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Entomology Crash Course for Master Gardener Interns<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar<br />Ext. Entomologist, State SARE Coordinat...
Entomology Crash Course <br />Objective: opportunity to closely examine insects and understand ecological functions<br />C...
 Insect classification
 Types of insect injuries
 Integrated pest management
Insect monitoring using traps
 IPM in tomatoes
Citrus psyllid - a new invasive insect</li></ul>LET’S TAKE THE PRE-TEST FIRST!<br />
Insect Form & Function<br />This sign indicates study of real insect specimen using a digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro)<b...
Fun Facts about insects<br />Insects have been around for at least 350 million years<br />Over 900,000 described species (...
Why are INSECTS so successful?<br />Small size, cryptic in nature<br />Small food requirement<br />Rapid and prolific repr...
Characteristics of arthropods<br />Segmented bodies and  jointed appendages<br />Exoskeleton shed periodically <br />Chara...
Insect Exoskeleton<br />Insects have a cuticle, cuticle has chitin<br />Exocuticle<br />Epicuticle (topmost)<br />Chitin m...
Insect Growth<br />Insects need to shed (molt) old skin to grow in size.<br />The period between molts is called an instar...
Insect Growth<br />Metamorphosis:drastic change in shape and form for growth and development.<br />Two types: complete and...
Complete metamorphosis<br />EGG<br />ADULT<br />LARVA (mobile stage)<br />PUPA<br />WHAT COULD BE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE LI...
Incomplete metamorphosis<br />WHAT COULD BE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE LIFE STAGES?<br />
Insect mouthparts<br />Insects can be classified according to mouthparts<br />TYPE 1. Chewing Mouthparts:<br /><ul><li>Exa...
4 basic parts; Mandibles used for chewing!
Cannot feed on liquid materials</li></ul>Grasshopper mouthparts<br />Beetle mouthparts<br />
Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 2: Chewing-lapping Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Examples – honey bees (picture below), wasps
Complex modifications of MP
Mandibles used for chewing, proboscis for drinking (lapping) and exchanging fluid
Mouthparts allow molding wax, feeding on pollen, nectar</li></ul>Honey bee mouthparts<br />
Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 3: Siphoning (coiled) Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Examples – butterflies, moths
Severe reduction of mouthparts – only a proboscis or coiled tube is present
Short lived as adult, feed intermittently </li></ul>Hawk moth mouthparts<br />
Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 4: Sponging Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Examples – flies
Reduced mouthparts suitable for soaking up liquids
No ability to eat solid food
Some flies can “bite” but is actually scratching to feed on blood</li></ul>Fly mouthparts<br />
Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 5: Piercing and Sucking MP<br /><ul><li>Examples – mosquitoes (6 needles), plant bugs (4 needles)
All mouthparts shaped like needles that form feeding tubes
Only female mosquitoes bite
All sexes of plant bugs can feed on plant juices</li></ul>Plant bugs<br />Mosquito<br />Leaf-footed bug mouthparts<br />As...
Insect Orders<br />
Key insect orders<br />Coleoptera<br />Diptera<br />Hemiptera<br />Lepidoptera<br />Orthoptera<br />Thysanoptera<br />
Coleoptera (beetles,weevils)<br />Some insect have defense markings<br />(click beetle)<br />Mexican bean beetle<br />Vege...
Facts about beetles (Coleoptera)<br />Characteristics: forewings are hard, hindwings are membranous, poor fliers<br />Have...
Diptera (flies)<br />Mouth hooks of maggots<br />Vegetable leafminer<br />Seedcorn maggots<br />
Facts about flies (Diptera)<br />Characteristics: good flier (one pair of wings), larva (maggots) with reduced head<br />H...
Hemiptera (true bugs)<br />Piercing-sucking mouthparts (beak)<br />Leaf-footed bug<br />Stink bug<br />Aphids<br />
Facts about true bugs (Hemiptera)<br />Characteristics: wings are partially hardened, antennae short<br />Some are benefic...
Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies)<br />Fall armyworm<br />Imported cabbageworm<br />Granulate cutworm<br />Tomato hornworm<...
Identifying larvae by appendages<br />Anal prolegs<br />Thoracic legs<br />Abdominal prolegs<br />Normal number of prolegs...
Facts about moths & butterflies<br />Complete lifecycle – egg, larva, pupa, adult<br />Larvae are damaging stages…<br />So...
Orthoptera (grasshoppers)<br /><ul><li>Short-horned grasshopper (Acrididae)
  Crickets (Gryllidae)
  Mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae)</li></li></ul><li>Facts about grasshoppers<br />Life stages: egg, nymph, adult<br />Damag...
