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Chpt 2 Trait[1]

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectures on the work of Peter G. Northouse

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectures on the work of Peter G. Northouse

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  • 1. Trait Approach Leadership Theory and Practice, 3/e Peter G. Northouse, Ph.D. William Kritsonis, PhD Presenter
  • 2. Overview
    • Great Person Theories
    • Historical Shifts in Trait Perspective
    • What Traits Differentiate Leaders
    • From Nonleaders?
    • How Does the Trait Approach Work?
  • 3. Great Person Theories
    • “ Great Man” Theories (early 1900s)
      • Focused on identifying intrinsic qualities and characteristics possessed by great social, political, & military leaders
    Trait Approach : one of the first systematic attempts to study leadership
  • 4. Historical Shifts in Trait Perspective Great Man Theories Early 1900s
    • Research focused
    • on individual
    • characteristics
    • that universally
    • differentiated
    • leaders
    • from nonleaders
    Traits Interacting With Situational Demands on Leaders 1930-50s
    • Landmark Stogdill (1948)
    • study - analyzed and
    • synthesized 124 trait studies
    • - Leadership
    • reconceptualized
    • as a relationship between
    • people in a social situation
    • Mann (1959) reviewed 1,400
    • findings of personality and
    • leadership in small groups
    • - Less emphasis on situations
    • - Suggested personality traits
    • could be used to discriminate
    • leaders from nonleaders
    Revival of Critical Role of Traits in Leader Effectiveness
    • Stogdill (1974)
    • - Analyzed 163 new studies
    • with 1948 study findings
    • - Validated original study
    • - 10 characteristics
    • positively identified with
    • leadership
    • Lord, DeVader, &
    • Alliger (1986) meta-analysis
    • - Personality traits can be
    • used to differentiate
    • leaders/nonleaders
    • Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991)
    • - 6 traits make up the
    • “ Right Stuff” for leaders
    1970’s - Early 90s Innate Qualities Situations Personality / Behaviors Today
    • Intelligence
    • Self-Confidence
    • Determination
    • Integrity
    • Sociability
    6 Major Leadership Traits
  • 5. Leadership Traits Studies of Leadership Traits and Characteristics   Stogdill (1948)   Mann (1959)   Stogdill (1974) Lord, DeVader, & Alliger (1986) Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991) Intelligence Intelligence Achievement Intelligence Drive Alertness Insight Responsibility Initiative Persistence Self-Confidence Sociability Masculinity Adjustment Dominance Extroversion Conservatism Persistence Insight Initiative Self-Confidence Responsibility Cooperativeness Tolerance Influence Sociability Masculinity Dominance Motivation Integrity Confidence Cognitive Ability Task Knowledge
  • 6. Major Leadership Traits
    • Intelligence - Intellectual ability including verbal, perceptual, and reasoning capabilities
    • Self-Confidence - Ability to be certain about one’s competencies and skills
    • Determination - The desire to get the job done (i.e., initiative, persistence, dominance, drive)
    • Integrity - The quality of honesty and trustworthiness
    • Sociability - Leader’s inclination to seek out pleasant social relationships
  • 7. How Does the Trait Approach Work?
    • Focus of Trait Approach
    • Strengths
    • Criticisms
    • Application
  • 8. Focus of Trait Approach
    • Focuses exclusively on leader
      • What traits leaders exhibit
      • Who has these traits
    • Organizations use personality assessments to find “Right” people
      • Assumption - will increase organizational effectiveness
      • Specify characteristics/traits for specific positions
        • Personality assessment measures for “fit”
    Leader Personality Assessments
  • 9. Strengths
    • Intuitively appealing
      • Perception that leaders are different in that they possess special traits
      • People “need” to view leaders as gifted
    • Credibility due to a century of research support
    • Highlights leadership component in the leadership process
      • Deeper level understanding of how leader/personality related to leadership process
    • Provides benchmarks for what to look for in a leader
  • 10. Criticisms
    • Fails to delimit a definitive list of leadership traits
      • Endless lists have emerged
    • Doesn’t take into account situational effects
      • Leaders in one situation may not be leaders in another situation
    • List of most important leadership traits is highly subjective
      • Much subjective experience & observations serve as basis for identified leadership traits
    • Research fails to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes
    • Not useful for training & development
  • 11. Application
    • Provides direction as to which traits are good to have if one aspires to a leadership position
    • Through various tests and questionnaires, individuals can determine whether they have the select leadership traits and can pinpoint their strengths and weaknesses
    • Can be used by managers to assess where they stand within their organization and what is needed to strengthen their position
    • Leadership Traits
    • Intelligence
    • Self-Confidence
    • Determination
    • Integrity
    • Sociability

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