Saving A Byte


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  • Saving A Byte

    1. 1. How to Save a Byte Information Technology Standards Electronic Records Management Conference Gina Strack Utah State Archives
    2. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The archives should articulate requirements for preservation and accessibility to ensure that archival records remain available, accessible, and understandable through time. </li></ul><ul><li>International Council on Archives, Electronic Records Workbook (2005) </li></ul>
    3. 4. Scope <ul><li>WHAT (retention schedules) </li></ul><ul><li>WHY (the law) </li></ul><ul><li>HOW: Long-term preservation* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*beyond the life of the original software or media, includes PERMANENT </li></ul>
    4. 5. Basic Requirements <ul><li>authentic; </li></ul><ul><li>complete; </li></ul><ul><li>accessible and understandable; </li></ul><ul><li>processable; and </li></ul><ul><li>potentially reusable </li></ul><ul><li>Source: International Council on Archives </li></ul>
    5. 6. Authentic <ul><li>The electronic record is what it claims to be </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dates (creation, receipt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applicable process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>part of a larger system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a comment on content of record </li></ul>
    6. 7. Complete <ul><li>Nothing added or removed inappropriately </li></ul>
    7. 8. Methods <ul><li>Plan systems, technology, formats & specifications well </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of available standards </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation vs. Access (more later) </li></ul>
    8. 9. Formats <ul><li>The ideal preservation format is: </li></ul><ul><li>stable and standardized </li></ul><ul><li>free of patent rights (public domain) </li></ul><ul><li>as simple as possible </li></ul><ul><li>fully self-descriptive, not dependent on external sources </li></ul><ul><li>suitable for containing structured and self-selected metadata </li></ul><ul><li>fully documented (open specification) </li></ul><ul><li>not application or platform based, but easily exchangeable </li></ul><ul><li>used and implemented widely </li></ul><ul><li>easy to implement and to check for errors (validation) </li></ul><ul><li>Digitale Archivering in Vlaamse Instellingen en Diensten (DAVID) Project [Antwerp City Archives] </li></ul>
    9. 10. Images - TIFF <ul><li>T agged I mage F ile F ormat </li></ul><ul><li>Uncompressed or Lossless compression available </li></ul><ul><li>Widely supported </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Documented specification </li></ul><ul><li>Large file sizes, end-users sometimes cannot view </li></ul>
    10. 11. Images - JPEG <ul><li>Avoid if possible! </li></ul><ul><li>“ lossy” compression = unrecoverable information </li></ul><ul><li>Small file size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>derivative or access images </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Preservation vs. Access <ul><li>Separate standards and formats for separate functions </li></ul><ul><li>Access methods (printing, copying, viewing on the web…) change and will keep changing </li></ul><ul><li>Plan from beginning how to handle both </li></ul>
    12. 13. Text <ul><li>Recommended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XHTML, HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SGML </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TXT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word DOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library and Archives Canada. Guidelines for Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards </li></ul>
    13. 14. XML <ul><li>Open international standard </li></ul><ul><li>Successor to HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, e X tensible </li></ul><ul><li>Programming and Formatting available (XQuery, XSLT, style sheets) </li></ul>
    14. 15. XML Examples <ul><li>iTunes music and movie information </li></ul><ul><li>Medical records exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation fleets </li></ul><ul><li>Online descriptions of Archives records (“finding aids”) </li></ul><ul><li>… and thousands more </li></ul>
    15. 16. Reading XML <ul><li><library> </li></ul><ul><li><book> </li></ul><ul><li><title>Harry Potter</title> </li></ul><ul><li><author>J.K. Rowling</author> </li></ul><ul><li></book> </li></ul><ul><li></library> </li></ul>“ tags” can be anything though often defined by industry- or platform-specific standards nested tags for structure
    16. 17. PDF <ul><li>Preserves original layout & format </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary (Adobe) though openly documented </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread use </li></ul>
    17. 18. PDF/A <ul><li>International Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 19005-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latest version July 10, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted by National Archives for permanent Federal records </li></ul><ul><li>Based on PDF 1.4 (~ Reader 5.0) </li></ul><ul><li>“developed to allow PDF to be used as an archival format” </li></ul>
    18. 19. Archives Digital Collections <ul><li>Master TIFF </li></ul><ul><li>Display JPEG (smaller dimensions) </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata (description of content, creation & process) in XML </li></ul>
    19. 20. Summary <ul><li>open standards </li></ul><ul><li>uncompressed </li></ul><ul><li>will not alter record </li></ul><ul><li>minimum tools/software to use </li></ul>
    20. 21. References <ul><li>Brown, D. L. (2004). Library and Archives Canada: Guidelines on Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards. </li></ul><ul><li>International Council on Archives. (2005). Electronic records: A workbook for archivists. </li></ul><ul><li>National Archives. NARA Electronic Records Management (ERM) Guidance on the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>All references linked on “Resources for Further Study” on Archives’ Electronic Records web page: </li></ul>
    21. 22. Fine <ul><li>Gina Strack </li></ul><ul><li>Utah State Archives </li></ul><ul><li>801.531.3843 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>