What do you think it might mean to sell either difference or sameness?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0A1n18oL5QA What kind of image does this ad want us to associate with the new Sienna? What symbols are used to convey this image? Why do you think the ad’s creators decided to use humor in this way? Are they selling sameness or difference or both?
Ritual has a double meaning. It can refer to any act performed regularly, but also to the symbolic meaning behind an act as in religious rituals.
Now that we have in our minds these two models of communication, I want to take a step back and talk about the history of advertising, especially as it relates to journalism. How many people watch Mad Men? What do you like about it? The show depicts the rise of the creative side of advertising, the first season takes place in 1960s. Discuss rational vs. emotional appeals.
“ Figure 1. This advertisement came from the newspaper that Claude Hopkins's father pub- lished in Ludington, Michigan. It exemplifies the limited visual and verbal techniques employed by most advertisers at the time. From Mason County Record, Sept. 16, 1874, p. 4.”
“ Figure 2. Patent medicines such as Dodd’s Nervine were among the first products adver- tised extensively on a national basis. From Mason County Record, Sept. 17, 1873, p. 3.”
“ Figure 3. The vermilion wood campaign that Claude Hopkins created for Bissell Carpet Sweepers attempted to create an aura of exoticism, style, luxury, and innovation for the product. The advertisement says nothing about the sweeper's functional capabilities. From Ladies’ Home Journal, Nov. 1893, p. 29.”
“ The Figure 4. Earnest Elmo Calkins won a national contest with this design for Bissell Carpet Sweepers. Within a few months, he left his hometown to pursue a career in advertising. From Galesburg Evening Mail, Dec. 9, 1895, p. 8.”
Even if you don’t know anything about the history of advertising, looking back on the history of the 20 th century, what do you think are some events that would have helped shape advertising as we now know it? What would have helped it grow or caused some decline? “ As assembly-line jobs made work life more bland and meaningless, industry promoted the consumer way of life as the means to happiness.”
The name itself was a bit of a stretch. His father was not really in business with him.
There are a million ways to reach potential customers, but not one way to reach huge masses like in the old days.
What are the goals of each?
Why is Black Friday a story journalists might want to tell?
From the NYT: “This weekend, news reports were full of finger-wagging over the death by trampling of a temporary worker, Jdimytai Damour, at a Wal-Mart store in Long Island on Friday. His death, the coverage suggested, was a symbol of a broken culture of consumerism in which people would do anything for a bargain.” “But on the run-up, Newsday offered a “Black Friday blueprint,” with store openings listed so shoppers could plot strategy, including noting that at 5 a.m., the Green Acres Wal-Mart would open and customers could expect to buy a 42-inch LCD television for $598. Many continued to pursue that particular bargain even as Mr. Damour lay dying.”
Critique: Makes you buy things you do not really need or want. Promotes materialistic values. Again, requires prosperous, capitalist, democracy in order to thrive. Defense: Caters to needs already present in the consumer (biological, self-esteem, self-actualization). Educates and provides information about needed goods and services. Advertising simply reflects the values of U.S. capitalism. Allows business to provide products and services.
But, journalists can also act as watchdogs, revealing these kinds of connections to readers.
Video at http://ffh.films.com/PreviewClip.aspx?id=15137
Time and space constraints of ads mean that they need to find the fastest way to tell the story. Stereotypes convey meaning quickly. They are reliable in that they evoke common meaning by definition. They may be attached to cultural values and norms, which may help the advertiser sell their product.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKI4t5MFG1E&feature=related Who is the target audience? What shared meaning does the ad rely on? What other media genre does it borrow from? What does it want the audience to feel? What does it want the audience to think?
1. Advertising and Culture: Selling Difference, Selling Sameness
2. “ dark spot corrector” COSMOPOLITAN MAY 2010
3. “ Natural never looked so beautiful” COSMOPOLITAN MAY 2010
4. “Break Free” ESQUIRE APRIL 2010
5. “ BARBADOS CHERRY infused with TORCHED PLANT ALOE” ESQUIRE APRIL 2010
6. “ Turning eyeglasses into My Glasses” NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC APRIL 2010
7. The New Sienna
8. The Ritual Theory of Communication What do we mean by “ritual?”
9. “ Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed.” -James Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society, first published in 1989
10. Two Models of Communication Image: http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Theory/models.html
11. What does this mean for advertising?
12. As participants in a culture, advertisers rely on the cultural meanings of symbols. This means ads reflect AND create culture.
