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Dr. Kritsonis - Women and Leadership
 

Dr. Kritsonis - Women and Leadership

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectures on the work of Peter G. Northouse

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectures on the work of Peter G. Northouse

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    Dr. Kritsonis - Women and Leadership Dr. Kritsonis - Women and Leadership Presentation Transcript

    • Women and Leadership Leadership Theory and Practice, 3/e Peter G. Northouse, Ph.D. William Kritsonis, PhD Presenter
      • Women and Leadership Perspective
      • Overview of Research Trends
        • Can Women be leaders?
        • Do female and male leaders differ in their behavior and
        • effectiveness?
        • Why do so few women reach the top?
      • How Does the Women and Leadership Approach Work?
      Overview
    • Women and Leadership Approach Description
      • Gender (learned beliefs) - Has significant impact on the degree to which males and females are expected to:
        • Behave differently
        • Be treated differently
        • Be valued differently
      • Implications of a two-category (male/female) set
        • Cognitive distortions arise
        • Implies those within each category are identical
        • One category valued as superior to the other
      • Gender affects assignment of organizational responsibilities and most decisions regarding:
        • Career progress
        • Resources
        • Salaries
        • Power
        • Authority
        • Appropriate work behavior
      Perspective The Gendered Workplace
    • Overview of Research Trends Can Women Be Leaders? People Employed in U.S. in 2001 46.6 % 58 % Sources: Women’s Bureau, 2001; Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2002 $.76 $.66 For Each Dollar Earned by Men in 2001 Sources: Women’s Bureau, 2001; Garofoli , 2002 $1.00
    • Overview of Research Trends Can Women be Leaders? Fortune 500 Top Management Positions in 2002 Source: Catalyst, 2002 12.4 % 87.6 % 9.9 % 90.1 % 5.2% 94.8 % 92.9 % 7.1% 83.9 % 16.1% 84.3 % 15.7%
    • Overview of Research Trends Can Women be Leaders? Government Leadership Positions 14% 86% 13% 87% 12% 88% 20.4 M Small Businesses in U.S. 44% Owned by Women 5 % Venture Capital to Women 3 % Gov’t Contracts to Women Women Who Own & Run Their Own Companies
    • Overview of Research Trends Can Women be Leaders? Women of Differing Racial & Ethnic Backgrounds Holding Top Management Positions Source: Scott, 2001 12.5% 8.7% 1.3% 1.3% Fortune 500 Executive Positions
    • Overview of Research Trends Can Women be Leaders? Source: Catalyst, 2002 2001 Fortune 1000 Corporate Board Positions 18.1% 2% = 178 positions 74% 17% 8.4%
      • Primary Organizational Benefits in Developing and Promoting Women
      • Enhanced Productivity
      • Competitive Advantage
      • Financial Performance
      • 160 Studies of sex-related differences in leadership (Eagly & Johnson, 1990)
        • Women use a more participative or democratic style and a less autocratic or directive style than men
        • Both men and women emphasized task accomplishment when organization dominated numerically by members of their own sex or leadership role is viewed as gender congruent
      • 82 Studies measuring leader effectiveness (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995)
        • No difference in overall effectiveness between male and female leaders
      Overview of Research Trends Do Female and Male Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and Effectiveness? Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a 15-Year Period
      • Male and female leaders evaluated differently (e.g., Eagly, Makhijani, & Klonsky, 1992; Dreher & Cox, 1996)
        • Impacts
          • Management training
          • Assignments
          • Mentors
          • Promotion
        • Female and male leaders evaluated favorably when they used a democratic leadership style (stereotypically feminine)
        • Females evaluated unfavorably when they used a directive or autocratic style (stereotypically male)
        • Women were devalued when they worked in male-dominated environments and when the evaluators were men
      • 82 Studies measuring leader effectiveness (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995)
        • No difference in overall effectiveness between male and female leaders
      Overview of Research Trends Do Female and Male Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and Effectiveness? Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a 15-Year Period
      • Conditions of effectiveness (Eagly et al., 1995)
        • While overall effectiveness did not differ for male and female leaders, comparisons of leader effectiveness favored men more under three conditions:
          • In a male-dominated setting (particularly the military)
          • When a high percentage of subordinates were male
          • When the role was viewed as more congenial to men in terms of:
            • Self-assessed competence
            • Interest
            • Low requirements for cooperation with high requirements for control
          • Effectiveness comparisons favored women to the extent these conditions were reversed
          • With the exception of the military, women’s effectiveness increased as they moved up the hierarchy and as cooperation rather than control was required
      Overview of Research Trends Do Female and Male Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and Effectiveness? Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a 15-Year Period
      • Patterns of women leaders’ effectiveness (Micco, 1996; Women May, 1997)
        • Advanced Teamware, Inc., study of 915 middle-senior level managers
          • In 31 areas examined, women outperformed men in 28 (i.e., conflict resolution, work quality, adaptation to change, productivity, idea generation, & motivation of others)
          • Men handled their frustration and coped with pressure better; both groups scored equally on delegating authority
        • Saville & Holdworth study of 3,000 managers
          • Women emphasized planning and organizing work and an empathic approach
          • Women placed less emphasis on winning at all cost
      Overview of Research Trends Do Female and Male Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and Effectiveness? Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results Over a 15-Year Period
      • Women leaders are apt to be more participative and less autocratic, a pattern that is well suited to 21-century global organizations
      • The range of behavior viewed as appropriate for women leaders is more restricted because of men’s negative evaluation of women demonstrating stereotypically masculine behaviors
      • Outside of the military, women were seen as more effective in middle management positions and in settings requiring cooperation with a balance of men and women
      Overview of Research Trends Do Female and Male Leaders Differ in Their Behavior and Effectiveness? Meta-Analyses/Literature Review Results CONCLUSIONS
      • Pipeline Theory - Women have not been in managerial positions long enough for natural career progression to occur (Heilman, 1997; Ragins et al., 1998)
      • Women lack general management or line experience (Ragins et al., 1998)
      • Women themselves are the issue; they are less suited to executive demands than men (Heilman, 1997)
      • Women are unavailable to fill executive positions because few are sufficiently qualified (Morrison, 1992)
      • Women lack self-confidence (Morris, 1998)
      Overview of Research Trends Why Do so Few Women Reach the Top? CEO Explanations
    • Common Barriers to Women’s Advancement The Glass Ceiling Organizational Barriers
      • Higher standards of performance and effort
      • Inhospitable corporate culture
      • Promotion decisions based on homophily (gender similarity)
      • Ignorance/inaction by male CEOs and “silent majority” male peers
      • Imbalance of adequate recognition & support with excessive difficulties
      • Lack of definitive development opportunities
    • Common Barriers to Women’s Advancement The Glass Ceiling Interpersonal Barriers
      • Male prejudice, stereotyping, preconceptions
      • Lack of emotional and interpersonal support
      • Exclusion from informal networks
      • Lack of white male mentors
      Personal Barriers
      • Lack of political savvy
      • Work-home conflict
    • How Does the Women and Leadership Approach Work?
      • Strengths
      • Criticisms
      • Application
    • Strengths
      • Understanding gender dynamics in leadership and uncovering and recognizing unconscious patterns and beliefs will foster workplace and societal improvements
      • Considering the sex of leaders and employees can yield insights within the major leadership theoretical frameworks (e.g., contingency theory)
      • Research on gender dynamics in leadership has contributed to broader conversations regarding what values are most important and what the good life really means in the U.S. society
    • Criticisms
      • A disadvantage of a singular focus on individuals’ sex is that it can become the only or primary attribute identifying them, rather than one of a myriad of attributes that influence their worldview and experience
      • Research on sex and gender differences has fostered an implicit assumption that members of each category are identical in race, sexual orientation, age, etc.
    • Application
      • The research findings on women and leadership can be applied to a number of organizational issues:
        • Retention of talented women
        • Developing effective leaders
        • Barriers to women’s advancement
      • The findings on women’s effectiveness and the choices required for advancement can inform women of what they need to do to develop as leaders
      • The findings on gender dynamics in leadership can inform men of the subtle patterns enacted in the everyday workplace that impede fairness and excellence