The French Revolution

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  • 1. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • 2.
    • First Estate : Clergy, own
    • land & tax exempt (.5%)
    • Second Estate: Nobles,
    • govt positions, military,
    • courts & church
    • officials.
    • Tax exempt . (1.5%)
  • 3.
    • Third Estate : 98% of pop, pay all taxes, own no land
    • Includes peasants &
    • Bourgeoisie –middle class (drs Merchants, lawyers, writers
    • upset w/ nobles )
  • 4.
    • Many problems:
    • Bad harvests, rising food prices, lack of food & clothes, little manufacturing, govt spending money on wars, luxuries .
  • 5.
    • Louis XVI meets w/ Estates General ( a gathering of representatives from all three estates ) to raise taxes.
  • 6.
    • Each estate gets ONE vote so 3 rd asks for a vote from each person.
    • 3 rd wants to get rid of tax exempt.
    • King says no & locks palaces so 3 rd cant meet.
  • 7.
    • 3 rd Estate meets 6/17/1789 & calls itself National Assembly
    • Swear TENNIS COURT OATH to write new Fr constitution
  • 8.
    • July 14 th , 1789 mob storms Bastille , (prison in Paris) after Louis XVI uses troops against National Assembly.
  • 9.
    • When peasant rebellions break out,
    • National Assembly meets on Aug. 4 th , 1789 & abolish rights of landlords, Church tithes & tax exemptions
  • 10.
    • Aug 26, 1789, adopt Declaration of the Rights of Man which gave basic liberties for MEN such as: equal rights, freedom of press, speech & no tax exempt. (enlightenment ideas)
  • 11.
    • Louis XVI says no.
    • Armed women march & force family to Paris
  • 12.
    • New constitution written 1791 by Three Estates.
    • Creates Legislative Assembly
    • Men who paid certain amt in taxes could vote (2/3 of pop).
  • 13.
    • Lower classes say no b/c they can’t vote
    • King flees & is caught.
    • Aus & Prussia want Louis back in power, so Leg Assembly declare
    • war (big losses).
  • 14.
    • 1792 radical groups called COMMUNES organize to protest new Constitution
    • Paris Commune , gets king, & forces Legislative Assembly to call for National Convention w/ universel suffrage (all vote)
  • 15.
    • Made up of mostly poor working class men called themselves SANS-COULOTTES (those w/o fine clothes. Wore pants)
  • 16.
    • At National Convention, New Minister of Justice, Georges Danton goes after royal supporters.
    • 1000s murdered.
  • 17.
    • DO NOT WRITE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    • Sept 1792: National Convention is ruling body.
    • Mostly lawyers & property owners who distrust king.
    • Spilt into 2 groups over what to do w/ king.
    • Both part of JACOBINS - a network of political groups. GIRONDINS - keep king alive. MOUNTAIN - Kill king
  • 18.
    • King guillotined 1793
    • Other nations go to war against France ( Aus, Pru, SP, Br, Port, Rus ).
  • 19.
    • DON’T WRITE!
    • Also killed Louis’ wife, Marie Antoinette .
    • Famous for her excess & for saying “ let them eat cake ”
  • 20.
    • Nat Convention gives the COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC SAFETY broad powers to do anything & protect France from enemies of the Revolution
    • Prosecuted enemies of rev & 40,000 die , 16,000 by guillotine alone )
  • 21.
    • MAXIMILLAIN ROBESPIERRE ran the CPS along with DANTON (1793-94)
  • 22.
    • This was Called the Reign of Terror.
  • 23.
    • France built a huge army, pushing back its enemies.
    • National Convention guillotined Robespierre in 1794.
    • Middle class took over & reduce power of CPS. They set up new Constitution w/ a new leg assembly of 2 houses.
  • 24.
    • Don’t write!
    • 5 directors act as executive committee called DIRECTORY. Very Corrupt
  • 25. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
  • 26.
    • Napoleon led COUP DE TAT (or sudden overthrow) in 1799 of Directory
  • 27.
    • Set up new govt called CONSULATE.
    • Napoleon is consul & controls army, foreign affairs & legislature.
    • Crowns self Emperor in 1804, but
    • called France
    • a republic
  • 28.  
  • 29.
    • Made agreement w/ Catholic church
    • Recognize it as church of France & in return pope did not ask for stolen lands back.
  • 30.
    • The Napoleonic Code created 7 codes of law.
    • CIVIL CODE most important. – equality of citizens, religious toleration, abolish serfdom, choose profession.
    • (ideas of liberty)
  • 31.
    • Despotism:
    • 1. hurt women’s rights & divorce.
    • 2. Censored newspapers, govt opened mail
    • 3. Secret police
    • 4. New nobles mostly military & middle class .
  • 32.
    • DO NOT WRITE!!!!
    • When Nap became Consul, he signed peace,
    • War begins again in 1803
    • Btw 1805-1807, Nap beats Aus, Prus, & Rus armies.
  • 33.
    • Built GRAND EMPIRE btw 1807-1812 which included Fr & Italy, Holland, Swiss Republic, SP, Rhine Confederation & Warsaw
  • 34.  
  • 35.
    • DON”T WRITE!!!!
    • Nap tries to invade GB, but navy defeats Nap at Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.
    • Tries to block trade of Brit to Euro through CONTINENTAL SYSTEM (can’t buy/sell Br goods)
    • other states still did.
  • 36.
    • Invades Russia in 1812 (won’t follow Cont Sys.)
    • Grand Army of 600,000 march in.
    • Rus army retreats 100s of miles, burning own villages as, so French can’t
    • get supplies.
  • 37.
    • Find Moscow in flames in Winter. Nap retreats & only 40,000 men live.
  • 38. NAPOLEON RETREATS
  • 39. Stop throwing snowballs at my men!
  • 40.
    • DO NOT WRITE!!!
    • Nations rise against a weakened France.
    • Paris taken in Mar 1814
    • Napoleon exiled to Elba & monarchy restored
    • Louis XVIII weak.
    • Nap escapes & troops join his side despite being sent to capture him
  • 41.
    • With troops on his side claims self emperor & goes to Paris Mar 20, 1815.
    • Nations rise
    • again to get rid
    • of Nap.
  • 42.
    • At Battle of Waterloo , June 18, 1815 Nap defeated by Duke Wellington & exiled to St Helena (dies there)