13. But, while advertisers have goals they want to accomplish with their ads, they never fully control the meaning that other participants create or recreate.
14. “ The basis of advertising is not what products are being sold, but what dreams are being sold.” -Sut Jhally, Professor of Communication, University of Massachusetts
15. What dreams are being sold? ESQUIRE APRIL 2010
16. What dreams are being sold? ESQUIRE APRIL 2010
17. The Rise of Advertising
18. THE MASON COUNTY RECORD Ludington, Michigan SEPT 16, 1874 Rob Schorman, "Claude Hopkins, Earnest Calkins, Bissell Carpet Sweepers and the Birth of Modern Advertising," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era April 2008 <http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jga/7.2/schorman.html> (19 Apr. 2010).
19. THE MASON COUNTY RECORD Ludington, Michigan SEPT 17, 1873 Rob Schorman, "Claude Hopkins, Earnest Calkins, Bissell Carpet Sweepers and the Birth of Modern Advertising," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era April 2008 <http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jga/7.2/schorman.html> (19 Apr. 2010).
20. LADIES’ HOME JOURNAL NOV 1893 Rob Schorman, "Claude Hopkins, Earnest Calkins, Bissell Carpet Sweepers and the Birth of Modern Advertising," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era April 2008 <http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jga/7.2/schorman.html> (19 Apr. 2010).
21. GALESBURG EVENING MAIL DEC 9, 1895 Rob Schorman, "Claude Hopkins, Earnest Calkins, Bissell Carpet Sweepers and the Birth of Modern Advertising," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era April 2008 <http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jga/7.2/schorman.html> (19 Apr. 2010).
22. 1895 1966
23. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ADVERTISING (1 of 2) <ul><li>Printing press (1452) allowed new ad media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters, handbills, eventually newspaper ads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late 1800s – Impacts of Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad across US, US population doubled, New communication media, Increased production, More disposable income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production required mass consumption, a mass market and mass communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magazines enabled truly national advertising </li></ul>
24. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ADVERTISING (2 of 2) <ul><li>1840s – First Ad agency appears </li></ul><ul><li>1920s – Radio advertising; sponsors supplied programs </li></ul><ul><li>Depression curtailed growth in advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Economic boom after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>1957 – suspicion of advertising; The Hidden Persuaders </li></ul><ul><li>1960s – rise of the creative side </li></ul>
26. The history or advertising parallels the history of journalism. As soon as Gutenberg created moveable type, advertisements were printed.
27. The first advertising agency was in Philadelphia. N.W. Ayer & Son, 1869
28. Journalism commodified information and developed a business model based on ads. The Penny Press era.
29. “ The object of this paper is to lay before the public, at a price within the means of everyone, all the news of the day, and at the same time afford an advantageous medium for advertising.” -Benjamin Day, in the first issue of the first penny newspaper, the New York Sun , 1833
30. Programming and newsprint cost money.
31. The bulk of money generated by journalism comes from ads - 80 percent of newspapers, and more than 90 percent of mags and TV.
32. We are in the era of demassification. What does this mean for advertising?
33. ADVERTISING IN THE DIGITAL AGE <ul><li>Birth of online advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1994, HotWired web site, banner ads </li></ul></ul>
34. Product placement is becoming huge.
36. Compare advertising and journalism. What do they have in common? How are they different?
37. PR vs. Advertising ? <ul><li>PR is a management tool for leaders to establish beneficial relationships with other leaders and groups. </li></ul><ul><li>PR is selling image. Advertising is selling product. </li></ul><ul><li>PR influences media to get their message across. Advertising controls the message (and pays for it). </li></ul>
38. PR people have relationships with journalists.
39. Advertisers have relationships with the business-side of journalism.