Master Gardener Entomology Module 2010

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This presentation was given to Alabama Master Gardener interns in February 2010.

This presentation was given to Alabama Master Gardener interns in February 2010.

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  • Injury is the effect of insect on plant.
  • Cucumber mosaic virus: >60 aphid species are capable of transmitting CMV in nonpersistent virus – virus is acquired within 1 min of feeding but can be transmitted within a short duration of time (stylet-borne inoculum)Potato virus Y: aphids can acquire the virus in less than a minute and has to be transported very quickly to a healthy plant in a minute or so. Aphids may retain the virus for 24 h.
  • Define the problem: Record the normal & abnormal charactersKeep written notes & take pictures (blogging?)Examine entire plant in its ecosystemLook around: is something affecting one plant or a group of plants?Look for patterns:Nature is random!If patterns exist on plant or a group of plants…abiotic problem? (e.g., herbicide injury, storm injury to plants, etc.)Biotic sources affect plants randomly (e.g., insect, diseases)Biotic problems change location between yearsScouting procedure:If you have found the problem, mark the problem area with sticks, garden stakes, tall flags, etc.Familiarize yourself with sampling techniques and sample preparationTake a closer look at plants, uproot plants if feasibleAsk the experts before spending money on control!Delineate time-development:Biotic problems may spread slowly in an area and a pattern may appearAbiotic problems develop faster and patterns are obviousKeep an eye on the marked area and sample frequently to be able to “encounter” the problem (random) Determine the cause of injury:Think broadly >> narrow down to few causes ORUse the process of elimination to arrive at a solutionUse all resources you have to ID insects, many on the webFind the economic threshold: doing nothing is also OK
  • Trends in FAW population were stronger than BAW seen before. FAW pressures were high in all parts of AL. There were at least two generations detected one month apart of FAW in north central AL. Three peaks could be detected one month apart in south AL along the Gulf Coast. Impact of weather parameters was also stronger on FAW populations than BAW.


  • 1. Entomology Crash Course for Master Gardener Interns
    Dr. Ayanava Majumdar
    Ext. Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator
    Gulf Coast Research & Ext. Center
    8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope AL 36532
    Tel: (251) 331-8416
  • 2. Entomology Crash Course
    Objective: opportunity to closely examine insects and understand ecological functions
    Course lay-out:
    • Insect form & function
    • 3. Insect classification
    • 4. Types of insect injuries
    • 5. Integrated pest management
    • 6. Insect monitoring using traps
    • 7. IPM in tomatoes
    • 8. Citrus psyllid - a new invasive insect
  • 9. Insect Form & Function
    This sign indicates study of real insect specimen using a digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro)
  • 10. Fun Facts about insects
    Insects have been around for at least 350 million years
    Over 900,000 described species (75% of all animal species)
    U.S. has about 91,000 described species
    Less than 1% of these are considered pests
    Four largest insect orders: beetles (Coleoptera), flies (Diptera), ants (Hymenoptera), moths (Lepidoptera)
  • 11. Why are INSECTS so successful?
    Small size, cryptic in nature
    Small food requirement
    Rapid and prolific reproduction
    Grows by molting (control over growth rate)
    Life stages feed on different substrate
  • 12. Characteristics of arthropods
    Segmented bodies and jointed appendages
    Exoskeleton shed periodically
    Characteristics Insects:
    Three body regions (head, thorax and abdomen)
    Six legs or less or zero (NEVER more!)
    Grasshopper specimen
  • 13. Insect Exoskeleton
    Insects have a cuticle, cuticle has chitin
    Epicuticle (topmost)
    Chitin molecules interlink to provide strength!
    Hard cuticle of a cockroach
  • 14. Insect Growth
    Insects need to shed (molt) old skin to grow in size.
    The period between molts is called an instar.
    Most insects have 4–8 instars before becoming adult.
    Cicada nymph molts into an adult
  • 15. Insect Growth
    Metamorphosis:drastic change in shape and form for growth and development.
    Two types: complete and incomplete.
