News, Media And Power In Spain


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News, Media And Power In Spain

  1. 1. News, Media and Power Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D. 13 th January, 2010
  2. 2. The Sociology of Spanish Media System
  3. 3. Spain comes into democracy in 1978 Now, it is a case of successful transition to liberal democracy However, there’s a strong relationship between the media and the political establishment It means the nexus between ideological expression and political mobilization The public service broadcasting never existed in the British sense of the word (BBC paradigm) The Parliament has a direct control over RTVE, as well as each regional government does Media play an activist role and public service broadcasting is near the government Continuing news oligopoly
  4. 4. Until today, the commercial market is weak There’s no strong demand on information, but on entertainment and sports It reflects the weakness of the liberal social and economic institutions Why? There’s no real interest in the development of free market Further, the privatizations and the liberalization of the market continued this trend Most benefited groups are indirectly related to political interests Or viceversa? Examples: audiovisual licenses or the coverage of certain news
  5. 6. Professionalization? The journalism tradition connects the political and the literary roots It means substantial emphasis to commentary, literature and op-ed Journalists use to have a university degree and certain cultural level They use to be part of the cultural elite of the country! Formal education in Journalism in relatively new (50 years) Newspapers (more than other media) tend to represent distinct political tendencies This is reflected in the differing political attitudes from readership and audiences One survey of Spanish journalist found that more than 85% believed information and opinion were often mixed Why? “Tertulias” use to have a strong influence on the political agenda
  6. 7. Constitutional guidelines in Media Law
  7. 8. The media started a new era in 1978, just after the approval of the Constitución Española The Law recognizes two basic citizens’ rights 1.- Freedom of speech and the press (article 20) 2.- Freedom of enterprise (article 38) Both rights are well-developed underpinning the practice of journalism in Spain Let’s see how.
  8. 9. <ul><li>Article 20 [Specific Freedoms, Restrictions] </li></ul><ul><li>(1) The following rights are recognized and protected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) To express and disseminate thoughts freely through words, writing, or any other means of reproduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Literary, artistic, scientific, and technical production, and creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Academic freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) To communicate or receive freely truthful information through any means of dissemination. The law shall regulate the right to the protection of the clause on conscience and professional secrecy in the exercise of these freedoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) The exercise of these rights cannot be restricted through any type of prior censorship . </li></ul>
  9. 10. Article 20 [Specific Freedoms, Restrictions] (3) The law shall regulate the organization and parliamentary control of the means of social communication owned by the State or any public entity and shall guarantee access to those means by significant social and political groups, respecting the pluralism of society and the various languages of Spain. (4) These liberties find their limitation in the respect for the rights recognized in this Title, in the precepts of the laws which develop it and, especially, in the right to honour, privacy, personal identity, and protection of youth and childhood . (5) The closure of publications, recordings, or other means of information may only be determined by a judicial resolution .
  10. 11. <ul><li>The article protects the following aspects of the press freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual right to speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The journalist has the right to seek, to get and to spread information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>There’s no real differentiation between the journalist (practitioner) and the ordinary citizens </li></ul><ul><li>So, in Spain, there’s no limitations to practice journalism or to be hired as one </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Article 38 [Not specific Freedoms, less Restrictions] </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom of enterprise within the market economy. Public authorities guarantee and protect its exercise and the safeguarding of productivity in accordance with the requirements of the general economy and, where appropriate, planning. </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There’s a broad freedom to entrepreneur in the newspaper and print industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio and TV companies are not so free as far as the Governments decide about the licenses to broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet is a completely new business model </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>The Media Law in Spain is complex (as in other countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Some keys to retain are the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration to digital media: digital TV, radio and newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new functions and the new purposes of the state-owned public service broadcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The future General Audiovisual Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new Economic Law and the copyright question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, how to legislate the digital world? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Main characteristics of the Spanish Media Companies
  14. 15. <ul><li>(1) There are public and private audiovisual operators </li></ul><ul><li>There is no more State-owned press, but the weight of the institutional and political advertisement makes it determinant in the growth and decline of media </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The multimedia groups are consolidated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an increasing trend into the mergers and acquisitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower players, the same market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The market moves every 2-3 years in the search of stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The market is dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Telefónica comes in and takes out several times without a clear strategy </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Most important examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grupo Correo + Prensa Española -> Vocento </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vía Digital + Canal Satélite Digital -> Digital Plus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planeta buys Antena 3 and Onda Cero Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unedisa mergers Recoletos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRISA launches Cuatro TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediapro launches La Sexta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(3) The audiovisual divisions are the heart of the companies and the content providers </li></ul><ul><li>Print media were the kings, and now they are more reference press than influence press </li></ul><ul><li>Over the last decades the structures of the Spanish media landscape have changed substantially. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrations and fusions on a national and international scale leave the most important print and audiovisual media in very few hands </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>(4) New players are changing the face of the Spanish market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lack of transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoop! No limits to IPO and exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DDT challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(5) The lack of financial strength in comparison to banking, energy or services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the print media are family business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV and radio are guided by state-boundaries and indications (licenses, authorizations and certifies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These companies lack of industrial liasons, corporate strategy or marketing (CRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It means dependency on national financial health (GDP) and certain political friendships (political parties) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Vocento, Antena 3 TV, Tele 5, PRISA, and Recoletos are public owned companies but their financial results are irregular Other projects like Quiero TV or Diario 16 closed Now, the group Zeta is in troubles
  18. 19. PRISA share value declines more than the average in the last five years
  19. 20. Vocento’s behavior is similar from the beginning
  20. 21. (6) Typology of media groups Main players Telefonica and PRISA Players with important foreign capital Telecinco (Mediaset) Unidad Editorial (Rizzoli) Planeta (A3 50% with De Agostini and RTL) Growing groups Mediapro (Imagina) Auna Family groups Zeta Godó Regional and family groups Joly Prensa Ibérica Grupo Voz
  21. 22. PRISA
  22. 23. <ul><li>Why did I choose this case? </li></ul><ul><li>PRISA is (was?) the most important private media group in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>It has been created from family business (Polanco) and it has become the leader in audiovisual, print, radio and education services </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, a very good example of multimedia integration </li></ul><ul><li>The audiovisual division leaded the business </li></ul><ul><li>From 2000 to 2008, it was the “wonderful decade”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 Sogecable, the audiovisual division, goes public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 Digital Plus appears after the merger of Vía Digital and Canal Satélite Digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005 Cuatro, new analogical TV license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004-2008 International expansion: 15% of Le Monde, 35% of Media Capital (Pt), and Grupo Latino Radio </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. One of the most international groups
  24. 25. <ul><li>PRISA has big financial debts > incomes and tangible assets </li></ul><ul><li>The current debt ascends to 4,800M EUR </li></ul><ul><li>300M EUR are annually financial interests </li></ul><ul><li>The current stock market price is 600M EUR </li></ul><ul><li>To compare, in 2007 some operations were made: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ZETA group was put for sale for more money and had less tangible assets and brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unedisa bought Recoletos for 1,100M EUR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocento bought the free-daily Qué! 139M EUR (and it loses money!) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Some conclusions about Spanish media groups (1) Nobody knows what will happen to historical family business media groups: PRISA and ZETA (2) Telefónica (golden share!) is still the national champion thanks to its financial power (3) About the contents The pay-per-view is sustainable only thanks to soccer The current systems has been broken due to newcomers and digital technology (it is cheaper) (4) The digital challenge Currently, the digital income add up an average of 5-10% PRISA’s recognized incomes were only 1%
  26. 27. The Daily Press
  27. 28. <ul><li>The market is around 18M daily readers (less than 40% population) </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 150 daily press, but the majority are local or regional based </li></ul><ul><li>There’s no yellow press, but the sports and women magazines are really important in the advertisement market </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, MARCA leads the readership </li></ul><ul><li>It is very important the impact of the free press: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It opened new markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It expanded the advertisement industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, we see the biggest crisis in newspaper industry </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Total readers (million people)
  29. 30. Daily readers (million people/day)
  30. 31. <ul><li>The reference press </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most influential media in a country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They set the agenda and the public interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration from press to new media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>El País, El Mundo and ABC are the most important dailies of national circulation </li></ul><ul><li>In some regions, like Catalonia or Basque Country, the regional based newspapers are much more important </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>El País </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Madrid and founded in 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>2,8M daily readers </li></ul><ul><li>The newspaper is leader in the Spanish market: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>430,000 (M-F) and 780,000 (weekend) daily sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29% of the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sells 100,000 more than the follower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Owned by PRISA </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, linked to PSOE’s interest, but now there’s a growing gap </li></ul><ul><li>Javier Moreno (about 40 years old), the current director, is not journalist </li></ul><ul><li>Two challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> is not leader at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Spanish Press reference </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. What do you think about this cover?
