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Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
Master Gardener Entomology Module   2010
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Master Gardener Entomology Module 2010

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This presentation was given to Alabama Master Gardener interns in February 2010.

This presentation was given to Alabama Master Gardener interns in February 2010.

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  • Injury is the effect of insect on plant.
  • Cucumber mosaic virus: >60 aphid species are capable of transmitting CMV in nonpersistent virus – virus is acquired within 1 min of feeding but can be transmitted within a short duration of time (stylet-borne inoculum)Potato virus Y: aphids can acquire the virus in less than a minute and has to be transported very quickly to a healthy plant in a minute or so. Aphids may retain the virus for 24 h.
  • Define the problem: Record the normal & abnormal charactersKeep written notes & take pictures (blogging?)Examine entire plant in its ecosystemLook around: is something affecting one plant or a group of plants?Look for patterns:Nature is random!If patterns exist on plant or a group of plants…abiotic problem? (e.g., herbicide injury, storm injury to plants, etc.)Biotic sources affect plants randomly (e.g., insect, diseases)Biotic problems change location between yearsScouting procedure:If you have found the problem, mark the problem area with sticks, garden stakes, tall flags, etc.Familiarize yourself with sampling techniques and sample preparationTake a closer look at plants, uproot plants if feasibleAsk the experts before spending money on control!Delineate time-development:Biotic problems may spread slowly in an area and a pattern may appearAbiotic problems develop faster and patterns are obviousKeep an eye on the marked area and sample frequently to be able to “encounter” the problem (random) Determine the cause of injury:Think broadly >> narrow down to few causes ORUse the process of elimination to arrive at a solutionUse all resources you have to ID insects, many on the webFind the economic threshold: doing nothing is also OK
  • Trends in FAW population were stronger than BAW seen before. FAW pressures were high in all parts of AL. There were at least two generations detected one month apart of FAW in north central AL. Three peaks could be detected one month apart in south AL along the Gulf Coast. Impact of weather parameters was also stronger on FAW populations than BAW.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Entomology Crash Course for Master Gardener Interns
      Dr. Ayanava Majumdar
      Ext. Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator
      Gulf Coast Research & Ext. Center
      8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope AL 36532
      Tel: (251) 331-8416
      bugdoctor@auburn.edu
    • 2. Entomology Crash Course
      Objective: opportunity to closely examine insects and understand ecological functions
      Course lay-out:
      • Insect form & function
      • 3. Insect classification
      • 4. Types of insect injuries
      • 5. Integrated pest management
      • 6. Insect monitoring using traps
      • 7. IPM in tomatoes
      • 8. Citrus psyllid - a new invasive insect
      LET’S TAKE THE PRE-TEST FIRST!
    • 9. Insect Form & Function
      This sign indicates study of real insect specimen using a digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro)
    • 10. Fun Facts about insects
      Insects have been around for at least 350 million years
      Over 900,000 described species (75% of all animal species)
      U.S. has about 91,000 described species
      Less than 1% of these are considered pests
      Four largest insect orders: beetles (Coleoptera), flies (Diptera), ants (Hymenoptera), moths (Lepidoptera)
    • 11. Why are INSECTS so successful?
      Small size, cryptic in nature
      Small food requirement
      Rapid and prolific reproduction
      Parthenogenesis
      Grows by molting (control over growth rate)
      Life stages feed on different substrate
    • 12. Characteristics of arthropods
      Segmented bodies and jointed appendages
      Exoskeleton shed periodically
      Characteristics Insects:
      Three body regions (head, thorax and abdomen)
      Six legs or less or zero (NEVER more!)
      Grasshopper specimen
    • 13. Insect Exoskeleton
      Insects have a cuticle, cuticle has chitin
      Exocuticle
      Epicuticle (topmost)
      Chitin molecules interlink to provide strength!
      Endocuticle
      Hard cuticle of a cockroach
    • 14. Insect Growth
      Insects need to shed (molt) old skin to grow in size.
      The period between molts is called an instar.
      Most insects have 4–8 instars before becoming adult.
      Cicada nymph molts into an adult
    • 15. Insect Growth
      Metamorphosis:drastic change in shape and form for growth and development.
      Two types: complete and incomplete.
