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  1. 1. Reconnecting Journalism and Citizens (and a little bit about Diversity) From Elements chapter 11
  2. 2. “ Reconnecting journalism and citizens ” implies a disconnect. Do you pay attention to mainstream media?
  3. 4. Demassification.
  4. 5. Plus, you can watch TV for free anytime you want.
  5. 6. <ul><li>Gone are the days of news having a large common denominator. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Here are 2009 stats: <ul><li>The evening network news lost 2.5% of their audience as compared to the prior year, and the three network newscasts only draw 22 million people per night ( in 1980, they drew 55 million; in 2000, they drew more than 33 million ). </li></ul><ul><li>Local broadcast news is losing viewership steadily (though still making money). </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper circulations declined 10.6 percent from 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>After cutbacks, Time magazine has half the staff (147 people) than it had in 2003. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The country is actually growing in population. So where did the consumers of journalism go?
  8. 10. Some days, more people in Philadelphia watch The Daily Show at 11:00 pm than watch the Philadelphia news stations.
  9. 11. Sometimes Seinfeld reruns get a larger audience than CBS3 news at 11 pm.
  10. 12. Celebrities are our greatest common denominator.
  11. 13. So what?
  12. 14. Everything is changing. Largely because of technology.
  13. 15. It is vital that we get information. The more you know, the better your life can be. For real.
  14. 16. Is there a problem with information not being delivered via the traditional modes? Is the Internet screwing everything up?
  15. 17. Or is technology making life better?
  16. 18. Journalism isn’t dead. It’s evolving .
  17. 19. The one constant? Journalism is a business .
  18. 20. But that doesn’t mean that citizens are customers. Readers, viewers and listeners are not customers.
  19. 21. Citizens should be considered consumers . Customer does not equal consumer.
  20. 22. What’s the difference between consumer and a customer ?
  21. 23. A customer purchases. A consumer absorbs . If you work for a customer, your goal is to sell a product.
  22. 24. Journalists work for the citizens . Your media outlet may cut you checks but your ultimate duty is to the citizens.
  23. 25. The Fourth Estate. Executive. Legislative. Judicial. Journalists.
  24. 26. Journalism is not marketing. <ul><li>Do you put celebrities on the cover of magazines because it is the most important story of the week? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you put the Lindsay Vonn on the cover because she will sell mags? </li></ul><ul><li>( by the way, she was an Olympic champion skier ). </li></ul>
  25. 27. What are the criteria that should go into news decisions? <ul><li>Relevance? </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict/ controversy/ disaster? </li></ul><ul><li>Human interest/ drama? </li></ul><ul><li>Unusualness? </li></ul><ul><li>Impact? </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity? </li></ul><ul><li>Prominence? </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness? </li></ul>
  26. 28. How do you decide what is the main news? <ul><li>Is there drama? Conflict? Human interest? Prominence? Timeliness? </li></ul><ul><li>NOT will it sell papers and mags, and draw viewers to television and online outlets? </li></ul>
  27. 29. Again, our celebrities are our common bond, the greatest common denominator. Thus the “ branding ” of celebrities and the cult of personality.
  28. 30. <ul><li>Brian Williams is now the face of NBC network news. </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Brian Williams is now the face of NBC network news. </li></ul><ul><li>And he hosted NBC’s Saturday Night Live last year. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Brian Williams is now the face of NBC network news. </li></ul><ul><li>And he hosted NBC’s Saturday Night Live last year. </li></ul><ul><li>Is that a conflict or smart marketing? </li></ul>
  31. 33. Understand how to make good decisions, and appreciate how decisions were made. Be analytical .
  32. 34. The principles of journalism: <ul><li>Journalism’s first obligation is to the truth. </li></ul><ul><li>Our loyalty is to the citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Journalism is a discipline of verification. </li></ul><ul><li>We must remain independent. </li></ul><ul><li>We must be an independent monitor of power. </li></ul>
  33. 35. The principles, part II: <ul><li>We provide a forum for public criticism and compromise. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a duty to make the significant interesting and relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>We must be comprehensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists must have a conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens are a vital part of journalism. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Why do we see certain things?
