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AP Us History: Unit 4 Study Guide
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AP Us History: Unit 4 Study Guide


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Study guide for Unit 4

Study guide for Unit 4

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  • 1. Unit 4 Study Guide: Specifics Ch.13- Jacksonian Democracy (1824-1830) Ch.14-Jacksonian Democracy (1830-1840) Ch.15-National Economy (1790-1860) Ch.16- Reform and Culture (1790-1860)
  • 2. Ch.13- The Rise of Jacksonian Democracy (1824-1830)
    • Leading Citizens- Wealthy Prominent members of gov. had o cultivate the common touch.
    • Jacksonian gov.- People’s gov. as little governing as possible, and all governing done directly by the people.
    • New Democratic Nutrient- Equalitarian ideals, people understanding of economy due to the Panic of 1819, and Miss. Compromise.
    • New Style of Politicking- Candidates made use of banners, badges, parades, brochures, free drinking, in order to get the votes.
    • Congressional Caucus- Elect pres. Candidate by senate meeting.
    • “ Corrupt Bargaining”- Adam-Clay corruption, Clay pushed all of his supporters behind Adam and when he won, Adam made Clay his secretary of state.
    • Adams Proposal- Cong. Build roads, canals, national Universities and Observatory tower.
  • 3. Ch.13 cont.
    • South Carolina Exposition- Against the tariff of 1828, S. Carolina denounced the tax as being unjust, unconstitutional and called for nullification of the tariff by the states.
    • Concept of Revolution of 1828- More common folks voting due to Universal male suffrage.
    • Spoils System- Rewarding political supporters with public offices. Built potent personalized political machine, lubricated by gifts from expected party members and % levy on office holders. Made the best fit officials not want to work in office for fear of being removed after their political candidate is out of office.
    • Robert Y. Hayne- Voice of the South in the nullification of the Tariff.
    • Daniel Webster- Voice of N.E. His reply to null. Inspired Northerners on the issue of Union.
    • Adams Land Policy- Banned Westerners who wanted native Lands land. Adams try to fairly deal with Cherokee Indians about to be removed by white settlers.
  • 4. Ch.14: Jacksonian Democracy @ Flood Tide (1830-1840)
    • Nullies- Nullifiers try to get 2/3 vote in Senate to nullify the 1828 Tariff, but the Union blocked them out.
    • Tariff of 1832- Offed the fuse of the earlier tariff, met some of the Southern demands, and reduced tax by 10%.
    • Compromise Tariff 1833- Henry Clay’s proposed Compromise to S. Carolina’s nullification, T. 1833 will reduce the Tariff 1832 by 10% over the course of 8 yrs.
    • Force Bill- (Bloody Bill) Authority of the president to use navy/army if necessary to collect federal tariff duties.
    • Clay’s Recharter Plan- Get congress to approve recharter bill then send it to W. House. If Jackson approves the bill, he will be alienated by his Western supporter. If he vetoes he will loose the support of the $ influential groups of the East in the next election.
  • 5. Ch.14 cont.
    • BUS anti-West- Hostile towards wildcat banks of the west that provided volatile paper money for land. Bank foreclosed on many W. farms and the $ went into Eastern pockets.
    • Anti-Masonic Party- Opposed Fearsome secrecy of the Masonic Order.
    • Pet Banks- banks the support Jackson. Jackson removed Fed. Funds from BUS and placed them in these banks.
    • Biddle’s Panic- Biddle Forced to replenish after looses, called in unnecessary loans to attempt to force Congress to reconsideration chartering the bank, wobblier banks driven to the wall.
    • Species Circula- Jackson decreed that all republic lands most be purchased with hard metallic chase.
    • Cherokee National Council- And attempt by the Cherokee to become “civilized” 1808 leg. A written code. 1827- Written constitution with executive leg. Judicial branches.
  • 6. Ch. 14 cont.
    • Indian removal Act 1830- Forced uprooting of millions of Natives on the East of the Miss. To reservations.