      The stage of development of an insect will affect insecticide efficacy:
    • 16. Complete metamorphosis
      EGG
      ADULT
      LARVA (mobile stage)
      PUPA
      WHAT COULD BE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE LIFE STAGES?
    • 17. Incomplete metamorphosis
      WHAT COULD BE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE LIFE STAGES?
    • 18. Insect mouthparts
      Insects can be classified according to mouthparts
      TYPE 1. Chewing Mouthparts:
      • Examples – grasshoppers, beetles, weevils, cockroaches
      • 19. 4 basic parts; Mandibles used for chewing!
      • 20. Cannot feed on liquid materials
      Grasshopper mouthparts
      Beetle mouthparts
    • 21. Insect mouthparts
      TYPE 2: Chewing-lapping Mouthparts
      • Examples – honey bees (picture below), wasps
      • 22. Complex modifications of MP
      • 23. Mandibles used for chewing, proboscis for drinking (lapping) and exchanging fluid
      • 24. Mouthparts allow molding wax, feeding on pollen, nectar
      Honey bee mouthparts
    • 25. Insect mouthparts
      TYPE 3: Siphoning (coiled) Mouthparts
      • Examples – butterflies, moths
      • 26. Severe reduction of mouthparts – only a proboscis or coiled tube is present
      • 27. Short lived as adult, feed intermittently
      Hawk moth mouthparts
    • 28. Insect mouthparts
      TYPE 4: Sponging Mouthparts
      • Examples – flies
      • 29. Reduced mouthparts suitable for soaking up liquids
      • 30. No ability to eat solid food
      • 31. Some flies can “bite” but is actually scratching to feed on blood
      Fly mouthparts
    • 32. Insect mouthparts
      TYPE 5: Piercing and Sucking MP
      • Examples – mosquitoes (6 needles), plant bugs (4 needles)
      • 33. All mouthparts shaped like needles that form feeding tubes
      • 34. Only female mosquitoes bite
      • 35. All sexes of plant bugs can feed on plant juices
      Plant bugs
      Mosquito
      Leaf-footed bug mouthparts
      Assassin bug mouthparts
    • 36. Insect Orders
    • 37. Key insect orders
      Coleoptera
      Diptera
      Hemiptera
      Lepidoptera
      Orthoptera
      Thysanoptera
    • 38. Coleoptera (beetles,weevils)
      Some insect have defense markings
      (click beetle)
      Mexican bean beetle
      Vegetable weevil
      Wireworms
    • 39. Facts about beetles (Coleoptera)
      Characteristics: forewings are hard, hindwings are membranous, poor fliers
      Have four life stages – egg, larva (grub), pupa, adult
      Grubs have strong mouthparts & are root feeders
      Beetles (adult) are foliage/flower feeders and may transmit diseases
      Often overwinter as adult or larva
      Beetle wings
    • 40. Diptera (flies)
      Mouth hooks of maggots
      Vegetable leafminer
      Seedcorn maggots
    • 41. Facts about flies (Diptera)
      Characteristics: good flier (one pair of wings), larva (maggots) with reduced head
      Have four life stages – egg, larva, pupa, adult
      Larva have mouth hooks to scrape root surface
      Adult flies feed on nectar or solids (sponging mouth type)
      Often overwinter in larval stages
      Fly wings
    • 42. Hemiptera (true bugs)
      Piercing-sucking mouthparts (beak)
      Leaf-footed bug
      Stink bug
      Aphids
    • 43. Facts about true bugs (Hemiptera)
      Characteristics: wings are partially hardened, antennae short
      Some are beneficial species
      Have three life stages – egg, larva (nymph), adult
      Overwinter in adult stage – immatures are vulnerable to predation.