    The stage of development of an insect will affect insecticide efficacy:
  • 16. Complete metamorphosis
    LARVA (mobile stage)
  • 17. Incomplete metamorphosis
  • 18. Insect mouthparts
    Insects can be classified according to mouthparts
    TYPE 1. Chewing Mouthparts:
    • Examples – grasshoppers, beetles, weevils, cockroaches
    • 19. 4 basic parts; Mandibles used for chewing!
    • 20. Cannot feed on liquid materials
    Grasshopper mouthparts
    Beetle mouthparts
  • 21. Insect mouthparts
    TYPE 2: Chewing-lapping Mouthparts
    • Examples – honey bees (picture below), wasps
    • 22. Complex modifications of MP
    • 23. Mandibles used for chewing, proboscis for drinking (lapping) and exchanging fluid
    • 24. Mouthparts allow molding wax, feeding on pollen, nectar
    Honey bee mouthparts
  • 25. Insect mouthparts
    TYPE 3: Siphoning (coiled) Mouthparts
    • Examples – butterflies, moths
    • 26. Severe reduction of mouthparts – only a proboscis or coiled tube is present
    • 27. Short lived as adult, feed intermittently
    Hawk moth mouthparts
  • 28. Insect mouthparts
    TYPE 4: Sponging Mouthparts
    • Examples – flies
    • 29. Reduced mouthparts suitable for soaking up liquids
    • 30. No ability to eat solid food
    • 31. Some flies can “bite” but is actually scratching to feed on blood
    Fly mouthparts
  • 32. Insect mouthparts
    TYPE 5: Piercing and Sucking MP
    • Examples – mosquitoes (6 needles), plant bugs (4 needles)
    • 33. All mouthparts shaped like needles that form feeding tubes
    • 34. Only female mosquitoes bite
    • 35. All sexes of plant bugs can feed on plant juices
    Plant bugs
    Leaf-footed bug mouthparts
    Assassin bug mouthparts
  • 36. Insect Orders
  • 37. Key insect orders
  • 38. Coleoptera (beetles,weevils)
    Some insect have defense markings
    (click beetle)
    Mexican bean beetle
    Vegetable weevil
  • 39. Facts about beetles (Coleoptera)
    Characteristics: forewings are hard, hindwings are membranous, poor fliers
    Have four life stages – egg, larva (grub), pupa, adult
    Grubs have strong mouthparts & are root feeders
    Beetles (adult) are foliage/flower feeders and may transmit diseases
    Often overwinter as adult or larva
    Beetle wings
  • 40. Diptera (flies)
    Mouth hooks of maggots
    Vegetable leafminer
    Seedcorn maggots
  • 41. Facts about flies (Diptera)
    Characteristics: good flier (one pair of wings), larva (maggots) with reduced head
    Have four life stages – egg, larva, pupa, adult
    Larva have mouth hooks to scrape root surface
    Adult flies feed on nectar or solids (sponging mouth type)
    Often overwinter in larval stages
    Fly wings
  • 42. Hemiptera (true bugs)
    Piercing-sucking mouthparts (beak)
    Leaf-footed bug
    Stink bug
  • 43. Facts about true bugs (Hemiptera)
    Characteristics: wings are partially hardened, antennae short
    Some are beneficial species
    Have three life stages – egg, larva (nymph), adult
    Overwinter in adult stage – immatures are vulnerable to predation.
