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Public Speaking Developing the Message
Sources of information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Journals <...
Supporting Material <ul><li>Stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical or factual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific instance...
Aids <ul><li>Supplementary aids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Public Speaking Structuring the Message
 
Introduction – PART I <ul><li>Attention-getter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor ...
Introductions: An exercise <ul><li>Pretend you are giving an informative brief about what to pack on a road trip… </li></u...
Introduction PART II <ul><li>Orienting Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Def...
Back to our exercise <ul><li>What would be appropriate orienting material for our “road trip” speech? </li></ul>
Introduction – PART II <ul><li>Central idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates you purpose and what you want from your listen...
 
Body <ul><li>Spatial :  Set a point of reference at a specific location and follow a geographic pattern </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Body <ul><li>Causal:  Shows how two or more events are connected in such a way that if one occurs, the other will necessar...
Our road trip speech <ul><li>How could we best arrange the body of our road trip speech? What makes the most sense? </li><...
Transitions  (a.k.a. the thing I might most grill you on) <ul><li>Summarize/restate the previous statement  </li></ul><ul>...
Transitions (examples) <ul><li>Now that you know what I’ll be talking about, let me begin with my first main point. </li><...
 
Conclusion <ul><li>Summary of major points </li></ul><ul><li>Clincher  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last line of the speech, make...
Your turn
Audience analysis <ul><li>My audience is ___ (race, age, male to female ratio, values, beliefs) </li></ul><ul><li>I want m...
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Chapter 12 and 13 - Public Speaking Developing And Structuring The Message

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Presentation created for COMM 107 - Oral Communication: Principles and Practice

University of Maryland

Source: Communication: A Social and Career Focus by Berko, Wolvin & Wolvin

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Transcript of "Chapter 12 and 13 - Public Speaking Developing And Structuring The Message"

  1. 1. Public Speaking Developing the Message
  2. 2. Sources of information <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Government publications </li></ul><ul><li>Special interest group pubs </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprint media: video, audio </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Internet searches </li></ul><ul><li>The thing with Wikipedia </li></ul>REMEMBER YOU NEED TO CITE THREE SOURCES ORALLY DURING YOUR SPEECH AND REFERENCE THEM IN YOUR OUTLINE
  3. 3. Supporting Material <ul><li>Stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical or factual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific instances </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Analogies </li></ul><ul><li>Testimony </li></ul>INCORPORATE THESE INTO YOUR ARGUMENTS
  4. 4. Aids <ul><li>Supplementary aids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts, diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mockups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video aids </li></ul></ul>DON’T LET THESE REPLACE YOU
  5. 5. Public Speaking Structuring the Message
  6. 7. Introduction – PART I <ul><li>Attention-getter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor / Play-on-words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical or action questions with statements to follow-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual or dramatic devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes related to topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ So, I’m going to be speaking about” is not a good introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State your name but your name alone should not be your introductory statement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Introductions: An exercise <ul><li>Pretend you are giving an informative brief about what to pack on a road trip… </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with: </li></ul>A GOOD ATTENTION-GETTING INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT A BAD ATTENTION-GETTING INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT
  8. 9. Introduction PART II <ul><li>Orienting Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal history of tie to the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you qualified to present the information? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does this topic affect the audience? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Back to our exercise <ul><li>What would be appropriate orienting material for our “road trip” speech? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Introduction – PART II <ul><li>Central idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates you purpose and what you want from your listeners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should always be part of the introduction </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Body <ul><li>Spatial : Set a point of reference at a specific location and follow a geographic pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Financial tax base of the state of Maryland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time: Order information from a beginning point to an ending one with all the steps developed in a numerical or time sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Development of mobile technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topical: Ideas are organized on the basis of their similarities or other relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Board games – multi-player elimination, multi-player no elimination, economics and strategy, physical skills, children’s </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Body <ul><li>Causal: Shows how two or more events are connected in such a way that if one occurs, the other will necessarily follow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: How a well-developed resume can get you your dream job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison-contrast: Shows difference and similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Community colleges vs. Four-year institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem-solution: Speaker identifies a problem and attempts to determine how to solve it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Local shelters are the way to eradicatie homelessness </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Our road trip speech <ul><li>How could we best arrange the body of our road trip speech? What makes the most sense? </li></ul>
  14. 16. Transitions (a.k.a. the thing I might most grill you on) <ul><li>Summarize/restate the previous statement </li></ul><ul><li>(Exception: First transition) and forecast the next one </li></ul>
  15. 17. Transitions (examples) <ul><li>Now that you know what I’ll be talking about, let me begin with my first main point. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many health issues caused by smoking. I plan to discuss two of them. </li></ul><ul><li>When I began this speech, I told you the story about my immigrant grandfather. Now that I’m about to conclude my remarks, I want to tell you of his motto. “He always said…” </li></ul><ul><li>While the problem of American dependence of foreign oil is large and significant, I believe that there is a solution that we can easily implement. My proposal will reduce oil consumption while also promoting a sense of community. We should provide tax incentives for those who carpool. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus far we have seen that the second World War was fought on the air and on the land. Now I’d like to turn out attention to the war on the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Before I conclude my speech, are there any questions? </li></ul>
  16. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>Summary of major points </li></ul><ul><li>Clincher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last line of the speech, make it memorable… but NOT FLUFF! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ That’s it” or “I’m done” are not good clinchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good technique is to tie your clincher back to your attention-getting introductory statement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Your turn
  18. 21. Audience analysis <ul><li>My audience is ___ (race, age, male to female ratio, values, beliefs) </li></ul><ul><li>I want my audience to understand ____ as a result of my message </li></ul><ul><li>My audience’s relationship to this message should be ___ </li></ul><ul><li>My audience already knows ____ about my topic </li></ul><ul><li>My audience will want or need to hear ____ </li></ul><ul><li>My audience may not understand or need to know ___ so I may leave it out </li></ul><ul><li>My audience may like, enjoy or appreciate ______ </li></ul><ul><li>My audience may not like, enjoy or appreciate ______ </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Outlines

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