      Piercing-sucking mouthparts
      Stink bug wings
      Predatory stink bug
    • 44. Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies)
      Fall armyworm
      Imported cabbageworm
      Granulate cutworm
      Tomato hornworm
    • 45. Identifying larvae by appendages
      Anal prolegs
      Thoracic legs
      Abdominal prolegs
      Normal number of prolegs = 4 (cutworms, armyworms)
      < Number of prolegs = 3 (green cloverworm)
      Number of prolegs = 2 (cabbage looper) >>
    • 46. Facts about moths & butterflies
      Complete lifecycle – egg, larva, pupa, adult
      Larvae are damaging stages…
      Some members have become insecticide tolerant (diamondback moth, corn earworm)
      Try controlling these pests in early stages (small larva)
      Head of butterfly showing siphoning mouthparts (coiled beak)
    • 47. Orthoptera (grasshoppers)
      • Short-horned grasshopper (Acrididae)
      • 48. Crickets (Gryllidae)
      • 49. Mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae)
    • Facts about grasshoppers
      Life stages: egg, nymph, adult
      Damage is caused by overlapping generations
      Damage intense in dry years
      Eggs laid in clusters in soil, food for many natural enemies
      Extremely migratory and have unique behavior patterns (e.g., infections)
      Grasshopper ovipositor
    • 50. Thysanoptera (thrips)
      Tobacco thrips
      Actual size = 5 mm
      Flower thrips
    • 51. Facts about thrips
      Actual size = 5 mm, commonly seen on flowers
      Life stages: egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult
      Damage is caused by the rasping MP
      Damage intense in dry years
      Transmit diseases between plants
    • 52. Types of Insect Injury
      Presentation + Simulated training
    • 53. First know the definitions…
      INJURY
      DAMAGE
      Damage = injury + economic loss
    • 54. Plant injury by INSECTS
      Direct injury caused by feeding: chewing mouthparts VS. sucking mouth parts
    • 55. Plant injury by INSECTS
      Direct injury caused during oviposition: dimpling on tomato by thrips egg-laying
      Image: UFL IFAS Ext.
      Image: UFL IFAS Ext.
    • 56. Plant injury by INSECTS
      Indirect injury from insect products: honeydew causes sooty mold (aphids, whiteflies)
      Image: TopTurf.net
      Image: Iowa State
    • 57. Plant injury by INSECTS
      Injury from disease transmission: aphids, thrips
      Transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
      Transmit cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY)
      Images: U Wisconsin & Queensland Govt., Australia
    • 58. Is it really an INSECT injury?
      General steps to diagnosis:
      • Define the problem
      • 59. Look for patterns: abiotic problems have patterns!
      • 60. Used a scouting technique
      • 61. How fast are symptoms spreading?
      • 62. Process of elimination to arrive at a diagnosis
      VS.
      Image: Missouri Bot. Garden
    • 63. Simulated Insect Injury
      10-minute Group Exercise:
      • Divide into 5 groups – each group designate a leader
      • 64. Take a sheet of paper and write names of team members
      • 65. Take any one sample from the table
      • 66. Describe of the problem, leader take notes (normal vs. abnormal)
      • 67. What insect could have caused the injury? Direct/Indirect?
      • 68. Team leader will present – 1 minutes
      • 69. Diagnosis will be discussed (5 minutes)
    • Intelligent Plant Management
      • Ecological approach to plant production
      • 70. Common sense approach to solving plant health problems
    • Steps to
      Intelligent Plant Management
      • Choose the right plant for right season
      • 71. Choose the right plant for location
      • 72. Plant vigorous stress-free plants
      • 73. Maintain good cultural practices (sanitation, chemical applications, weed control)
      • 74. Pin-point stress & take action early
      • 75. Stressed plants will be overcome by insects
      • 76. Manage insects by Integrated Pest Mgmt
    • Integrated Pest Management
      Basic concept, status of IPM in AL, implementation
    • 77. What is IPM?
      • “Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.”
      • 78. IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…
      • 79. 70% area under IPM yest major losses occur due to:
      • 80. Lack of early detection of insects
      • 81. Insecticide resistance by misuse
      • 82. Loss of natural control with insecticides
    • Need for IPM
      • Loss of tomatoes in the absence of insecticides: 95% (AL)*
      • 83. Nationally, average gain from IPM is $19 for every dollar spent (field crops)*
      • 84. There is increasing demand for organic crops…
      • 85. Insecticide use in AL is reducing, 1992-2002:
      • 86. Asparagus (-30%)
      • 87. Green peas (-73%)
      • 88. Green beans (-36%)
      • 89. Tomatoes (-20%)
      *L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.