    Piercing-sucking mouthparts
    Stink bug wings
    Predatory stink bug
  • 44. Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies)
    Fall armyworm
    Imported cabbageworm
    Granulate cutworm
    Tomato hornworm
  • 45. Identifying larvae by appendages
    Anal prolegs
    Thoracic legs
    Abdominal prolegs
    Normal number of prolegs = 4 (cutworms, armyworms)
    < Number of prolegs = 3 (green cloverworm)
    Number of prolegs = 2 (cabbage looper) >>
  • 46. Facts about moths & butterflies
    Complete lifecycle – egg, larva, pupa, adult
    Larvae are damaging stages…
    Some members have become insecticide tolerant (diamondback moth, corn earworm)
    Try controlling these pests in early stages (small larva)
    Head of butterfly showing siphoning mouthparts (coiled beak)
  • 47. Orthoptera (grasshoppers)
    • Short-horned grasshopper (Acrididae)
    • 48. Crickets (Gryllidae)
    • 49. Mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae)
  • Facts about grasshoppers
    Life stages: egg, nymph, adult
    Damage is caused by overlapping generations
    Damage intense in dry years
    Eggs laid in clusters in soil, food for many natural enemies
    Extremely migratory and have unique behavior patterns (e.g., infections)
    Grasshopper ovipositor
  • 50. Thysanoptera (thrips)
    Tobacco thrips
    Actual size = 5 mm
    Flower thrips
  • 51. Facts about thrips
    Actual size = 5 mm, commonly seen on flowers
    Life stages: egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult
    Damage is caused by the rasping MP
    Damage intense in dry years
    Transmit diseases between plants
  • 52. Types of Insect Injury
    Presentation + Simulated training
  • 53. First know the definitions…
    Damage = injury + economic loss
  • 54. Plant injury by INSECTS
    Direct injury caused by feeding: chewing mouthparts VS. sucking mouth parts
  • 55. Plant injury by INSECTS
    Direct injury caused during oviposition: dimpling on tomato by thrips egg-laying
    Image: UFL IFAS Ext.
    Image: UFL IFAS Ext.
  • 56. Plant injury by INSECTS
    Indirect injury from insect products: honeydew causes sooty mold (aphids, whiteflies)
    Image: Iowa State
  • 57. Plant injury by INSECTS
    Injury from disease transmission: aphids, thrips
    Transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
    Transmit cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY)
    Images: U Wisconsin & Queensland Govt., Australia
  • 58. Is it really an INSECT injury?
    General steps to diagnosis:
    • Define the problem
    • 59. Look for patterns: abiotic problems have patterns!
    • 60. Used a scouting technique
    • 61. How fast are symptoms spreading?
    • 62. Process of elimination to arrive at a diagnosis
    Image: Missouri Bot. Garden
  • 63. Simulated Insect Injury
    10-minute Group Exercise:
    • Divide into 5 groups – each group designate a leader
    • 64. Take a sheet of paper and write names of team members
    • 65. Take any one sample from the table
    • 66. Describe of the problem, leader take notes (normal vs. abnormal)
    • 67. What insect could have caused the injury? Direct/Indirect?
    • 68. Team leader will present – 1 minutes
    • 69. Diagnosis will be discussed (5 minutes)
  • Intelligent Plant Management
    • Ecological approach to plant production
    • 70. Common sense approach to solving plant health problems
  • Steps to
    Intelligent Plant Management
    • Choose the right plant for right season
    • 71. Choose the right plant for location
    • 72. Plant vigorous stress-free plants
    • 73. Maintain good cultural practices (sanitation, chemical applications, weed control)
    • 74. Pin-point stress & take action early
    • 75. Stressed plants will be overcome by insects
    • 76. Manage insects by Integrated Pest Mgmt
  • Integrated Pest Management
    Basic concept, status of IPM in AL, implementation
  • 77. What is IPM?
    • “Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.”
    • 78. IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…
    • 79. 70% area under IPM yest major losses occur due to:
    • 80. Lack of early detection of insects
    • 81. Insecticide resistance by misuse
    • 82. Loss of natural control with insecticides
  • Need for IPM
    • Loss of tomatoes in the absence of insecticides: 95% (AL)*
    • 83. Nationally, average gain from IPM is $19 for every dollar spent (field crops)*
    • 84. There is increasing demand for organic crops…
    • 85. Insecticide use in AL is reducing, 1992-2002:
    • 86. Asparagus (-30%)
    • 87. Green peas (-73%)
    • 88. Green beans (-36%)
    • 89. Tomatoes (-20%)
    *L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.