Thysanoptera (thrips)<br />Tobacco thrips<br />Actual size = 5 mm<br />Flower thrips<br />
Facts about thrips<br />Actual size = 5 mm, commonly seen on flowers<br />Life stages: egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult<br...
Types of Insect Injury<br />Presentation + Simulated training<br />
First know the definitions…<br />INJURY<br />DAMAGE<br />Damage = injury + economic loss<br />
Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Direct injury caused by feeding: chewing mouthparts VS. sucking mouth parts <br />
Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Direct injury caused during oviposition: dimpling on tomato by thrips egg-laying<br />Image: ...
Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Indirect injury from insect products: honeydew causes sooty mold (aphids, whiteflies)<br />Im...
Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Injury from disease transmission: aphids, thrips<br />Transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSW...
Is it really an INSECT injury?<br />General steps to diagnosis:<br /><ul><li> Define the problem
 Look for patterns: abiotic problems have patterns!
Used a scouting technique
 How fast are symptoms spreading?
 Process of elimination to arrive at a diagnosis</li></ul>VS.<br />Image: Missouri Bot. Garden<br />
Simulated Insect Injury<br />10-minute Group Exercise:<br /><ul><li> Divide into 5 groups – each group designate a leader
 Take a sheet of paper and write names of team members
 Take any one sample from the table
Describe of the problem, leader take notes (normal vs. abnormal)
 What insect could have caused the injury? Direct/Indirect?
 Team leader will present – 1 minutes
 Diagnosis will be discussed (5 minutes)</li></li></ul><li>Intelligent Plant Management<br /><ul><li> Ecological approach ...
 Common sense approach to solving plant health problems</li></li></ul><li>Steps to <br />Intelligent Plant Management<br /...
 Choose the right plant for location
 Plant vigorous stress-free plants
Maintain good cultural practices (sanitation, chemical applications, weed control)
 Pin-point stress & take action early
 Stressed plants will be overcome by insects
 Manage insects by Integrated Pest Mgmt</li></li></ul><li>Integrated Pest Management<br />Basic concept, status of IPM in ...
What is IPM?<br /><ul><li>“Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to...
 IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…
70% area under IPM yest major losses occur due to:
Lack of early detection of insects
 Insecticide resistance by misuse
 Loss of natural control with insecticides</li></li></ul><li>Need for IPM<br /><ul><li> Loss of tomatoes in the absence of...
 Nationally, average gain from IPM is $19 for every dollar spent (field crops)*
 There is increasing demand for organic crops…
 Insecticide use in AL is reducing, 1992-2002:
 Asparagus (-30%)
 Green peas (-73%)
 Green beans (-36%)
 Tomatoes (-20%)</li></ul>*L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.<br />
IPM in home & garden<br />Remove abiotic stresses<br />Conserve natural enemies (habitat)<br />Correctly identify insect p...
NE Conservation System<br />Grassy buffers<br />Grassy buffer zone in permanent ecosystems<br />Grass shelters natural ene...
Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping <br />Trap crop (squash)<br />Trap crop = early planted squash, ap...
Trap cropping arrangements<br />Row Trap Cropping (contd.) <br />	Plant trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (...
Recommendations for trap cropping<br />Try it on a small scale to gain confidence<br />Integrate with biological/chemical ...
Alternative Insecticides for Gardeners<br />Use them in rotation:<br />Thuricide, Dipel (Bt)<br />M-pede (soap)<br />Safer...
Toxicity of Some Insecticides (General Use Pesticides)<br />Ref.: “General use insecticides for home gardening” by Dr. Ric...
Decision making in IPM…<br />Insect detection & monitoring<br />Insect identification<br />Population pressure<br />Econom...
Monitoring insects with TRAPPING DEVICES<br />
What are insect pheromones?<br />Pheromones are chemicals released into environment in small amounts by insects.<br />Pher...
Types of Insect Traps<br />Passive traps: do not use a lure of any kind, e.g., pit-fall traps, ground sticky traps, water ...
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Master Gardener Entomology Module 2010

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  • Injury is the effect of insect on plant.
  • Cucumber mosaic virus: &gt;60 aphid species are capable of transmitting CMV in nonpersistent virus – virus is acquired within 1 min of feeding but can be transmitted within a short duration of time (stylet-borne inoculum)Potato virus Y: aphids can acquire the virus in less than a minute and has to be transported very quickly to a healthy plant in a minute or so. Aphids may retain the virus for 24 h.