    • 90. IPM in home & garden
      Remove abiotic stresses
      Conserve natural enemies (habitat)
      Correctly identify insect pest
      Biological control agents (microbials)
      Cultural tactics – variety, rotation, trap crop
      Chemical insecticides
      Correct insecticide delivery system: correct application rate, timing, coverage
    • 91. NE Conservation System
      Grassy buffers
      Grassy buffer zone in permanent ecosystems
      Grass shelters natural enemies
      Many night-feeding insects hide in grass during day…treat the edges!
      Sample in grass and keep it under control
      Grassy buffer zone in temporary agroecosystem
    • 92. Trap cropping arrangements
      Perimeter Trap Cropping
      Trap crop (squash)
      Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders
      Squash lured away 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs (USDA res.)
      Main crop
      (watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber)
    • 93. Trap cropping arrangements
      Row Trap Cropping (contd.)
      Plant trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum!
      Strawberry production in California
      Strawberry
      (34 rows)
      Strawberry
      (34 rows)
      Western tarnished plant bug damage
      Alfalfa
    • 94. Recommendations for trap cropping
      Try it on a small scale to gain confidence
      Integrate with biological/chemical i-cides, pheromone trapping, etc.
      Trap cropping can manage 1-2 insect species
      Works great against sucking pests (plant bugs) and slow fliers (beetles)
      Spray only the trap crop…reduce cost
    • 95. Alternative Insecticides for Gardeners
      Use them in rotation:
      Thuricide, Dipel (Bt)
      M-pede (soap)
      Safer pyrethrin
      Oils (with caution!)
      Contact a nursery for supplies & purchase early
      Do not use unlabeled insecticides (e.g., RTU home pesticides)
      Always read the label!
    • 96. Toxicity of Some Insecticides (General Use Pesticides)
      Ref.: “General use insecticides for home gardening” by Dr. RicBessin (UK)
      Rule 1: Higher the LD50 safer will be the product!
      Rule 2: Products containing highly toxic AI have very low % chemical.
    • 97. Decision making in IPM…
      Insect detection & monitoring
      Insect identification
      Population pressure
      Economic threshold
      Make treatment decision
      Choosing right insecticide
    • 98. Monitoring insects with TRAPPING DEVICES
    • 99. What are insect pheromones?
      Pheromones are chemicals released into environment in small amounts by insects.
      Pheromones are species specific, stimulates opposite gender.
      Male moths detect pheromones with antennae.
      Synthetic sex pheromones are manufactured & used as lures.
    • 100. Types of Insect Traps
      Passive traps: do not use a lure of any kind, e.g., pit-fall traps, ground sticky traps, water traps, flight interception trap (beat sheet)
      Interception trap
      (can be used with or without light)
      Pit-fall trap with a metal sheet as hood
    • 101. Types of Insect Traps
      Active traps:
      use a lure of some kind, e.g., food, color, shape, light…PHEROMONES
      Dome Fly Trap with liquid bait for mass trapping fruit flies
      Light trap
    • 102. Types of Insect Traps
      Active traps (contd.): use a lure of some kind
      Use many traps for accuracy
      Active/passive trap:
      yellow water pan trap
      Yellow/white Sticky Trap with grid
      Ball trap for dipteran flies
    • 103. Why use pheromone traps?
      Know what to scout for & when to scout INTENSIVELY
      Automatic identification of closely related species
      Prediction models will be avail.
      Stink bug trap
      Wing trap
      Pherocon trap
      Bucket trap
    • 104. Parts of a Pheromone Trap
      Metal support
      Top section (fixed)
      Lure with lure holder
      Bottom section (replaceable sticky card with grid)
      Wing Pheromone Trap
    • 105. Types of Pheromone Traps
      Wing Traps
      Simple wing trap with grid on sticky bottom
      Wing trap with baffles (large trap surface)
      Popular due to easy assemblage, large trap area, & low cost
      Suitable for larger moths: armyworm, cutworm, fruitworms
      Problem: weather & animals could ruin trap
    • 106. Types of Pheromone Traps
      Delta Traps
      >>
      Delta traps with sticky insert having a printed grid. Sides fold to hold the sticky insert in place.
