13ii Econ And Cultural Revival
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  • 1. Chapter 13 ii Economic and Cultural Revival
  • 2. The Crusades accelerated the transformation of western Europe from crude, backward, and violent to sophisticated, educated, traders. That’s so 1190’s!
  • 3. The Crusades also pushed warfare out of Europe and into the Middle East , giving Europe time to develop and emerge from the Middle Ages first.
  • 4. Around the time of the Crusades, the heavy plow is invented. This allowed farmers to plow more land and grow more crops. This eventually contributed to population growth , too.
  • 5. The collar harness replaced the ox yoke, shifting the weight onto the horse’s shoulders. Now horses didn’t die while plowing!
  • 6. The heavy plow, collar harness, and crop rotation created an agricultural (r)evolution.
  • 7. Now that it’s relatively safe to travel , towns such as Venice, Pisa, and Genoa flourished with the trade of silk, spices, and porcelain .
  • 8. Early merchants used the barter system , but when a money economy appears, the benefits are: 1. The rise of Banking. 2. Standardized prices/units. 3. The ability to take out a loan.
  • 9. The Church viewed lending with the intent of charging interest as evil (the sin of avarice .) Duh… they had plenty of $$$!
  • 10. As warfare in Europe declined, towns began to grow larger. Unfortunately, sanitation had not yet been invented. A constant stench filled the towns.
  • 11. A lack of sanitation caused diphtheria, typhoid, influenza, and malaria . In crowded conditions, lots of people died. (cough, cough)
  • 12. During the 1100’s, merchants and artisans organized themselves in “ guilds ”. Their purpose was to maintain a monopoly over a trade.
  • 13. Guild members were all skilled , had money, and could become part of the growing middle class burgesses . Medieval Aircraft Guild
  • 14. Education grew when a variety of new schools were built. A new style of learning emphasized reason as well as faith. This was scholasticism . I’d rather be building a trebuchet!
  • 15. Peter Abelard collected biblical statements showing both points to controversial questions. This book, Sic et Non (Yes and No), was one of the first on logic .
  • 16. Thomas Aquinas wrote Summa Theologica in which he claimed that reason was God’s gift that could answer basic philosophical questions. “Reason exists in harmony with faith.”
  • 17. Epic literary works are produced during this age. Beowulf and Chanson de Roland are both written. These tales are spread by troubadours (traveling minstrels). “ I gave my love a cherry that had no stone…”