  35. 37. And we don’t see other things?
  36. 38. There is a decision process behind every image. Why create these images? Is there a purpose in showing these images?
  37. 39. <ul><li>Is there a benefit to society in seeing an image like this? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this image make the significant seem interesting and relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it intrusive? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it exploitative? </li></ul>
  38. 40. Does an image like this only alienate the public? We can’t afford to lose more of our audience.
  39. 41. Reasons the public has moved away from the press: <ul><li>Technology (the Internet). </li></ul><ul><li>Greater number of options. </li></ul><ul><li>Journalistic fraud. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived exploitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Partisan coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust overall. </li></ul>
  40. 42. What do we need to do to reconnect to the public?
  41. 43. It begins with diversity , specifically diversity of thought. Let’s call it, “ Intellectual Diversity .”
  42. 44. Journalists have an obligation to be comprehensive. It’s a principle of journalism, you know.
  43. 45. By the 1980’s, newspaper advertising was really hurt by television. So newspapers sought a niche audience: the better educated and wealthier.
  44. 46. Newspapers became vehicles for advertisers to reach the wealthy. TV and radio are for a blue-collar audience.
  45. 47. Magazines started targeting niche audiences in the 1960’s.
  46. 48. The economics of journalism became a huge decision factor in the mid-1980’s. After the arrival of USA Today, Fox and CNN.
  47. 49. To make greater profits, staffs were reduced.
  48. 50. Fewer staffers meant that not every community could be covered.
  49. 51. Serving wealthier audiences meant that poorer communities didn’t receive as much coverage.
  50. 52. Which gets us to where we are today. The only time we hear about many communities is when bad things happen.
  51. 53. Is journalism comprehensive? Can it be?
  52. 54. Where do you begin to be comprehensive?
  53. 55. It begins by having a comprehensive staff with diverse people. Diversity does not just mean black and white .
  54. 56. By diversity, we mean: <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of thought (lifestyle) </li></ul>
  55. 57. Intellectual diversity . We, as a society, should be open to ideas.
  56. 58. Academic Freedom ? <ul><li>David Horowitz says that Temple is not diverse at all; the university espouses only left wing ideology. </li></ul>
  57. 59. When mainstream media bypasses groups and communities, niche media arises.
  58. 60. Opportunity.
  59. 61. Fox News? <ul><li>Their evening shows, which are geared toward conservative audiences , increased their audiences by 25 percent in 2009 from 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>(They average around 2 million people during the evening). </li></ul>
  60. 62. Niche media? <ul><li>BET </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia Tribune </li></ul><ul><li>MiND TV (Philly public television) </li></ul><ul><li>The Defenestrator </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia Weekly/ Philadelphia City Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Westside Weekly </li></ul>
  61. 63. Temple Journalism Department’s mission: <ul><li>To develop critical-thinking journalists who can communicate creatively in a multimedia environment and remain sensitive to the diversity of perspectives within urban , underrepresented communities of our increasingly multicultural world. </li></ul>
  62. 64. Diversity goes beyond ethnicity, race and gender. <ul><li>Ideological diversity (religion, political, lifestyle, special interests, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Social class diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Age diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual diversity is intensely difficult to foster because of the hierarchical structure of media operations. </li></ul>
  63. 65. The difficulty is that people like people who agree with them. It’s human nature.
  64. 66. Society is not homogenous. And journalism shouldn’t be either.
  65. 67. Media outlets need to foster the “ journalistic culture .” Newsrooms should buzz with discussion about issues facing journalism .
  66. 69. The best way for journalists to connect with the public? Invite the public’s participation .
  67. 70. Now more than ever, journalism can be a forum for debate.