      Advantages: easy assemblage, low maintenance, less interference
      Suitable for small moths – diamondback moth, warehouse pests
      Problem: small trapping surface
    • 107. Types of Pheromone Traps
      Mass trapping kits
      Advantages:
      Relatively inexpensive
      Convenient cleaning
      Lure lasts longer
      Disadvantages:
      Needs a killing agent
      (“No Pest Strip”)
    • 108. Trap & Lure Suppliers
      TRAPS:
      Great Lakes IPM (MI)
      Arbico Organics (AZ)
      Gemplers
      LURES:
      • Great Lakes IPM – ScentryBiologicals (MT) & Trece, Inc.
      • 109. APTIV, Inc. (OR)
    • AL Insect Monitoring Project
      (new in 2009)
      • Use traps for early detection of pests
      • 110. What does trap catch tell you?
      Catch = pop. density x activity
      • Trap network (operated by REAs):
      N-S: vegetable fields
      E-W: peanut fields
      • Commercial traps/lures used
      • 111. Trapping period: June-October
      • 112. Trapping interval (2009): 14 days
    • What is it?
      HINT: Several outbreaks of these insects occurred in AL, 2009
      Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua
      Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
    • 113. Fall armyworm
      Insect density (overall) per site
      20
      17
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      19
      29
      15
      27
      32
      16
      12
      13
      48
      36
      Year 2009
    • 114. What are these?
      Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea
      Tobacco budworm, Heliothisvirescens
    • 115. Corn earworm
      Insect density (overall) per site
      6
      3
      17
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      10
      8
      25
      3
      12
      7
      5
      8
      16
      11
      Year 2009
    • 116. Impact of Weather on Trap Catches
      Sign. Correlation of TEMPERATURE :
      Year 2009
      Sign. Correlation of RAIN DAYS :
      Numbers indicate significant correlations at P = 0.10. +/- indicates direction of relationship (preliminary findings). Rain days indicate number of days rainfall exceeded 0.1 inch.
    • 117. Biological Control Agents
      Asian citrus psyllid: has many natural enemies
    • 118. General predators
      Lacewings:
      Chrysoperla rufilabris
    • 119. General predators
      Ash-gray lady beetle, Olla v-nigrum
      Multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis
      Spotless lady beetle, Cycloneda sp.
    • 120. Predacious stink bugs
      • Typically have short beak
      • 121. Abundant in orchards, weedy borders
      • 122. Voracious feeders of caterpillars
      • 123. Watch numbers: a sudden increase may indicated pest presence
      SB feeding on armyworm
      Podisus maculiventris
      Euthyrhynchus floridanus
      Alcaeorrhynchus grandis
    • 124. Introduced parasitoid (Eulophidae)
      Tamarixia radiata, in FL from Taiwan
      • Female wasp lays eggs under ACP nymph
      • 125. Parasite develops inside the body (arrow in picture)
      • 126. Adult wasp emerges from an exit hole
    • IPM in Vegetables:Tomato
      (Applied Entomology: insect biology meets insect control)
    • 127. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Sample ten plants in several locations
      Yellow sticky traps at edge of field
      Like cool, dry weather
      Watch for ants and lady beetles
      ET = 50% leaves with aphids
      Potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae
      Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae
    • 128. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)
      Bag and shake technique
      No action threshold
      Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa)
      Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis
      Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca
      Tomato spotted wilt destroys plants
    • 129. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Monitor level of defoliation
      Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours
      Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net)
      ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 25-30% defoliation mid-season
      Flea beetles (many species)
    • 130. What is it?
      Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Start looking on border rows
      Scout intensely short crop (<6 inch)
      ET = 5 beetles per 10 seedling or 10% defoliation in short crop
      Larva of lady beetle (beneficial insect!)
    • 131. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Examine green fruit, stem terminals
      Scout for egg masses or larvae
      Use pheromone traps to detect first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is <85F
      ET is ½ if temp. is >85F
      Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea
      Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens
    • 132. What is it?
      Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Use a sweep net
      Use pheromone trap (expensive? cumbersome?)