  • Define the problem: Record the normal &amp; abnormal charactersKeep written notes &amp; take pictures (blogging?)Examine entire plant in its ecosystemLook around: is something affecting one plant or a group of plants?Look for patterns:Nature is random!If patterns exist on plant or a group of plants…abiotic problem? (e.g., herbicide injury, storm injury to plants, etc.)Biotic sources affect plants randomly (e.g., insect, diseases)Biotic problems change location between yearsScouting procedure:If you have found the problem, mark the problem area with sticks, garden stakes, tall flags, etc.Familiarize yourself with sampling techniques and sample preparationTake a closer look at plants, uproot plants if feasibleAsk the experts before spending money on control!Delineate time-development:Biotic problems may spread slowly in an area and a pattern may appearAbiotic problems develop faster and patterns are obviousKeep an eye on the marked area and sample frequently to be able to “encounter” the problem (random) Determine the cause of injury:Think broadly &gt;&gt; narrow down to few causes ORUse the process of elimination to arrive at a solutionUse all resources you have to ID insects, many on the webFind the economic threshold: doing nothing is also OK
  • Trends in FAW population were stronger than BAW seen before. FAW pressures were high in all parts of AL. There were at least two generations detected one month apart of FAW in north central AL. Three peaks could be detected one month apart in south AL along the Gulf Coast. Impact of weather parameters was also stronger on FAW populations than BAW.
  • Transcript of "Master Gardener Entomology Module 2010"

    1. 1. Entomology Crash Course for Master Gardener Interns<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar<br />Ext. Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator<br />Gulf Coast Research & Ext. Center<br />8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope AL 36532<br />Tel: (251) 331-8416<br />bugdoctor@auburn.edu<br />
    2. 2. Entomology Crash Course <br />Objective: opportunity to closely examine insects and understand ecological functions<br />Course lay-out:<br /><ul><li> Insect form & function
    3. 3. Insect classification
    4. 4. Types of insect injuries
    5. 5. Integrated pest management
    6. 6. Insect monitoring using traps
    7. 7. IPM in tomatoes
    8. 8. Citrus psyllid - a new invasive insect</li></ul>LET’S TAKE THE PRE-TEST FIRST!<br />
    9. 9. Insect Form & Function<br />This sign indicates study of real insect specimen using a digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro)<br />
    10. 10. Fun Facts about insects<br />Insects have been around for at least 350 million years<br />Over 900,000 described species (75% of all animal species)<br />U.S. has about 91,000 described species <br />Less than 1% of these are considered pests<br />Four largest insect orders: beetles (Coleoptera), flies (Diptera), ants (Hymenoptera), moths (Lepidoptera)<br />
    11. 11. Why are INSECTS so successful?<br />Small size, cryptic in nature<br />Small food requirement<br />Rapid and prolific reproduction<br />Parthenogenesis<br />Grows by molting (control over growth rate)<br />Life stages feed on different substrate<br />
    12. 12. Characteristics of arthropods<br />Segmented bodies and jointed appendages<br />Exoskeleton shed periodically <br />Characteristics Insects:<br />Three body regions (head, thorax and abdomen)<br />Six legs or less or zero (NEVER more!)<br />Grasshopper specimen<br />
    13. 13. Insect Exoskeleton<br />Insects have a cuticle, cuticle has chitin<br />Exocuticle<br />Epicuticle (topmost)<br />Chitin molecules interlink to provide strength!<br />Endocuticle<br />Hard cuticle of a cockroach<br />
    14. 14. Insect Growth<br />Insects need to shed (molt) old skin to grow in size.<br />The period between molts is called an instar.<br />Most insects have 4–8 instars before becoming adult.<br />Cicada nymph molts into an adult<br />
    15. 15. Insect Growth<br />Metamorphosis:drastic change in shape and form for growth and development.<br />Two types: complete and incomplete.<br />The stage of development of an insect will affect insecticide efficacy:<br />
    16. 16. Complete metamorphosis<br />EGG<br />ADULT<br />LARVA (mobile stage)<br />PUPA<br />WHAT COULD BE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE LIFE STAGES?<br />
    17. 17. Incomplete metamorphosis<br />WHAT COULD BE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE LIFE STAGES?<br />
    18. 18. Insect mouthparts<br />Insects can be classified according to mouthparts<br />TYPE 1. Chewing Mouthparts:<br /><ul><li>Examples – grasshoppers, beetles, weevils, cockroaches
    19. 19. 4 basic parts; Mandibles used for chewing!