    • 5 Civilized Tribes- Cherokee, Creeks, Cactuses, Chickasaws.
    • Indian Territory- in Oklahoma, meant to forever free the Natives from removal by the Whites seeking land, but the reservation lasted only 15 yrs.
  • 7. Ch.15:Forging the National Economy (1790-1860)
    • Lone Wolf Pioneers- James F. Cooper, Natty Bumpo, Herman Melville, Captain Ahab.
    • Kentucky Blue Grass- Euro Blue grass, grows after burning cane. Blue grass is perfect for cow grazing and drew many people to Kentucky.
    • George Catlin- Painter, student of Native American life, amongst the 1 st to advocate preservation of Nature as Native policy, Proposed Natural parks which led to the National Park System.
    • Irish Potatoes Crisis- Black 40s, when potatoes crop failed in Ireland, causing famine. The mass poverty and influx of Irish in America placed them next to Jews and Africans on the social ladder.
  • 8. Ch. 15 cont.
    • Ancient Order of Hibernians- Semi secrete order founded in Ireland to protect against the feigned land lords.
    • Molly Maguire- Shadowy Irish miners union that rocked Penn. Coal district in 1860s-1870s.
    • Order of Star Spangled Banner 1849/Know-Nothings- Nativists agitated for rigid restriction on immigrations & naturalization for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers.
    • Literature of Exposure- Fiction, authors posing as escaped nuns describe chocking sins, imagine clustered concealed. (ie, secrete burials of babies)
    • Samuel Slater- Father of factory system, skilled British mechanic who memorized plans for British machines and escaped to America where he re-invented the machine.
    • Eli Whitney: Built the cotton gin in 1793
    • Interchangeable parts- Whitney developed similar muskets so 1 piece from 1 musket can fit another. The Interchangeable parts was adopted widely by 1850.
  • 9. Ch.15 cont.
    • Elias Howe- Made sewing machine in 1846. Isaac Singer perfected in and gave another boost to the Industrialization
    • Limited Liability- Help concentration of capital, investors in legal case/bankruptcy lost only the amount they put in.
    • Boston Associates- Dominated textile, railroad, insurance, and banking.
    • Working Man’s Party- Goals= 10 hr wrk day, higher wages, tolerable wrk places, pub. Education for their kids, and End to inhumane imprisonment by debtors.
    • Domestic Feminism- Women playing a large role in the decision to have fewer kids signifies growing power & influence of women wrapped in “domestic cult” and led to establishment of modern families as small, affectionate, child centered, arenas for women’s talents.
  • 10. Ch. 15 cont.
    • Commonwealth vs. Hunt- Supreme Court ruled that unions not illegal.
    • Cyrus McCormick- 1830s mechanical mover-reaper can do the work of 5 men.
    • Lancaster Turnpike- 1790s established by private company in Penn. from Philly to Lancaster.
    • National Road/Cumberland Road- 1811 from Cumberland in Maryland to Vandalia in Illinois state righter's and War of 1812 interrupted its construction but was finished in 1852.
    • Regional Specific Products- South; Cotton to N.E and O.E; West; Grain and Livestock > feed factory workers, East; Machines & Textile for South and west.
  • 11. Ch.16: The Ferment of Reform and Culture (1790-1860)
    • Deism - Rely on reason rather than revelation, science rather than bible, reject the concept of original sin & deny Christ’s divinity but believe in a supreme being.
    • Camp Meetings- 2 nd Great Awakening spread through these for several days of religious gathering, people engaged in rolling dancing, barking, and jerking.
    • Peter Cartwright- Best known Methodist circuit rider/traveling frontier preacher.
    • Succession Foreshadow- 1 st the church splits, then the political parties, and the union split. The Southern church’s succession foreshadow the Southern states succession.
    • Burned Over district- W. N.Y where many descendants of the N.E puritans settled is blistered by sermonized preaching of hellfire and damnation.
  • 12. Ch. 16 cont.
    • Brigham Youngi- (Mormons) replaced Smith after he and his bros. were murdered in 1844. He led his people to Later-Day Saints to Utah made gov. in 1850.