      Intensify scouting at fruit setting
      ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage)
      Lygus bug, Lygus lineolaris
      Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus
    • 133. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Minor foliar pests (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)
      Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect
      Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation
      Look for fecal pellets on leaves
      Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni
      Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens
    • 134. Asian Citrus Psyllid(Diaphorinacitri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae)
    • 135. First Reports of ACP
      ACP was first detected in 1998 in backyard plantings of Murrayapaniculata
      At present, 33 counties in FL have ACP
      ACP has been found in many states, but Citrus Greening Disease (CGD) is present in LO & FL
      ACP in Baldwin County (2008)
      No detection of ACP or CGD in 2009
      www.SaveOurCitrus.org 
    • 136. ACP Life cycle
      Host plants: all citrus plants, 2 species of Murraya (all Rutaceae)
      ACP EGGS
      Eggs are almond shaped
      Eggs pale when fresh, turn yellow or opaque
      Eggs laid on tips of growing shoot or tender leaves in clusters
    • 137. Life Cycle & Identification
      NYMPHS
      53F*
      51F
      50F
      51F
      *Liu & Tsai 2000
      52F
      Nymphs: 5 instars, red eyes, large wing pads
      Development fails below 50oF
      Live in feeding pits created by adults
    • 138. Life Cycle & Identification
      ACP specimen
      ADULT PSYLLID
      Adult is 3 mm long, forewings broad apically
      Tip of antennae black
      Brown band on wings around the border
      Wings with reduced venation, prominent veins
    • 139. Behavior of ACP
      Auburn Team at a Baldwin County location
      Active insect that rests with body at an angle
      Adult psyllids readily jump on approach
      Dispersion: good fliers, moved by wind
    • 140. Life Cycle & Identification
      Defense mechanism:
      Masses of waxy filaments produced by nymphs to keep honey dew away!
    • 141. Citrus Injury due to ACP
      ACP has piercing-sucking mouthparts
      Loss of plant sap from foliage
      High reproductive capacity & survival of eggs/nymphs can cause rapid infestation (check new terminals)
    • 142. Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)
      CITRUS GREENING DISEASE (CGD) or Huanglongbing:
      Worst disease of citrus transmitted by ACP
      Bacterium Liberibacter
      Short feeding inoculates ACP
    • 143. Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)
      SYMPTOMS OF CGD:
      • Slowly kills the tree (vascular)
      • 144. Deformed yellow leaves
      • 145. Blotchy mottling, asymmetrical
      • 146. Twig dieback
    • Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)
      SYMPTOMS OF CGD:
      Remember: other disorders may cause diagnostic problems
    • 150. What can confuse you?
      Citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri)
      Long bristles on wings
      Citrus mealybug
      (Planococcus citri)
      No wing-pads!
      Trash bug (trash-carrying lacewing)
      Brown citrus aphid
      (Toxoptera citricida)
      Have tail-pipes!
    • 151. SOURCES OF INFORMATION on ACP
    • 152. www.SaveOurCitrus.org
      Has insect ID section
      Has a Citrus Greening Tracker
      Has a list of high risk activities
      “What to do if you sight ACP?”
    • 153. Select a state
      Directs you to local contact
      USDA Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS)
    • 154. Internet Resources
      YouTube videos
      eXtension.org
      Image repositories:
      Flickr.com
      BugGuide.net
      Bugwood.org
    • 155. NEW ONLINE RESOURCES
      Subscribe to Blogs/email alerts
      Follow on SlideShare
    • 156. IPM COmmunicationREsources
      (IPM-CORE) Project
      Goal: Synchronized rapid IPM information delivery to growers
      • Project archive: www.aces.edu/go/85 or www.aces.edu/go/88
      • 157. “AU Pest Alert” (direct email): May-October
      • 158. Web outreach: Blogs, YouTube, AlabamaCrops.com, AGFAX.COM
      • 159. IPM Hotline (messages): 1-800-446-0375
      • 160. Make sure you see the AL IPM EXHIBIT
      • 161. Timely revisions to Extension bulletins
    • IPM Trapping Coordinators:
      A. Majumdar
      H. Fadamiro
      K. Flanders
      IPM Team Members:
      Lloyd Chapman
      Neil Kelly
      Michael Reeves
      Gary Gray
      James Miles
      William East, Jr.
      Brandon Dillard
      Leonard Kuykendall
      Chris Becker
      Timothy Reed
      Acknowledgements to AL IPM Team
      Thank you very much.
      Please take the POST-TEST

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