  68. 71. How can the public get involved? <ul><li>CNN’s I-Reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on </li></ul><ul><li>online stories. </li></ul><ul><li>• Start your own damn </li></ul><ul><li>blog or website. </li></ul><ul><li>Write to stations and </li></ul><ul><li>publications with story </li></ul><ul><li>suggestions. </li></ul>
  69. 72. The danger with getting citizens involved is that we don’t know who we can trust. Any clown can be a publisher.
  70. 74. Which is why it is important for everyone to be an educated consumer of the media.
  71. 75. And why everyone should be a journalism major. ( Plus, the journalism department awarded $43,000 to journalism students two weeks ago ).
  72. 76. Journalism is the greatest job in the world.
  73. 77. Journalism is the greatest job in the world. Seriously .
  74. 78. Journalism is a business. Sadly.
  75. 79. But being a journalist is still a noble occupation.
  76. 81. In theory, we are the educators of the public at large.
  77. 82. It is a great privilege to be a journalist.
  78. 84. The rewards of journalism aren’t the paychecks.
  79. 89. We have the ability to bring change . We can help people .
  80. 90. We can shed light on the positives of society. The news shouldn’t always be bad stuff . The bad stuff is generally just easier to report.
  81. 92. The job of the journalist is to teach the audience about the world around them . Journalism = entertaining + informing
  82. 94. Everyday is different.
  83. 96. Journalists meet amazing people and see amazing things.
  84. 97. It is absolutely humbling. You think you know something and the reality is, you don’t know a thing .
  85. 99. Being a journalist has taught me to appreciate every day. I am in awe of existence.
  86. 104. The things I have seen and experienced have shaped my personal character.
  87. 105. Objectivity is a goal but the reality is that we are all humans with unique backgrounds.
  88. 107. You have a duty to tell the truth and to be comprehensive . And you should have a conscience .
  89. 108. Remember: A journalist is part of the community. Don’t just keep your stuff here.
  90. 109. Take part in the life of your community. Get involved .
  91. 110. Have a positive impact on your community. Get involved .
  92. 111. Unsolicited advice from Geo: <ul><li>Do it yourself . </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t ever blame anyone else. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the best of every situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Take control of your life and your future . </li></ul><ul><li>Speak up. Always have a voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Think three steps ahead. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: “now” is temporary . </li></ul>
  93. 112. Whatever your career path may be, get started on it now . ( You can always change paths later ).
  94. 113. The job market sucks.
  95. 114. But that just means there are opportunities for aggressive, entrepreneurial people.
  96. 115. Do it yourself. Seriously.
  97. 116. If I can ever help you with anything - school, internships, jobs, crafting resumes, writing cover letters, stories for other classes - drop me a line . [email_address]
  98. 117. Test #3: here on Tuesday (5/11) @ 10:30 am . <ul><li>Vivian chapter 11: Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Vivian 12: Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Vivian 19: Media & Government </li></ul><ul><li>Elements 8: Celebrity journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Elements 9: Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Elements 11: Reconnecting journalism and citizens </li></ul>
  99. 118. Plus: <ul><li>Info from Eugene Kane. </li></ul><ul><li>Info from Jackie Larma. </li></ul><ul><li>Info from Kelly George </li></ul><ul><li>And current event stuff: Temple nurses’ strike, Eyjafjallajokull, Arizona’s new immigration law, Goldman Sachs, Lower Merion School District webcam scandal, Usain Bolt, etc. </li></ul>
  100. 119. A primer will be on BlackBoard by next Thursday. Do not miss the test! There will be no make-up chances.
  101. 120. Evaluations! <ul><li>Our evaluations are online. I’ll email the link and post it to BlackBoard. </li></ul><ul><li>Please take your time and offer thoughts on the class … good and/ or bad. They help me prepare the class for the future. </li></ul><ul><li>This is your chance to have a voice. </li></ul>
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