  • 90. IPM in home & garden
    Remove abiotic stresses
    Conserve natural enemies (habitat)
    Correctly identify insect pest
    Biological control agents (microbials)
    Cultural tactics – variety, rotation, trap crop
    Chemical insecticides
    Correct insecticide delivery system: correct application rate, timing, coverage
  • 91. NE Conservation System
    Grassy buffers
    Grassy buffer zone in permanent ecosystems
    Grass shelters natural enemies
    Many night-feeding insects hide in grass during day…treat the edges!
    Sample in grass and keep it under control
    Grassy buffer zone in temporary agroecosystem
  • 92. Trap cropping arrangements
    Perimeter Trap Cropping
    Trap crop (squash)
    Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders
    Squash lured away 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs (USDA res.)
    Main crop
    (watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber)
  • 93. Trap cropping arrangements
    Row Trap Cropping (contd.)
    Plant trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum!
    Strawberry production in California
    (34 rows)
    (34 rows)
    Western tarnished plant bug damage
  • 94. Recommendations for trap cropping
    Try it on a small scale to gain confidence
    Integrate with biological/chemical i-cides, pheromone trapping, etc.
    Trap cropping can manage 1-2 insect species
    Works great against sucking pests (plant bugs) and slow fliers (beetles)
    Spray only the trap crop…reduce cost
  • 95. Alternative Insecticides for Gardeners
    Use them in rotation:
    Thuricide, Dipel (Bt)
    M-pede (soap)
    Safer pyrethrin
    Oils (with caution!)
    Contact a nursery for supplies & purchase early
    Do not use unlabeled insecticides (e.g., RTU home pesticides)
    Always read the label!
  • 96. Toxicity of Some Insecticides (General Use Pesticides)
    Ref.: “General use insecticides for home gardening” by Dr. RicBessin (UK)
    Rule 1: Higher the LD50 safer will be the product!
    Rule 2: Products containing highly toxic AI have very low % chemical.
  • 97. Decision making in IPM…
    Insect detection & monitoring
    Insect identification
    Population pressure
    Economic threshold
    Make treatment decision
    Choosing right insecticide
  • 98. Monitoring insects with TRAPPING DEVICES
  • 99. What are insect pheromones?
    Pheromones are chemicals released into environment in small amounts by insects.
    Pheromones are species specific, stimulates opposite gender.
    Male moths detect pheromones with antennae.
    Synthetic sex pheromones are manufactured & used as lures.
  • 100. Types of Insect Traps
    Passive traps: do not use a lure of any kind, e.g., pit-fall traps, ground sticky traps, water traps, flight interception trap (beat sheet)
    Interception trap
    (can be used with or without light)
    Pit-fall trap with a metal sheet as hood
  • 101. Types of Insect Traps
    Active traps:
    use a lure of some kind, e.g., food, color, shape, light…PHEROMONES
    Dome Fly Trap with liquid bait for mass trapping fruit flies
    Light trap
  • 102. Types of Insect Traps
    Active traps (contd.): use a lure of some kind
    Use many traps for accuracy
    Active/passive trap:
    yellow water pan trap
    Yellow/white Sticky Trap with grid
    Ball trap for dipteran flies
  • 103. Why use pheromone traps?
    Know what to scout for & when to scout INTENSIVELY
    Automatic identification of closely related species
    Prediction models will be avail.
    Stink bug trap
    Wing trap
    Pherocon trap
    Bucket trap
  • 104. Parts of a Pheromone Trap
    Metal support
    Top section (fixed)
    Lure with lure holder
    Bottom section (replaceable sticky card with grid)
    Wing Pheromone Trap
  • 105. Types of Pheromone Traps
    Wing Traps
    Simple wing trap with grid on sticky bottom
    Wing trap with baffles (large trap surface)
    Popular due to easy assemblage, large trap area, & low cost
    Suitable for larger moths: armyworm, cutworm, fruitworms
    Problem: weather & animals could ruin trap
  • 106. Types of Pheromone Traps
    Delta Traps
    Delta traps with sticky insert having a printed grid. Sides fold to hold the sticky insert in place.
