should be defined clearly andproperly selected.Employees concerned and the supervisorsshould be educated and convinced aboutthe programme.
PRINCIPLES OF JOB RATINGSupervisors should be encouraged toparticipate in rating the jobs.Secure employee cooperation byencouraging them to participate in therating programme.Discuss with the supervisors andemployees about rating but not aboutassigning money values to the points.
For better understanding let us look at the flowchart given below: JOB RATING PROCESS OBJECTIVES OF JOB RATING JOB ANALYSIS JOB DESCRIPTION JOB SPECIFICATION JOB RATING PROGRAMME WAGE SURVEY EMPLOYEE CLASSIFICATION
PURPOSE OF JOB RATINGJob rating, grading or classification has theone main purpose of setting up andproviding recognition of the relative worthof each job in the school system. Thisworth is evaluated in terms of thecontribution that the job makes to the over-all job of the school system, the educationof the child which is the function of theschool.
PURPOSE OF JOB RATINGAnother objective of the job rating is toestablish satisfactory wage and salarydifferentials. Job analysis precede theactual program of evaluation. Job analysis,as was discussed earlier, provides job-related data, which would be useful indrafting job description and jobspecification.
A job rating program involves answeringseveral question:The major ones are:• Which jobs are to be rated?• Who should rate the jobs?• What training do the rating need?• How much time is involved?• What should be the criteria for rating?• What methods of rating are to beemployed?
METHODS OF JOB RATING ANALYTICAL NON-NALYTICAL POINT FACTOR RANKING JOB- BANDINGMETHOD COMPARISON METHOD GRADING
Point Method:The system starts with the selection of jobfactors, construction of degrees for eachfactor and assignment of points to eachdegree. Different factors are selected fordifferent jobs, with accompanyingdifferences in degrees and points.
Advantages1. Simple to use if there s a small number of jobs, people, or teams to evaluate2. Requires little time3. Minimal administration required
Disadvantages1. Criteria for rating not understood2. Increases possibility of evaluator bias3. Very difficult to use if there is a large number of jobs, people or teams to evaluate4. Ratings by different evaluators are not comparable5. Distance between each rate is not necessarily equal6. May invite perceptions of inequity
SUMMARYThe job of the over-all function of theschool in the democratic society is definedas the total obligation for the education ofthe child in accord with his needs anddictates of the society.