James Watt (1736 - 1819) Scottish inventor James Watt was a mechanical engineer who radically improved the steam engine.
Newcomens Erfindung ver-schlingt viel Energie, weil der Zylinder abwechselnd erhitzt und abgekühlt wird. Watt trennt beide Vorgänge: Der Zylinder C bleibt stets heiss, der Kondensator D kalt. Er dichtet den Zylinder auch oben ab und lässt den Dampf von oben auf den Kolben wirken. Er baut die Atmosphärenmaschine um zur Dampfmaschine. Sie ist schneller, leistungsfähiger, sparsamer und rettet die Bergwerkunternehmer.
1782 erfindet Watt die doppelt wirkende Dampfmaschine. Abwechselnd lässt er durch Ventile den Dampf oberhalb und unterhalb des Kolbens einströmen. Die Dampfmenge steuert er mit einem Fliehkraftregler. Das Auf und Ab des Kolbens überträgt er mithilfe eines paral-lelogrammförmigen Gestänges und wandelt es um in eine Drehbewegung.
The first steam engine was built in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt improved a model of the engine, with his solution being a separate condenser, which he patented in 1769. This, and various other features, meant that Watt and his partner Matthew Boulton had an engine which was capable of driving machinery. This rotative engine was built in 1788 to power a section of Boulton's own works in Soho, London. It was known as the Lap engine because it drove a number of metal polishing ('lapping') machines, and was the first engine ever to be fitted with a centrifugal governor to regulate its speed. By 1800, when Watt and Boulton's partnership ended, 451 engines had been built of which 268 were rotative.
The first steam railway locomotive in the world, which preceded Stephenson's Rocket by 26 years.
Trevithick's high pressure engine, built about 1804.
Der erste Personenzug der Welt fährt 1808 in London!
Opening of the Stockton - Darlington Railway in 1825. The line was 26 miles (40 km) long and built to connect inland coal mines to Stockton, where the coal was loaded onto sea-going boats.
The Stockton - Darlington line successfully reduced the cost of transporting coal. It soon became clear that large profits could be made by building railways. A group of businessmen asked George Stephenson to build them a railway. The main objective was to reduce the costs of transporting raw materials and finished goods between Manchester, the centre of the textile industry and Liverpool, the most important port in the north of England. The proposed Liverpool & Manchester Railway was a serious economic threat to the Bridgewater Canal that was making a fortune by shipping goods between Liverpool and Manchester. The directors of the Liverpool & Manchester company were unsure whether to use locomotives or stationary engines on their line. To help them reach a decision, it was decided to hold a competition where the winning locomotive would be awarded £500. The idea being that if the locomotive was good enough, it would be the one used on the new railway.
The competition was held at Rainhill during October 1829. Each competing locomotive had to haul a load of three times its own weight at a speed of at least 10 mph. The locomotives had to run twenty times up and down the track at Rainhill which made the distance roughly equivalent to a return trip between Liverpool and Manchester. Afraid that heavy locomotives would break the rails, only machines that weighed less than six tons could compete in the competition. Ten locomotives were originally entered for the Rainhill Trials but only five turned up and two of these were withdrawn because of mechanical problems. Sans Pareil and Novelty did well but it was the Rocket, produced by George and his son, Robert Stephenson, that won the competition. The Liverpool & Manchester railway, 31 miles long, was opened on 15th September, 1830. The prime minister, the Duke of Wellington, and a large number of important people attended the opening ceremony. Passenger trains started at the Crown Street Station in Liverpool and terminated at Water Street in Manchester.
George Stephenson of England built the Rocket in 1829. It was the fastest steam locomotive of its time, with a speed of 36 miles (58 kilometers) per hour.
Die erste in Deutschland benutzte Lokomotive wurde aus England von R. Stephenson für die Eisenbahn Nürnberg-Fürth geliefert. Auf dieser Linie, am 7. Dezember 1835 eröffnet, wurden im Laufe eines Jahres bereits 450‘000 Menschen befördert.
Eigenhändige Zeichnung von Alfred Krupp zur Fertigung des nahtlosen Eisenbahnradreifens um 1853
1852/1853 erfindet Alfred Krupp den nahtlosen Radreifen: Ein geschmiedetes längliches Stück Stahl wird in der Mitte gespalten, ringförmig auseinan-dergetrieben, gereckt und schließlich gewalzt. Krupp verkauft für Jahrzehnte seine Radreifen an die meisten nordamerikanischen Eisenbah-nen und begründet damit den Erfolg des späteren Kruppschen Industrieimperiums. Die drei Ringe des Kruppschen Firmensymbols erinnerten daran.
James Hargreaves' most famous invention was the Spinning Jenny, a machine allowing it to spin multiple spindles at once. The original machine was produced some time between 1764 and 1767. It featured eight spindles onto which the cotton thread was spun from a corresponding set of rovings (roughly spun cotton). This had a dramatic effect on the amount of thread that could be spun by a single person, although the early machines produced thread that was coarse and broke easily. Hargreaves may have been a talented inventor, but he was not a shrewd businessman. He didn't apply for a patent for his Spinning Jenny until 1770, by which time many others had copied his ideas, reaping the rewards that were rightly his.
Although Hargreaves originally produced the machine for family use, news of his invention gradually spread across the industrial North. In Lancashire, traditional hand spinners saw the Spinning Jenny as a threat to their livelihood. They realised that the machine could produce spun cotton thread far quicker and more cheaply than their traditional method. An angry mob marched to Hargreaves' workshop, destroying his equipment and forcing him to leave the county. He moved to Nottingham and built a small spinning-mill, using his Jennies. Although this venture was not particularly successful, Hargreaves continued to refine the Jenny increasing the number of threads from eight to eighty. By the time of his death in 1778, over 20’000 of Hargreaves' Spinning-Jenny machines were being used in Britain, he only received very modest financial returns and died in poverty.
Richard Arkwright 1732-1792, designed the spinning machine, the "water frame”, for which he obtained a patent in 1769. Thread produced by the "water frame" was strong enough to be used as warp or weft. And, because the machine was designed to be driven by a waterwheel, horse, or other non-human power source, it opened up the possibility of building and operating larger and more productive spinning machines.
The 1865 cable ceased working in 1877 and the 1866/1880 in 1949; neither cable was repaired. In 1963, when Western Union terminated its agreement with Anglo-American, the 1873, 1874, 1894 and 1910 cables were still operational.