    Advantages: easy assemblage, low maintenance, less interference
    Suitable for small moths – diamondback moth, warehouse pests
    Problem: small trapping surface
  • 107. Types of Pheromone Traps
    Mass trapping kits
    Relatively inexpensive
    Convenient cleaning
    Lure lasts longer
    Needs a killing agent
    (“No Pest Strip”)
  • 108. Trap & Lure Suppliers
    Great Lakes IPM (MI)
    Arbico Organics (AZ)
    • Great Lakes IPM – ScentryBiologicals (MT) & Trece, Inc.
    • 109. APTIV, Inc. (OR)
  • AL Insect Monitoring Project
    (new in 2009)
    • Use traps for early detection of pests
    • 110. What does trap catch tell you?
    Catch = pop. density x activity
    • Trap network (operated by REAs):
    N-S: vegetable fields
    E-W: peanut fields
    • Commercial traps/lures used
    • 111. Trapping period: June-October
    • 112. Trapping interval (2009): 14 days
  • What is it?
    HINT: Several outbreaks of these insects occurred in AL, 2009
    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua
    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
  • 113. Fall armyworm
    Insect density (overall) per site
    Monthly average activity (statewide)
    Year 2009
  • 114. What are these?
    Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea
    Tobacco budworm, Heliothisvirescens
  • 115. Corn earworm
    Insect density (overall) per site
    Monthly average activity (statewide)
    Year 2009
  • 116. Impact of Weather on Trap Catches
    Sign. Correlation of TEMPERATURE :
    Year 2009
    Sign. Correlation of RAIN DAYS :
    Numbers indicate significant correlations at P = 0.10. +/- indicates direction of relationship (preliminary findings). Rain days indicate number of days rainfall exceeded 0.1 inch.
  • 117. Biological Control Agents
    Asian citrus psyllid: has many natural enemies
  • 118. General predators
    Chrysoperla rufilabris
  • 119. General predators
    Ash-gray lady beetle, Olla v-nigrum
    Multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis
    Spotless lady beetle, Cycloneda sp.
  • 120. Predacious stink bugs
    • Typically have short beak
    • 121. Abundant in orchards, weedy borders
    • 122. Voracious feeders of caterpillars
    • 123. Watch numbers: a sudden increase may indicated pest presence
    SB feeding on armyworm
    Podisus maculiventris
    Euthyrhynchus floridanus
    Alcaeorrhynchus grandis
  • 124. Introduced parasitoid (Eulophidae)
    Tamarixia radiata, in FL from Taiwan
    • Female wasp lays eggs under ACP nymph
    • 125. Parasite develops inside the body (arrow in picture)
    • 126. Adult wasp emerges from an exit hole
  • IPM in Vegetables:Tomato
    (Applied Entomology: insect biology meets insect control)
  • 127. What is it?
    Monitoring/scouting techniques:
    Sample ten plants in several locations
    Yellow sticky traps at edge of field
    Like cool, dry weather
    Watch for ants and lady beetles
    ET = 50% leaves with aphids
    Potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae
    Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae
  • 128. What is it?
    Monitoring/scouting techniques:
    Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)
    Bag and shake technique
    No action threshold
    Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa)
    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis
    Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca
    Tomato spotted wilt destroys plants
  • 129. What is it?
    Monitoring/scouting techniques:
    Monitor level of defoliation
    Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours
    Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net)
    ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 25-30% defoliation mid-season
    Flea beetles (many species)
  • 130. What is it?
    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
    Monitoring/scouting techniques:
    Start looking on border rows
    Scout intensely short crop (<6 inch)
    ET = 5 beetles per 10 seedling or 10% defoliation in short crop
    Larva of lady beetle (beneficial insect!)
  • 131. What is it?
    Monitoring/scouting techniques:
    Examine green fruit, stem terminals
    Scout for egg masses or larvae
    Use pheromone traps to detect first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is <85F
    ET is ½ if temp. is >85F
    Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea
    Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens
  • 132. What is it?
    Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula
    Monitoring/scouting techniques:
    Use a sweep net
    Use pheromone trap (expensive? cumbersome?)
