Chpt 7 P Pathgoal


Published on

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectures on the work of Peter G. Northouse

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chpt 7 P Pathgoal

  1. 1. Path-Goal Theory Approach Leadership Theory and Practice, 3/e Peter G. Northouse, Ph.D. William Kritsonis, PhD Presenter
  2. 2. <ul><li>Path-Goal Theory Approach Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of Leadership Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Behaviors & Subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Task Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>How Does the PGT Approach Work? </li></ul>Overview
  3. 3. Path-Goal Theory Approach Description <ul><li>Goal - To enhance employee performance and satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Premise - Subordinates will be motivated if they believe: (a) they are capable of performing their work; (b) that their efforts will be rewarded; and (c) that the payoff will be worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge - To use a leadership style that best meets subordinates’ motivational needs </li></ul><ul><li>Path-goal theory centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals </li></ul>Perspective Definition
  4. 4. Conditions of Leadership Motivation <ul><li>It increases the number and kinds of payoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Path to the goal is clear and easily traveled with coaching and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles and roadblocks are removed </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself is personally satisfying </li></ul>Leadership generates motivation when:
  5. 5. Leader Behaviors & Subordinate Characteristics <ul><li>Subordinate Characteristics </li></ul>Directive Leadership <ul><li>Leader who gives </li></ul><ul><li>subordinates task instruction </li></ul><ul><li>including: </li></ul><ul><li>What is expected of them </li></ul><ul><li>How task is to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline for task completion </li></ul><ul><li>Dogmatic & authoritarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifies path to the goal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making it less ambiguous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian types feel more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comfortable when leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides certainty in work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External locus of control - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outside forces control their </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circumstances </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Leader Behaviors & Subordinate Characteristics <ul><li>Subordinate Characteristics </li></ul>Supportive Leadership <ul><li>Refers to being friendly </li></ul><ul><li>and approachable as a leader: </li></ul><ul><li>Attends to subordinates’ </li></ul><ul><li>well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Supportively attempts to make </li></ul><ul><li>work environment pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Treats subordinates as equals </li></ul><ul><li>and with respect </li></ul><ul><li>Need for affiliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendly and concerned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership is a source of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Leader Behaviors & Subordinate Characteristics <ul><li>Subordinate Characteristics </li></ul>Participative Leadership <ul><li>Leader who invites </li></ul><ul><li>subordinates to share in the </li></ul><ul><li>decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Consults with subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks their ideas & opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates their input into </li></ul><ul><li>organizational decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows subordinates to feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in charge of their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes them an integral part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Leader Behaviors & Subordinate Characteristics <ul><li>Subordinate Characteristics </li></ul>Achievement Oriented <ul><li>Leader who challenges </li></ul><ul><li>subordinates to perform </li></ul><ul><li>work at the highest level </li></ul><ul><li>possible </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a high standard of </li></ul><ul><li>excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates a high degree of </li></ul><ul><li>confidence in subordinates’ </li></ul><ul><li>ability to establish & achieve </li></ul><ul><li>challenging goals </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations & need to excel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In ambiguous task situations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subordinates feel their efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will result in effective performance </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Task Characteristics <ul><li>Unclear and ambiguous - Leader needs to provide structure </li></ul><ul><li>Highly repetitive - Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Weak formal authority - If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear </li></ul><ul><li>Nonsupportive/weak group norms - Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility </li></ul>Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement Components <ul><li>Task characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of subordinates’ task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s formal authority system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary work group of subordinates </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Path-Goal Theory Matrix Directive Leadership “ Provides guidance & psychological structure” Dogmatic Authoritarian Ambiguous Unclear rules Complex Supportive Leadership “ Provides nurturance” Unsatisfied Need affiliation Need human touch Repetitive Unchallenging Mundane & mechanical Participative Leadership “ Provides involvement” Autonomous Need for control Need for clarity Ambiguous Unclear Unstructured Achievement Oriented “ Provides challenges” High expectations Need to excel Ambiguous Challenging Complex LEADER BEHAVIOR GROUP MEMBERS TASK CHARACTERISTICS
  11. 11. How Does the Path-Goal Theory Approach Work? <ul><li>Focus of Path-Goal Theory Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Criticisms </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul>
  12. 12. Path-Goal Theory Approach <ul><li>Path-goal theory is a complex but also pragmatic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders should choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and their work </li></ul><ul><li>Path-goal theory provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with subordinate characteristics and the work situation to affect employee motivation </li></ul>Focus Overall Scope
  13. 13. Strengths <ul><li>Useful theoretical framework. Path-goal theory is a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates motivation. Path-goal theory attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical model. Path-goal theory provides a practical model that underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Criticisms <ul><li>Interpreting the meaning of the theory can be confusing because it is so complex and incorporates so many different aspects of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical research studies have demonstrated only partial support for path-goal theory. </li></ul><ul><li>It fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>The path-goal theory approach treats leadership as a one-way event in which the leader affects the subordinate. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Application <ul><li>PGT offers valuable insights that can be applied in ongoing settings to improve one’s leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Informs leaders about when to be directive, supportive, participative, or achievement oriented </li></ul><ul><li>The principles of PGT can be employed by leaders at all organizational levels and for all types of tasks </li></ul>