    • Anti-polygamy Laws- Congress passed the laws in 1862 against the Mormons practice of polygamy.
    • Little Red Schoolhouse- 1 room, 1 stove, 1 teacher, and 8 grades. Males teacher were at the time ill trained, ill tempered and low paid. Thought only reading, writing, and arithmetic.
    • Horace Mani- Secretary of Mass. Board of Edu. Campaigned for better schools, longer terms, better school houses, and pay, and more curriculums.
    • University of Virginia- 1819, by Jefferson offered freedom of religion, political shackles, and placed and emphasis on modern languages and science.
    • Susan B. Antony- Future feminist, her teachers refused to teach her division.
  • 13. Ch. 16 cont.
    • Emma Willard- Influence on respect for women’s 2nday edu. In 1800s thanks to her establishment of Troy Female Seminary.
    • Lyceum- Platform for speakers in science, literature, and moral philosophy.
    • Dorothea Dix- petition in Mass Legislator in 1843 on insanity and asylums changed the views of the mentally insane as willfully perverse to mentally ill.
    • American Peace Society- 1822 declared war on war. William Ladd delivered speeches.
    • Heavy Drinking- lowered labor efficiency, increased accidents working with machines, fouled the sanctity of the family, threaten spiritual welfare, and physical safety of children and wives.
    • American Temperance Society 1826- implored drinker sign Temperance pledge, then became more radical and called for end of alcoholism.
    • Maine Law of 1851/Prohibition Law- Neal S. Dual fathered the law, which prohibited the sale and manufacture of intoxicating liquor.
  • 14. Ch. 16 cont.
    • Women’s Rights Movement- major players= Lacertian Mott, Elizabeth C. Stanton, Susan B. Antony, etc.
    • Grimke Sisters Sarah and Angelina- encouraged anti-slavery.
    • Amelia Bloomer- Revolted against street sweeping female attire and adorned bloomers.
    • Seneca Falls Meeting- Women Right Convention 1848 began the W.R.M
    • Robert Owen- Founded the Communal society 1825 at new Harmony
    • Brook Farm. 1841 based on Brotherly and sisterly corporation of intellectuals committed to philosophy of transcendentalism.
    • Benjamin Silliman- Most influential Am. Scientist at chemistry and geology.
    • Louis Agassiz- Biologist, insist on original research deplored memory work.
    • Gilbert Stuart- Most gifted of early Am. Painters, painted Washington along with Wilson Peale.
  • 15. Ch. 16 cont.
    • Knickerbockers Group- Irvin, Fennimore, Bryant.
    • Washington Irvin- 1 st Am. to win international recognition. Stepped into traditions of N. Netherlands, pub. Knickerbockers' History of N.Y, Sleep Hallow, Rip Van Wrinkle, etc.
    • James Fennimore- 1 st Am. Novelist.
    • W.C. Bryant- Thanatopsis 1817 poem and edited the Evening post set the model for journalism.
    • Transcendentalism Movement- 1830 Liberality of straightjacket puritan theology, influence by German Romantic philosophers and Asian religions.
    • Ralf W. Emerson- Favorite of the Trans. His most brilliant wrk effort was a phi, Beta, Kappa address, he was a practical philosopher.
    • Walden and On Duty of Civil Disobedience- Influenced Ghandi, Martin Luther king on none-violent revolt.
  • 16. Ch. 16 cont.
    • Walt Whitman- Collection of Poem in Leaves of Grass.
    • Henry W. Longfellow- 1 of the most influential poets ever in Am. Only Am. Honored w/ a bust in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey.
    • James R. Lowell- Essayist, literary critic, editor and diplomat.
    • Louisa M. Alcott-Wrote Little women and others.
    • Emily Dickinson- Sparse language and simple rhyme schemes.
    • Nathaniel Hawthorne- Reflect on Calvinism obsession with original sin and struggle between good and evil.
    • Herman Melville- Moby Dick.