EARTHQUAKES Presented by  Georgios Patrinos
OUTLINE <ul><li>Introduction  </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Description of initial earthquake ...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>No natural phenomenon creates more fear and insecurity than an earthquake   . </li></ul><ul><li>Every...
Causes of earthquakes <ul><li>The earth is surrounded by a hard layer of rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>This layer, which has an...
Causes of earthquakes <ul><li>Divergent plate boundaries  </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent plate boundaries  </li></ul><ul><li...
Description of initial earthquake development   <ul><li>When the stresses become too great so as to overcome the strength ...
Description of initial earthquake development <ul><li>Focus of the earthquake.   </li></ul><ul><li>Epicenter. </li></ul><u...
Analysis of seismic waves   <ul><li>Primary waves (P)   </li></ul><ul><li>Less catastrophic  </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer re...
Analysis of seismic waves <ul><li>Rayleigh waves </li></ul><ul><li>Love waves   </li></ul>
Magnitude of an earthquake   Widespread destruction   9 Even special, earthquake-resistant buildings will be badly damaged...
 
Recommendations   <ul><li>In view of the above the following recommendations are outlined   : </li></ul><ul><li>Improvemen...
Bibliography <ul><li>Bolt, B.A. (1993)  Earthquakes  USA: W.H. Freeman and Company </li></ul><ul><li>Bolt, B.A. (1993)  Ea...
Further References <ul><li>1. U.S. Geological Survey (1997)  Earthquake s.Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web  ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Earthquakes Presentation Final

4,312

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,312
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
259
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Earthquakes Presentation Final"

  1. 1. EARTHQUAKES Presented by Georgios Patrinos
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Description of initial earthquake development </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of seismic waves </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude of an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Interview with people that survived the catastrophic effects of big earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>No natural phenomenon creates more fear and insecurity than an earthquake . </li></ul><ul><li>Every day thousands of earthquakes occur . </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers (Charles Richter, Lord Rayleigh) have investigated the nature of earthquakes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Causes of earthquakes <ul><li>The earth is surrounded by a hard layer of rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>This layer, which has an average width of 80 km (and includes a part of the upper mantle), is called the Lithosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Lithosphere separated into different parts which are called lithospheric plates. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the lithosphere the material is semi liquid and forms a layer called the asthenosphere. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Causes of earthquakes <ul><li>Divergent plate boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent plate boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Transcurrent plate boundaries </li></ul>
  6. 6. Description of initial earthquake development <ul><li>When the stresses become too great so as to overcome the strength of the lithosphere material in this area, the rock breaks and a seismic fault is created. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Description of initial earthquake development <ul><li>Focus of the earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Epicenter. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus depth </li></ul>
  8. 8. Analysis of seismic waves <ul><li>Primary waves (P) </li></ul><ul><li>Less catastrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer relatively small amount of energy </li></ul><ul><li>secondary waves (S) </li></ul><ul><li>The most dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer great amounts of energy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Analysis of seismic waves <ul><li>Rayleigh waves </li></ul><ul><li>Love waves </li></ul>
  10. 10. Magnitude of an earthquake Widespread destruction 9 Even special, earthquake-resistant buildings will be badly damaged. 8 This earthquake is strong enough to destroy even well-built structures 7 Strong enough to badly damage average buildings 6 A strong vibration shakes the earth, damaging chimneys and weak buildings. 5 Widely felt and is strong enough to crack plaster. 4 Damage Magnitude
  11. 12. Recommendations <ul><li>In view of the above the following recommendations are outlined : </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements on antiseismic legislation and technology . </li></ul><ul><li>Study of the seismic activity and the terrain of the area are obligatory </li></ul><ul><li>Education and action plans to minimise the risk of an earthquake’s aftermath. </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation plans , emergency exercises . </li></ul>
  12. 13. Bibliography <ul><li>Bolt, B.A. (1993) Earthquakes USA: W.H. Freeman and Company </li></ul><ul><li>Bolt, B.A. (1993) Earthquakes And Geological Discovery USA: W.H. Freeman and Company </li></ul><ul><li>Coburn, A. and R. Spence, (1992) Earthquake Protection UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd </li></ul>
  13. 14. Further References <ul><li>1. U.S. Geological Survey (1997) Earthquake s.Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/intro.html </li></ul><ul><li>2. Glasscoe, M. (1998, 13th August) Space technology is used to observe and measure tectonic motion of the Earth's surface. Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>3. Encyclopedia Britannica (2006) Earthquake . Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9106195 </li></ul><ul><li>4. U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program (2006). Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/dyfi.php </li></ul><ul><li>5. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (2006) Earthquake . Retrieved August 20, 2006, from World Wide Web http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×