    Intensify scouting at fruit setting
    ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage)
    Lygus bug, Lygus lineolaris
    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus
  • 133. What is it?
    Monitoring/scouting techniques:
    Minor foliar pests (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)
    Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect
    Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation
    Look for fecal pellets on leaves
    Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni
    Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens
  • 134. Asian Citrus Psyllid(Diaphorinacitri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae)
  • 135. First Reports of ACP
    ACP was first detected in 1998 in backyard plantings of Murrayapaniculata
    At present, 33 counties in FL have ACP
    ACP has been found in many states, but Citrus Greening Disease (CGD) is present in LO & FL
    ACP in Baldwin County (2008)
    No detection of ACP or CGD in 2009 
  • 136. ACP Life cycle
    Host plants: all citrus plants, 2 species of Murraya (all Rutaceae)
    Eggs are almond shaped
    Eggs pale when fresh, turn yellow or opaque
    Eggs laid on tips of growing shoot or tender leaves in clusters
  • 137. Life Cycle & Identification
    *Liu & Tsai 2000
    Nymphs: 5 instars, red eyes, large wing pads
    Development fails below 50oF
    Live in feeding pits created by adults
  • 138. Life Cycle & Identification
    ACP specimen
    Adult is 3 mm long, forewings broad apically
    Tip of antennae black
    Brown band on wings around the border
    Wings with reduced venation, prominent veins
  • 139. Behavior of ACP
    Auburn Team at a Baldwin County location
    Active insect that rests with body at an angle
    Adult psyllids readily jump on approach
    Dispersion: good fliers, moved by wind
  • 140. Life Cycle & Identification
    Defense mechanism:
    Masses of waxy filaments produced by nymphs to keep honey dew away!
  • 141. Citrus Injury due to ACP
    ACP has piercing-sucking mouthparts
    Loss of plant sap from foliage
    High reproductive capacity & survival of eggs/nymphs can cause rapid infestation (check new terminals)
  • 142. Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)
    CITRUS GREENING DISEASE (CGD) or Huanglongbing:
    Worst disease of citrus transmitted by ACP
    Bacterium Liberibacter
    Short feeding inoculates ACP
  • 143. Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)
    • Slowly kills the tree (vascular)
    • 144. Deformed yellow leaves
    • 145. Blotchy mottling, asymmetrical
    • 146. Twig dieback
  • Citrus Injury due to ACP (contd.)
    Remember: other disorders may cause diagnostic problems
  • 150. What can confuse you?
    Citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri)
    Long bristles on wings
    Citrus mealybug
    (Planococcus citri)
    No wing-pads!
    Trash bug (trash-carrying lacewing)
    Brown citrus aphid
    (Toxoptera citricida)
    Have tail-pipes!
  • 152.
    Has insect ID section
    Has a Citrus Greening Tracker
    Has a list of high risk activities
    “What to do if you sight ACP?”
  • 153. Select a state
    Directs you to local contact
    USDA Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS)
  • 154. Internet Resources
    YouTube videos
    Image repositories:
    Subscribe to Blogs/email alerts
    Follow on SlideShare
  • 156. IPM COmmunicationREsources
    (IPM-CORE) Project
    Goal: Synchronized rapid IPM information delivery to growers
    • Project archive: or
    • 157. “AU Pest Alert” (direct email): May-October
    • 158. Web outreach: Blogs, YouTube,, AGFAX.COM
    • 159. IPM Hotline (messages): 1-800-446-0375
    • 160. Make sure you see the AL IPM EXHIBIT
    • 161. Timely revisions to Extension bulletins
  • IPM Trapping Coordinators:
    A. Majumdar
    H. Fadamiro
    K. Flanders
    IPM Team Members:
    Lloyd Chapman
    Neil Kelly
    Michael Reeves
    Gary Gray
    James Miles
    William East, Jr.
    Brandon Dillard
    Leonard Kuykendall
    Chris Becker
    Timothy Reed
    Acknowledgements to AL IPM Team
    Thank you very much.
    Please take the POST-TEST