    20. 20. Cannot feed on liquid materials</li></ul>Grasshopper mouthparts<br />Beetle mouthparts<br />
    21. 21. Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 2: Chewing-lapping Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Examples – honey bees (picture below), wasps
    22. 22. Complex modifications of MP
    23. 23. Mandibles used for chewing, proboscis for drinking (lapping) and exchanging fluid
    24. 24. Mouthparts allow molding wax, feeding on pollen, nectar</li></ul>Honey bee mouthparts<br />
    25. 25. Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 3: Siphoning (coiled) Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Examples – butterflies, moths
    26. 26. Severe reduction of mouthparts – only a proboscis or coiled tube is present
    27. 27. Short lived as adult, feed intermittently </li></ul>Hawk moth mouthparts<br />
    28. 28. Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 4: Sponging Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Examples – flies
    29. 29. Reduced mouthparts suitable for soaking up liquids
    30. 30. No ability to eat solid food
    31. 31. Some flies can “bite” but is actually scratching to feed on blood</li></ul>Fly mouthparts<br />
    32. 32. Insect mouthparts<br />TYPE 5: Piercing and Sucking MP<br /><ul><li>Examples – mosquitoes (6 needles), plant bugs (4 needles)
    33. 33. All mouthparts shaped like needles that form feeding tubes
    34. 34. Only female mosquitoes bite
    35. 35. All sexes of plant bugs can feed on plant juices</li></ul>Plant bugs<br />Mosquito<br />Leaf-footed bug mouthparts<br />Assassin bug mouthparts<br />
    36. 36. Insect Orders<br />
    37. 37. Key insect orders<br />Coleoptera<br />Diptera<br />Hemiptera<br />Lepidoptera<br />Orthoptera<br />Thysanoptera<br />
    38. 38. Coleoptera (beetles,weevils)<br />Some insect have defense markings<br />(click beetle)<br />Mexican bean beetle<br />Vegetable weevil<br />Wireworms<br />
    39. 39. Facts about beetles (Coleoptera)<br />Characteristics: forewings are hard, hindwings are membranous, poor fliers<br />Have four life stages – egg, larva (grub), pupa, adult<br />Grubs have strong mouthparts & are root feeders<br />Beetles (adult) are foliage/flower feeders and may transmit diseases<br />Often overwinter as adult or larva<br />Beetle wings<br />
    40. 40. Diptera (flies)<br />Mouth hooks of maggots<br />Vegetable leafminer<br />Seedcorn maggots<br />
    41. 41. Facts about flies (Diptera)<br />Characteristics: good flier (one pair of wings), larva (maggots) with reduced head<br />Have four life stages – egg, larva, pupa, adult<br />Larva have mouth hooks to scrape root surface<br />Adult flies feed on nectar or solids (sponging mouth type)<br />Often overwinter in larval stages<br />Fly wings<br />
    42. 42. Hemiptera (true bugs)<br />Piercing-sucking mouthparts (beak)<br />Leaf-footed bug<br />Stink bug<br />Aphids<br />
    43. 43. Facts about true bugs (Hemiptera)<br />Characteristics: wings are partially hardened, antennae short<br />Some are beneficial species<br />Have three life stages – egg, larva (nymph), adult<br />Overwinter in adult stage – immatures are vulnerable to predation.<br />Piercing-sucking mouthparts<br />Stink bug wings<br />Predatory stink bug<br />
    44. 44. Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies)<br />Fall armyworm<br />Imported cabbageworm<br />Granulate cutworm<br />Tomato hornworm<br />
    45. 45. Identifying larvae by appendages<br />Anal prolegs<br />Thoracic legs<br />Abdominal prolegs<br />Normal number of prolegs = 4 (cutworms, armyworms)<br />< Number of prolegs = 3 (green cloverworm)<br />Number of prolegs = 2 (cabbage looper) >><br />
    46. 46. Facts about moths & butterflies<br />Complete lifecycle – egg, larva, pupa, adult<br />Larvae are damaging stages…<br />Some members have become insecticide tolerant (diamondback moth, corn earworm)<br />Try controlling these pests in early stages (small larva)<br />Head of butterfly showing siphoning mouthparts (coiled beak)<br />
    47. 47. Orthoptera (grasshoppers)<br /><ul><li>Short-horned grasshopper (Acrididae)
    48. 48. Crickets (Gryllidae)
    49. 49. Mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae)</li></li></ul><li>Facts about grasshoppers<br />Life stages: egg, nymph, adult<br />Damage is caused by overlapping generations<br />Damage intense in dry years<br />Eggs laid in clusters in soil, food for many natural enemies<br />Extremely migratory and have unique behavior patterns (e.g., infections)<br />Grasshopper ovipositor<br />
    50. 50. Thysanoptera (thrips)<br />Tobacco thrips<br />Actual size = 5 mm<br />Flower thrips<br />
    51. 51. Facts about thrips<br />Actual size = 5 mm, commonly seen on flowers<br />Life stages: egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult<br />Damage is caused by the rasping MP<br />Damage intense in dry years<br />Transmit diseases between plants<br />
    52. 52. Types of Insect Injury<br />Presentation + Simulated training<br />
    53. 53. First know the definitions…<br />INJURY<br />DAMAGE<br />Damage = injury + economic loss<br />
    54. 54. Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Direct injury caused by feeding: chewing mouthparts VS. sucking mouth parts <br />
    55. 55. Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Direct injury caused during oviposition: dimpling on tomato by thrips egg-laying<br />Image: UFL IFAS Ext.<br />Image: UFL IFAS Ext.<br />
    56. 56. Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Indirect injury from insect products: honeydew causes sooty mold (aphids, whiteflies)<br />Image: TopTurf.net<br />Image: Iowa State<br />
    57. 57. Plant injury by INSECTS<br />Injury from disease transmission: aphids, thrips<br />Transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)<br />Transmit cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY)<br />Images: U Wisconsin & Queensland Govt., Australia<br />
    58. 58. Is it really an INSECT injury?<br />General steps to diagnosis:<br /><ul><li> Define the problem
    59. 59. Look for patterns: abiotic problems have patterns!
    60. 60. Used a scouting technique
    61. 61. How fast are symptoms spreading?
    62. 62. Process of elimination to arrive at a diagnosis</li></ul>VS.<br />Image: Missouri Bot. Garden<br />
    63. 63. Simulated Insect Injury<br />10-minute Group Exercise:<br /><ul><li> Divide into 5 groups – each group designate a leader
    64. 64. Take a sheet of paper and write names of team members
    65. 65. Take any one sample from the table
    66. 66. Describe of the problem, leader take notes (normal vs. abnormal)
    67. 67. What insect could have caused the injury? Direct/Indirect?
    68. 68. Team leader will present – 1 minutes
    69. 69. Diagnosis will be discussed (5 minutes)</li></li></ul><li>Intelligent Plant Management<br /><ul><li> Ecological approach to plant production
    70. 70. Common sense approach to solving plant health problems</li></li></ul><li>Steps to <br />Intelligent Plant Management<br /><ul><li> Choose the right plant for right season
    71. 71. Choose the right plant for location
    72. 72. Plant vigorous stress-free plants
    73. 73. Maintain good cultural practices (sanitation, chemical applications, weed control)
    74. 74. Pin-point stress & take action early
    75. 75. Stressed plants will be overcome by insects
    76. 76. Manage insects by Integrated Pest Mgmt</li></li></ul><li>Integrated Pest Management<br />Basic concept, status of IPM in AL, implementation<br />
    77. 77. What is IPM?<br /><ul><li>“Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.”
    78. 78. IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…
    79. 79. 70% area under IPM yest major losses occur due to:
    80. 80. Lack of early detection of insects
    81. 81. Insecticide resistance by misuse
    82. 82. Loss of natural control with insecticides</li></li></ul><li>Need for IPM<br /><ul><li> Loss of tomatoes in the absence of insecticides: 95% (AL)*
    83. 83. Nationally, average gain from IPM is $19 for every dollar spent (field crops)*
    84. 84. There is increasing demand for organic crops…
    85. 85. Insecticide use in AL is reducing, 1992-2002:
    86. 86. Asparagus (-30%)
    87. 87. Green peas (-73%)
    88. 88. Green beans (-36%)
    89. 89. Tomatoes (-20%)</li></ul>*L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.<br />
    90. 90. IPM in home & garden<br />Remove abiotic stresses<br />Conserve natural enemies (habitat)<br />Correctly identify insect pest<br />Biological control agents (microbials)<br />Cultural tactics – variety, rotation, trap crop<br />Chemical insecticides<br />Correct insecticide delivery system: correct application rate, timing, coverage<br />
    91. 91. NE Conservation System<br />Grassy buffers<br />Grassy buffer zone in permanent ecosystems<br />Grass shelters natural enemies<br />Many night-feeding insects hide in grass during day…treat the edges! <br />Sample in grass and keep it under control<br />Grassy buffer zone in temporary agroecosystem<br />
    92. 92. Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping <br />Trap crop (squash)<br />Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders<br />Squash lured away 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs (USDA res.)<br />Main crop <br />(watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber)<br />
    93. 93. Trap cropping arrangements<br />Row Trap Cropping (contd.) <br /> Plant trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum!<br />Strawberry production in California<br />Strawberry<br />(34 rows)<br />Strawberry<br />(34 rows)<br />Western tarnished plant bug damage<br />Alfalfa<br />
    94. 94. Recommendations for trap cropping<br />Try it on a small scale to gain confidence<br />Integrate with biological/chemical i-cides, pheromone trapping, etc.<br />Trap cropping can manage 1-2 insect species<br />Works great against sucking pests (plant bugs) and slow fliers (beetles)<br />Spray only the trap crop…reduce cost<br />
    95. 95. Alternative Insecticides for Gardeners<br />Use them in rotation:<br />Thuricide, Dipel (Bt)<br />M-pede (soap)<br />Safer pyrethrin<br />Oils (with caution!)<br />Contact a nursery for supplies & purchase early<br />Do not use unlabeled insecticides (e.g., RTU home pesticides)<br />Always read the label!<br />
    96. 96. Toxicity of Some Insecticides (General Use Pesticides)<br />Ref.: “General use insecticides for home gardening” by Dr. RicBessin (UK)<br />Rule 1: Higher the LD50 safer will be the product!<br />Rule 2: Products containing highly toxic AI have very low % chemical.<br />
    97. 97. Decision making in IPM…<br />Insect detection & monitoring<br />Insect identification<br />Population pressure<br />Economic threshold<br />Make treatment decision<br />Choosing right insecticide<br />
    98. 98. Monitoring insects with TRAPPING DEVICES<br />
    99. 99. What are insect pheromones?<br />Pheromones are chemicals released into environment in small amounts by insects.<br />Pheromones are species specific, stimulates opposite gender.<br />Male moths detect pheromones with antennae.<br />Synthetic sex pheromones are manufactured & used as lures.<br />
    100. 100. Types of Insect Traps<br />Passive traps: do not use a lure of any kind, e.g., pit-fall traps, ground sticky traps, water traps, flight interception trap (beat sheet)<br />Interception trap <br />(can be used with or without light)<br />Pit-fall trap with a metal sheet as hood<br />
    101. 101. Types of Insect Traps<br />Active traps: <br />use a lure of some kind, e.g., food, color, shape, light…PHEROMONES<br />Dome Fly Trap with liquid bait for mass trapping fruit flies<br />Light trap<br />
    102. 102. Types of Insect Traps<br />Active traps (contd.): use a lure of some kind<br />Use many traps for accuracy<br />Active/passive trap: <br />yellow water pan trap<br />Yellow/white Sticky Trap with grid<br />Ball trap for dipteran flies<br />
    103. 103. Why use pheromone traps?<br />Know what to scout for & when to scout INTENSIVELY<br />Automatic identification of closely related species<br />Prediction models will be avail.<br />Stink bug trap<br />Wing trap<br />Pherocon trap<br />Bucket trap<br />
    104. 104. Parts of a Pheromone Trap<br />Metal support<br />Top section (fixed) <br />Lure with lure holder<br />Bottom section (replaceable sticky card with grid) <br />Wing Pheromone Trap<br />
    105. 105. Types of Pheromone Traps<br />Wing Traps<br />Simple wing trap with grid on sticky bottom<br />Wing trap with baffles (large trap surface)<br />Popular due to easy assemblage, large trap area, & low cost<br />Suitable for larger moths: armyworm, cutworm, fruitworms<br />Problem: weather & animals could ruin trap<br />
    106. 106. Types of Pheromone Traps<br />Delta Traps<br />>><br />Delta traps with sticky insert having a printed grid. Sides fold to hold the sticky insert in place.<br />Advantages: easy assemblage, low maintenance, less interference<br />Suitable for small moths – diamondback moth, warehouse pests<br />Problem: small trapping surface <br />
    107. 107. Types of Pheromone Traps<br />Mass trapping kits<br />Advantages:<br />Relatively inexpensive<br />Convenient cleaning<br />Lure lasts longer<br />Disadvantages:<br />Needs a killing agent<br />(“No Pest Strip”)<br />
    108. 108. Trap & Lure Suppliers<br />TRAPS:<br />Great Lakes IPM (MI)<br />Arbico Organics (AZ)<br />Gemplers<br />LURES:<br /><ul><li>Great Lakes IPM – ScentryBiologicals (MT) & Trece, Inc.
    109. 109. APTIV, Inc. (OR)</li></li></ul><li>AL Insect Monitoring Project<br />(new in 2009)<br /><ul><li> Use traps for early detection of pests
    110. 110. What does trap catch tell you?</li></ul>Catch = pop. density x activity<br /><ul><li> Trap network (operated by REAs): </li></ul>N-S: vegetable fields <br />E-W: peanut fields<br /><ul><li> Commercial traps/lures used
    111. 111. Trapping period: June-October
    112. 112. Trapping interval (2009): 14 days</li></li></ul><li>What is it?<br />HINT: Several outbreaks of these insects occurred in AL, 2009<br />Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua <br />Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda<br />
    113. 113. Fall armyworm <br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />20<br />17<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />19<br />29<br />15<br />27<br />32<br />16<br />12<br />13<br />48<br />36<br />Year 2009<br />
    114. 114. What are these?<br />Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea<br />Tobacco budworm, Heliothisvirescens<br />
    115. 115. Corn earworm<br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />6<br /> 3<br />17<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />10<br />8<br />25<br />3<br />12<br /> 7<br />5<br />8<br />16<br />11<br />Year 2009<br />
    116. 116. Impact of Weather on Trap Catches<br />Sign. Correlation of TEMPERATURE :<br />Year 2009<br />Sign. Correlation of RAIN DAYS :<br />Numbers indicate significant correlations at P = 0.10. +/- indicates direction of relationship (preliminary findings). Rain days indicate number of days rainfall exceeded 0.1 inch.<br />
    117. 117. Biological Control Agents<br />Asian citrus psyllid: has many natural enemies<br />
    118. 118. General predators<br />Lacewings:<br />Chrysoperla rufilabris<br />
    119. 119. General predators<br />Ash-gray lady beetle, Olla v-nigrum<br />Multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis<br />Spotless lady beetle, Cycloneda sp.<br />
    120. 120. Predacious stink bugs <br /><ul><li> Typically have short beak
    121. 121. Abundant in orchards, weedy borders
    122. 122. Voracious feeders of caterpillars
    123. 123. Watch numbers: a sudden increase may indicated pest presence</li></ul>SB feeding on armyworm<br />Podisus maculiventris <br />Euthyrhynchus floridanus <br />Alcaeorrhynchus grandis <br />
    124. 124. Introduced parasitoid (Eulophidae)<br />Tamarixia radiata, in FL from Taiwan<br /><ul><li> Female wasp lays eggs under ACP nymph
    125. 125. Parasite develops inside the body (arrow in picture)
    126. 126. Adult wasp emerges from an exit hole</li></li></ul><li>IPM in Vegetables:Tomato<br />(Applied Entomology: insect biology meets insect control)<br />
    127. 127. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Sample ten plants in several locations<br />Yellow sticky traps at edge of field<br />Like cool, dry weather<br />Watch for ants and lady beetles<br />ET = 50% leaves with aphids<br />Potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae<br />Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae<br />
    128. 128. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)<br />Bag and shake technique<br />No action threshold<br />Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa) <br />Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis<br />Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca<br />Tomato spotted wilt destroys plants<br />
    129. 129. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Monitor level of defoliation<br />Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours<br />Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net)<br />ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 25-30% defoliation mid-season<br />Flea beetles (many species)<br />
    130. 130. What is it?<br />Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Start looking on border rows<br />Scout intensely short crop (<6 inch)<br />ET = 5 beetles per 10 seedling or 10% defoliation in short crop<br />Larva of lady beetle (beneficial insect!)<br />
    131. 131. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Examine green fruit, stem terminals<br />Scout for egg masses or larvae <br />Use pheromone traps to detect first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is <85F<br />ET is ½ if temp. is >85F <br />Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea<br />Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens<br />
    132. 132. What is it?<br />Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Use a sweep net<br />Use pheromone trap (expensive? cumbersome?)<br />Intensify scouting at fruit setting<br />ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage) <br />Lygus bug, Lygus lineolaris<br />Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus<br />
