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  • 1. EARTHQUAKES Presented by Georgios Patrinos
  • 2. OUTLINE
    • Introduction
    • Causes of earthquakes
    • Description of initial earthquake development
    • Analysis of seismic waves
    • Magnitude of an earthquake
    • Interview with people that survived the catastrophic effects of big earthquakes
    • Recommendations
    • Conclusions
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • No natural phenomenon creates more fear and insecurity than an earthquake .
    • Every day thousands of earthquakes occur .
    • Researchers (Charles Richter, Lord Rayleigh) have investigated the nature of earthquakes
  • 4. Causes of earthquakes
    • The earth is surrounded by a hard layer of rocks.
    • This layer, which has an average width of 80 km (and includes a part of the upper mantle), is called the Lithosphere.
    • Lithosphere separated into different parts which are called lithospheric plates.
    • Under the lithosphere the material is semi liquid and forms a layer called the asthenosphere.
  • 5. Causes of earthquakes
    • Divergent plate boundaries
    • Convergent plate boundaries
    • Transcurrent plate boundaries
  • 6. Description of initial earthquake development
    • When the stresses become too great so as to overcome the strength of the lithosphere material in this area, the rock breaks and a seismic fault is created.
  • 7. Description of initial earthquake development
    • Focus of the earthquake.
    • Epicenter.
    • Focus depth
  • 8. Analysis of seismic waves
    • Primary waves (P)
    • Less catastrophic
    • Transfer relatively small amount of energy
    • secondary waves (S)
    • The most dangerous
    • Transfer great amounts of energy
  • 9. Analysis of seismic waves
    • Rayleigh waves
    • Love waves
  • 10. Magnitude of an earthquake Widespread destruction 9 Even special, earthquake-resistant buildings will be badly damaged. 8 This earthquake is strong enough to destroy even well-built structures 7 Strong enough to badly damage average buildings 6 A strong vibration shakes the earth, damaging chimneys and weak buildings. 5 Widely felt and is strong enough to crack plaster. 4 Damage Magnitude
  • 11.  
  • 12. Recommendations
    • In view of the above the following recommendations are outlined :
    • Improvements on antiseismic legislation and technology .
    • Study of the seismic activity and the terrain of the area are obligatory
    • Education and action plans to minimise the risk of an earthquake’s aftermath.
    • Evacuation plans , emergency exercises .
  • 13. Bibliography
    • Bolt, B.A. (1993) Earthquakes USA: W.H. Freeman and Company
    • Bolt, B.A. (1993) Earthquakes And Geological Discovery USA: W.H. Freeman and Company
    • Coburn, A. and R. Spence, (1992) Earthquake Protection UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • 14. Further References
    • 1. U.S. Geological Survey (1997) Earthquake s.Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/intro.html
    • 2. Glasscoe, M. (1998, 13th August) Space technology is used to observe and measure tectonic motion of the Earth's surface. Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/index.htm
    • 3. Encyclopedia Britannica (2006) Earthquake . Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9106195
    • 4. U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program (2006). Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/dyfi.php
    • 5. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (2006) Earthquake . Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake