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    Earthquakes Presentation Final Earthquakes Presentation Final Presentation Transcript

    • EARTHQUAKES Presented by Georgios Patrinos
      • Introduction
      • Causes of earthquakes
      • Description of initial earthquake development
      • Analysis of seismic waves
      • Magnitude of an earthquake
      • Interview with people that survived the catastrophic effects of big earthquakes
      • Recommendations
      • Conclusions
      • No natural phenomenon creates more fear and insecurity than an earthquake .
      • Every day thousands of earthquakes occur .
      • Researchers (Charles Richter, Lord Rayleigh) have investigated the nature of earthquakes
    • Causes of earthquakes
      • The earth is surrounded by a hard layer of rocks.
      • This layer, which has an average width of 80 km (and includes a part of the upper mantle), is called the Lithosphere.
      • Lithosphere separated into different parts which are called lithospheric plates.
      • Under the lithosphere the material is semi liquid and forms a layer called the asthenosphere.
    • Causes of earthquakes
      • Divergent plate boundaries
      • Convergent plate boundaries
      • Transcurrent plate boundaries
    • Description of initial earthquake development
      • When the stresses become too great so as to overcome the strength of the lithosphere material in this area, the rock breaks and a seismic fault is created.
    • Description of initial earthquake development
      • Focus of the earthquake.
      • Epicenter.
      • Focus depth
    • Analysis of seismic waves
      • Primary waves (P)
      • Less catastrophic
      • Transfer relatively small amount of energy
      • secondary waves (S)
      • The most dangerous
      • Transfer great amounts of energy
    • Analysis of seismic waves
      • Rayleigh waves
      • Love waves
    • Magnitude of an earthquake Widespread destruction 9 Even special, earthquake-resistant buildings will be badly damaged. 8 This earthquake is strong enough to destroy even well-built structures 7 Strong enough to badly damage average buildings 6 A strong vibration shakes the earth, damaging chimneys and weak buildings. 5 Widely felt and is strong enough to crack plaster. 4 Damage Magnitude
    • Recommendations
      • In view of the above the following recommendations are outlined :
      • Improvements on antiseismic legislation and technology .
      • Study of the seismic activity and the terrain of the area are obligatory
      • Education and action plans to minimise the risk of an earthquake’s aftermath.
      • Evacuation plans , emergency exercises .
    • Bibliography
      • Bolt, B.A. (1993) Earthquakes USA: W.H. Freeman and Company
      • Bolt, B.A. (1993) Earthquakes And Geological Discovery USA: W.H. Freeman and Company
      • Coburn, A. and R. Spence, (1992) Earthquake Protection UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
    • Further References
      • 1. U.S. Geological Survey (1997) Earthquake s.Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/intro.html
      • 2. Glasscoe, M. (1998, 13th August) Space technology is used to observe and measure tectonic motion of the Earth's surface. Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/index.htm
      • 3. Encyclopedia Britannica (2006) Earthquake . Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9106195
      • 4. U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program (2006). Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/dyfi.php
      • 5. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (2006) Earthquake . Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake