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Transcript

  • 1. Food Production Sarah Marshall Honors Capstone
  • 2. 2005 United Nations
    • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
      • “ Agriculture may be the largest threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function of any single human activity.”
  • 3. World Hunger
    • 12 preschool children in developing countries die every minute from hunger and malnutrition
    • 5 million children under 5 years of age die each year
    • The cost of childhood diseases in developing countries account for 20-25% of their economic budgets
  • 4. World Hunger
    • 850 million people in the world lack adequate food
    • 75% of which are in developing nations
    • African and Asian-pacific nations are the significant leaders
  • 5. Food Security
    • Is the ability of individuals to obtain sufficient food on a day-to-day basis
    • More than 6 million people rely on food grown on 11% of the earth
    • Out of this 11% only 3% is fertile soil
  • 6. Our Agriculture
    • A gallon of oil = one pound of beef
    • 2500 gallons of water = one pound of beef
    • Cows defecate 65 pounds per day
    • 10 pounds of grain yields one pound of cow
  • 7. Our Agriculture
    • 16% of greenhouse gasses come from our agriculture
    • 1 billion pounds of pesticides are used each year
    • $14 billion a year are given to industrial farmers
    • Farm run-off had poisoned ground water in 17 states and polluted 35,000 miles of rivers
  • 8. Soil
    • 25 billion tons of soil are lost annually in the US alone
    • This is the area size of the US and Canada
    • Renewable, develops from underlying parent material but takes 500 years in order to be useable
  • 9. Soil Solutions
    • Minimum Tillage
      • Leaves crop residues on land
      • Greatly reduces soil erosion
      • Only used on 38% of US cropland
    • Cover Crops
      • Sustainable tools to manage soil fertility, soil quality, water, weeds, pests, diseases, and increasing diversity and wildlife
      • “ Green manures”
      • Leguminous
  • 10. Agriculture Pollution
    • Heating animal homes
    • Fertilizers
    • Fuel and emissions from tractors
    • Fuel to make tractors
    • Fuel used in grain production
    • Fuel used to dry grain
    • Transportation / distribution to supermarkets
    • Driving to supermarkets and driving home
    • Using energy to prepare food for consumption
  • 11. Possible Solutions
    • Organic Farming
      • On the rise
    • Green Revolution
      • Used successfully in Mexico and India
    • Genetically Modified
      • Golden rice
  • 12. Organic
    • Less than 1% of the US is organic farming
    • Can support local demands; buy local
    • Labor intensive: can create jobs
    • Must have special certification
    • Since the early 1900s organic food production has growth rates of 20% a year in developed and developing nations
    • April 2008 organic food accounts of 1-2% food sales worldwide
  • 13. Green Revolution
    • Started after WWII and was funded by the Rockefeller Foundation
    • Worldwide effort to improve the productivity of wheat and rice by selecting the high yield varieties
    • First used in Mexico then India adopted the same strategies
    • Numerous attempts to implement in Africa but unsuccessful due to:
      • Widespread corruption
      • Insecurity
      • Lack of infrastructure
      • Lack of governmental concern
      • Availability of water for irrigation
      • Diversity of soil types
      • Inability to place rice in the farmer’s hands
  • 14. Continuing the Green Revolution by Borlaug in 2007 The Wall Street Journal
    • Tools of biotechnology to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and biofuels
    • Plant breeders have problems with:
      • Saline conditions
      • Resisting diseases and insects
      • Droughts and water logging
      • Distressed climates
  • 15. Bittersweet Harvest by Hsin in 2002 Harvard International Review
    • Genetically modified (GM) crops
    • Recently FDA reconsidered policies; in the past allergenicity safety tests were not mandated
    • For almost a decade the US government made no distinction between GM crops and organically grown crops
    • Could wipeout hunger; especially in countries such as India where the population grows by 20 million every year
    • Most potent risk of GM crops: uncontrolled breeding and introduction of foreign genes into the natural ecosystem
  • 16. Deflating the World’s Bubble Economy by Brown in 2003 USA Today Magazine
    • Food is the most vulnerable sector
      • National security threats
      • Terrorists treats
    • Worldwide
      • More than 100 countries import wheat and 40 import rice
      • Only 6 countries supply 90% of grain: US, Canada, France, Australia, Argentina, and Thailand
      • World’s poor spends 70% of income on food
  • 17. World’s Bubble Economy
    • Climate change
      • The highest temperatures in 11,000 years
      • Exhausted soils
      • Widespread aquifer depletion
      • Loss of irrigation water unknown to previous generations
    • Natural disasters
      • Destructive storms
      • Deadly heat waves
      • Collapsing fisheries
      • Melting of polar ice caps
  • 18. Will the World Be Able to Feed Itself in the Foreseeable Future?
    • 2006 FAO reported food demand growth will rise 1.5% each year for the next 30 years
    • Future problems include:
      • Producing enough food for 67% of population
      • Ridding of chronic malnutrition to world’s poor
  • 19. Will the World Be Able to Feed Itself in the Foreseeable Future?
    • YES
    • Global food production can keep pace with hunger via policies set in place by governments and organizations
    • NO
    • Decreasing grain harvests, growing populations, dwindling fisheries and the continuing problem of poverty
  • 20. The Great Debate Topic: Universal Standards of Living and Global Sustainability
  • 21. The Great Debate
    • Basic human entitlements should be:
      • Food
      • Water
      • Health
      • Energy
  • 22. The Great Debate
    • Question 1:
    • The effects and influences of technology on human entitlements .
    • Will it save or kill us?
  • 23. The Great Debate Question 1
    • Pro
    • Is technology the solution?
    • Water
      • Desalination
      • Reverse osmosis
      • Distilment
    • Alternative energy
    • GM food
    • Con
    • Is technology the problem?
    • Pollution
    • Climate change
    • Rain forests
    • Dirty drinking water
    • Garbage in the oceans
    • World hunger
  • 24. The Great Debate
    • Question 2:
    • The incentives for improving human entitlements .
    • Capitalism or intrinsic motivators?
  • 25. The Great Debate Question 2
    • Pro
    • Better incentives to work toward solutions.
    • Little money now compared to lots of money later
    • War is bad
    • Problems grow and spread
      • Disease to plagues
      • Hunger to starvation
    • Con
    • Are profits the only motivators that will last and truly work?
    • Government and organizational programs come and go
    • Mankind is greedy
  • 26. References
    • Borlaug, Norman, E (2008). Continuing the green revolution. Global Issues , 24 , 39-40.
    • Brown, Lester, R (2008). Deflating the world’s bubble economy. Global Issues, 24, 46-48.
    • Gulnick, Jeanne (2008). Ecology class. Saint Joseph’s College of Maine. Standish, ME.
    • Hart, J. E. & Lombardi, M. O (2009). Will the world be able to feed itself in the foreseeable future? Taking Sides, 5, 112-127.
    • Hsin, Honor (2008). Bittersweet harvest. Global Issues, 24, 41-43.