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Saving A Byte
 

Saving A Byte

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Saving A Byte Saving A Byte Presentation Transcript

  • How to Save a Byte Information Technology Standards Electronic Records Management Conference Gina Strack Utah State Archives
  •  
  • Introduction
    • The archives should articulate requirements for preservation and accessibility to ensure that archival records remain available, accessible, and understandable through time.
    • International Council on Archives, Electronic Records Workbook (2005)
  • Scope
    • WHAT (retention schedules)
    • WHY (the law)
    • HOW: Long-term preservation*
      • Requirements
      • Methods
      • Formats
    • *beyond the life of the original software or media, includes PERMANENT
  • Basic Requirements
    • authentic;
    • complete;
    • accessible and understandable;
    • processable; and
    • potentially reusable
    • Source: International Council on Archives
  • Authentic
    • The electronic record is what it claims to be
    • Examples
      • dates (creation, receipt)
      • applicable process
      • part of a larger system
    • Not a comment on content of record
  • Complete
    • Nothing added or removed inappropriately
  • Methods
    • Plan systems, technology, formats & specifications well
    • Be aware of available standards
    • Preservation vs. Access (more later)
  • Formats
    • The ideal preservation format is:
    • stable and standardized
    • free of patent rights (public domain)
    • as simple as possible
    • fully self-descriptive, not dependent on external sources
    • suitable for containing structured and self-selected metadata
    • fully documented (open specification)
    • not application or platform based, but easily exchangeable
    • used and implemented widely
    • easy to implement and to check for errors (validation)
    • Digitale Archivering in Vlaamse Instellingen en Diensten (DAVID) Project [Antwerp City Archives]
  • Images - TIFF
    • T agged I mage F ile F ormat
    • Uncompressed or Lossless compression available
    • Widely supported
    • Independent of operating system
    • Documented specification
    • Large file sizes, end-users sometimes cannot view
  • Images - JPEG
    • Avoid if possible!
    • “ lossy” compression = unrecoverable information
    • Small file size
      • derivative or access images
  • Preservation vs. Access
    • Separate standards and formats for separate functions
    • Access methods (printing, copying, viewing on the web…) change and will keep changing
    • Plan from beginning how to handle both
  • Text
    • Recommended
      • XML
      • XHTML, HTML
      • SGML
    • Acceptable
      • TXT
      • Word DOC
      • PDF
    • Library and Archives Canada. Guidelines for Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards
  • XML
    • Open international standard
    • Successor to HTML
    • Structured
    • Flexible, e X tensible
    • Programming and Formatting available (XQuery, XSLT, style sheets)
  • XML Examples
    • iTunes music and movie information
    • Medical records exchange
    • Transportation fleets
    • Online descriptions of Archives records (“finding aids”)
    • … and thousands more
  • Reading XML
    • <library>
    • <book>
    • <title>Harry Potter</title>
    • <author>J.K. Rowling</author>
    • </book>
    • </library>
    “ tags” can be anything though often defined by industry- or platform-specific standards nested tags for structure
  • PDF
    • Preserves original layout & format
    • Proprietary (Adobe) though openly documented
    • Widespread use
  • PDF/A
    • International Standard
      • ISO 19005-1
    • Latest version July 10, 2006
    • Adopted by National Archives for permanent Federal records
    • Based on PDF 1.4 (~ Reader 5.0)
    • “developed to allow PDF to be used as an archival format”
  • Archives Digital Collections
    • Master TIFF
    • Display JPEG (smaller dimensions)
    • Metadata (description of content, creation & process) in XML
  • Summary
    • open standards
    • uncompressed
    • will not alter record
    • minimum tools/software to use
  • References
    • Brown, D. L. (2004). Library and Archives Canada: Guidelines on Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards.
    • International Council on Archives. (2005). Electronic records: A workbook for archivists.
    • National Archives. NARA Electronic Records Management (ERM) Guidance on the Web. http://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/initiatives/erm-guidance.html
    • All references linked on “Resources for Further Study” on Archives’ Electronic Records web page: http://archives.utah.gov/main/index.php?module=Pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=201
  • Fine
    • Gina Strack
    • Utah State Archives
    • 801.531.3843
    • [email_address]