  33. 34. ABC Based on Madrid and founded in 1903 728.000 daily readers Owned by Vocento Traditionally, linked to the Monarchy and the Catholic Church Very influential in the right wing The only Berliner daily in Spain! El Mundo Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 1,3M daily readers Owned by Unidad Editorial Similar to British tabloids Right wing oriented
  34. 36. La Razón Based on Madrid and founded in 1998 355.000 daily readers Owned by Planeta Liberal economics and very conservative politics (Osservatore) Few, but loyal readers Público Based on Madrid and founded in 2007 238.000 daily readers Owned by Mediapro Youngest daily Left oriented
  35. 38. La Vanguardia Based on Barcelona and founded in 1881 731.000 daily readers Owned by Godó Critical support to regional parties and its causes (and excellent international reports!) Catalonian middle-class
  36. 39. Expansión Based on Madrid 194.000 daily readers Owned by Unidad Editorial The most influential economic newspaper Growing audience
  37. 40. The TV
  38. 41. The Spanish people watch TV 229 minutes daily
  39. 42. TV is the king, but the audiences decline
  40. 43. Public Service Broadcasting National and regional level Highly pressured by political parties Now, in process of depoliticization RTVE Officially, controlled by the Parliament It operates radio, TV and Internet media, as well as TVE International and Radio Exterior de España
  41. 44. FORTA Regional radio and TVs federation 12 regional channels dependent on regional Parliaments International broadcast via satellite platforms Cities and councils About 500 local public radio stations depending on the Town Hall Not so interesting
  42. 45. Antena 3 Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 About 17,5% Owned by Planeta Tele 5 Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 About 17,5% Owned by Mediaset
  43. 46. La Sexta Based on Madrid and founded in 2007 About 8% Owned by Mediapro - Imagina Cuatro Based on Madrid and founded in 2005 (1989) About 7,5% Owned by Tele 5, formerly by PRISA Really interesting case of the market: before Cuatro, it was Canal Plus
  44. 47. Digital Plus Leader option in PPV and thematic TV provider Owned by PRISA Not interesting business, despite its popularity Mature market, but where’s the money? Other DDT Emerging market Nice opportunity to develop niche contents in the audiovisual market Gol TV: niche TV broadcasts only soccer and it has 1M suscribers
  45. 48. PPV TV and how is it distributed
  46. 49. The radio
  47. 50. Radio is a really influential mass media It dominates the political agenda thanks to early morning news It is market with about 23M daily listeners The average is 108 minutes daily How?
  48. 51. General radio includes news and entertainment There are five big stations
  49. 52. Music radio is still more popular
  50. 53. The Internet
  51. 54. Broadband penetration
  52. 55. Daily users (%)
  53. 56. <ul><li>Some influentials blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Microsiervos </li></ul><ul><li>Enrique Dans </li></ul><ul><li>Genbeta </li></ul><ul><li>Kirai </li></ul><ul><li>Xataka </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Barrapunto </li></ul><ul><li>Error 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Google Dirson </li></ul><ul><li>No puedo creer que lo hayan inventado </li></ul>
  54. 57. Audiences
  55. 58. AIMC: ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH ON MEDIA Activities include audience measurement AIMC publishes every three months the General Media Study (EGM) which measures the ratings of the press, radio, Internet television in Spain.    EGI: GENERAL STUDY OF INTERNET Madrid-based company that produces studies for hearing on websites in Spain.
  56. 59. OJD: OFFICE OF JUSTIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTION Official data from Spanish Newspaper circulation. It also allows access to data dissemination conventional paper media. Updated monthly. Very controversial office    SOFRES MEDIA AUDIENCE It provides data weekly audience figures reached by the national television channels and regional.
  57. 60. Crisis, what crisis?
  58. 61. <ul><li>Crisis, what crisis? </li></ul><ul><li>Less incomes from advertisement (it is related to GDP and real economy) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The financial crisis is affecting especially to media companies </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The inflationary spiral: soccer and F1 racing </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Less promotional issues but more investments in marketing and promotion </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Some companies need to be adapted to new/digital times </li></ul><ul><li>(6) The lack of management: tangible assets, audiovisual rights, and new investments </li></ul>
  59. 62. Thanks! More Questions? More Answers? Now? Later? See you online! [email_address] [email_address]
  60. 63. Thank you!