    133. 133. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Minor foliar pests (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)<br />Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect<br />Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation<br />Look for fecal pellets on leaves<br />Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni<br />Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens<br />
    134. 134. Asian Citrus Psyllid(Diaphorinacitri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae)<br />
    135. 135. First Reports of ACP<br />ACP was first detected in 1998 in backyard plantings of Murrayapaniculata<br />At present, 33 counties in FL have ACP<br />ACP has been found in many states, but Citrus Greening Disease (CGD) is present in LO & FL<br />ACP in Baldwin County (2008)<br />No detection of ACP or CGD in 2009<br />www.SaveOurCitrus.org <br />
    136. 136. ACP Life cycle<br />Host plants: all citrus plants, 2 species of Murraya (all Rutaceae)<br />ACP EGGS<br />Eggs are almond shaped<br />Eggs pale when fresh, turn yellow or opaque<br />Eggs laid on tips of growing shoot or tender leaves in clusters<br />
    137. 137. Life Cycle & Identification<br />NYMPHS<br />53F*<br />51F<br />50F<br />51F<br />*Liu & Tsai 2000<br />52F<br />Nymphs: 5 instars, red eyes, large wing pads<br />Development fails below 50oF<br />Live in feeding pits created by adults<br />
    138. 138. Life Cycle & Identification<br />ACP specimen<br />ADULT PSYLLID<br />Adult is 3 mm long, forewings broad apically<br />Tip of antennae black<br />Brown band on wings around the border<br />Wings with reduced venation, prominent veins <br />
    139. 139. Behavior of ACP<br />Auburn Team at a Baldwin County location<br />Active insect that rests with body at an angle<br />Adult psyllids readily jump on approach<br />Dispersion: good fliers, moved by wind<br />
    140. 140. Life Cycle & Identification<br />Defense mechanism:<br /> Masses of waxy filaments produced by nymphs to keep honey dew away!<br />
    141. 141. Citrus Injury due to ACP<br />ACP has piercing-sucking mouthparts<br />Loss of plant sap from foliage<br />High reproductive capacity & survival of eggs/nymphs can cause rapid infestation (check new terminals)<br />
    142. 142. Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)<br />CITRUS GREENING DISEASE (CGD) or Huanglongbing:<br />Worst disease of citrus transmitted by ACP<br />Bacterium Liberibacter<br />Short feeding inoculates ACP<br />
    143. 143. Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)<br />SYMPTOMS OF CGD:<br /><ul><li>Slowly kills the tree (vascular)
    144. 144. Deformed yellow leaves
    145. 145. Blotchy mottling, asymmetrical
    146. 146. Twig dieback</li></li></ul><li>Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)<br />SYMPTOMS OF CGD:<br /><ul><li>Lopsided fruit
    147. 147. Partially green
    148. 148. Distasteful fruit
    149. 149. Aborted black seeds</li></ul>Remember: other disorders may cause diagnostic problems<br />
    150. 150. What can confuse you?<br />Citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri)<br />Long bristles on wings<br />Citrus mealybug <br />(Planococcus citri)<br />No wing-pads!<br />Trash bug (trash-carrying lacewing)<br />Brown citrus aphid <br />(Toxoptera citricida)<br />Have tail-pipes!<br />
    151. 151. SOURCES OF INFORMATION on ACP<br />
    152. 152. www.SaveOurCitrus.org<br />Has insect ID section<br />Has a Citrus Greening Tracker<br />Has a list of high risk activities<br />“What to do if you sight ACP?”<br />
    153. 153. Select a state<br />Directs you to local contact<br />USDA Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS)<br />
    154. 154. Internet Resources<br />YouTube videos<br />eXtension.org<br />Image repositories:<br />Flickr.com<br />BugGuide.net<br />Bugwood.org<br />
    155. 155. NEW ONLINE RESOURCES<br />Subscribe to Blogs/email alerts<br />Follow on SlideShare<br />
    156. 156. IPM COmmunicationREsources<br />(IPM-CORE) Project<br />Goal: Synchronized rapid IPM information delivery to growers<br /><ul><li>Project archive: www.aces.edu/go/85 or www.aces.edu/go/88
    157. 157. “AU Pest Alert” (direct email): May-October
    158. 158. Web outreach: Blogs, YouTube, AlabamaCrops.com, AGFAX.COM
    159. 159. IPM Hotline (messages): 1-800-446-0375
    160. 160. Make sure you see the AL IPM EXHIBIT
    161. 161. Timely revisions to Extension bulletins</li></li></ul><li>IPM Trapping Coordinators: <br />A. Majumdar<br />H. Fadamiro<br />K. Flanders<br />IPM Team Members:<br />Lloyd Chapman<br />Neil Kelly<br />Michael Reeves<br />Gary Gray<br />James Miles<br />William East, Jr.<br />Brandon Dillard<br />Leonard Kuykendall<br />Chris Becker<br />Timothy Reed<br />Acknowledgements to AL IPM Team<br />Thank you very much.<br />Please take the POST-TEST<br />
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