William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Dissertation Chair for Desiree Adair Skinner

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Desiree Adair Skinner

PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, The Texas A&M University System

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William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Dissertation Chair for Desiree Adair Skinner

  1. 1. High School Counselors’ Roles As Perceived by High School Principals and Counselors in Texas A Dissertation Defense by Desiree Adair Skinner March 11, 2010 Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Committee Members <ul><li>William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>(Dissertation Chair) </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrone Tanner, Ed.D </li></ul><ul><li>(Member) </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Mason, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>(Member) </li></ul><ul><li>Camille Gibson, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>(Member) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dissertation Defense Format <ul><li>Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Previous CFI Results </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for Future Research </li></ul>
  4. 4. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of high school principals and high school counselors about the role of high school counselors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quantitative Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant correlation between high school counselors’ perceptions and expectations on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) scores as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Quantitative Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant correlation between high school principals’ perceptions and expectations on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) scores as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quantitative Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant difference between high school counselors’ and principals’ expectation scores on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Quantitative Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant difference between high school counselors’ and principals’ perception scores on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Quantitative Research Questions <ul><li>What are the most important functions of the high school counselor as perceived by the high school principal and counselor based on the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho 1 : There is no statistically significant correlation between high school counselors’ perceptions and expectations on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) scores as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho 2 : There is no statistically significant correlation between high school principals’ perceptions and expectations on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) scores as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho 3 : There is no statistically significant difference between high school counselors’ and principals’ expectation scores on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho 4 : There is no statistically significant difference between high school counselors’ and principals’ perception scores on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Role Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role theory exists when there are inconsistent expectations causing stress, dissatisfaction, and less effective performance (Rizzo, House, & Lirtzman, 1970). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Based on the work of Falls and Nichter (2007) “high school counselors are challenged with role ambiguity, role conflict, and work overload on a consistent basis resulting in exposure to chronic job stress, which research indicates can lead to burnout” (Nelson, Robles-Pina, & Nichter, 2008, p. 41-42). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Method <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The population was 241 5A high school principals and counselors, grades 9-12, in Texas. Potential participants=482. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>249 participants: 113=principals, 136=counselors completed the survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>51.66% return rate </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Method <ul><li>Modified Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) selected </li></ul><ul><li>Modified survey completed on SurveyMonkey </li></ul>
  18. 18. Method <ul><li>The survey was modified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Items were chosen to represent the ASCA standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 42 questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established through expert opinion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Method <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cronbach alpha, α = .872 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates consistency and reliability in what each survey item tested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maser (Washington-1971) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson (Florida-1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moore (southwestern Indiana-1997) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Method <ul><li>5-point Likert scale was used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors have total responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have primary responsibility, though may not personally perform the function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share function with other groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as a consultant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No direct responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Method <ul><li>Scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T-tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Findings-Question 1: <ul><li>There is a statistically significant correlation between high school counselors’ perceptions and expectations on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) scores as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Findings-Question 1: <ul><li>This suggests high school counselors are not in agreement about the functions they perceive themselves performing and the functions they expect themselves to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a statistically significant difference between their reported actions, and what they think their actions should be . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Findings-Question 1: <ul><li>According to Scarborough & Culbreth (2008) experience also plays a part of what counselors do and should do. </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson, Robles-Pina, and Nichter (2008) found that counselors with 10 or more years experience have a better understanding of nationally defined expectations. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Findings-Question 2: <ul><li>There is a statistically significant correlation between high school principals’ perceptions and expectations on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) scores as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Findings-Question 2: <ul><li>This suggests that high school principals are not in agreement about the functions they perceive counselors are performing and the functions they expect them to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a statistically significant difference between the reported actions, and what the actions should be. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Findings-Question 2: <ul><li>Opinions of the counselor’s role may vary due to the everyday needs of the individual campus (Kirchner & Setchfield, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Amatea and Clark (2005) found that the disagreements between principals could possibly come in many forms. Some principals do not agree with the value of the work responsibilities. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Findings-Question 3: <ul><li>There is no statistically significant difference between high school counselors’ and principals’ expectations scores on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Findings-Question 3: <ul><li>There is no statistically significant difference ( t = 1.45, p > .05) between high school counselors’ expectation scores and principals’ expectation scores; therefore, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. </li></ul><ul><li>This would suggest that high school counselors and high school principals tend to agree on the functions that high school counselors should be performing. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Findings-Question 3: <ul><li>The study conducted by Kirchner and Setchfield (2005) found that counselors agree regarding duties that are congruent with the national standards. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Pérusse, Goodnough, Donegan, and Jones (2004), counselors and principals believe the national standards should be the underpinning of counseling programs. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Findings-Question 4: <ul><li>There is a statistically significant difference between high school counselors’ and principals’ perception scores on the Counselor Function Inventory (CFI) as it relates to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Findings-Question 4: <ul><li>There is a statistically significant difference ( t = 3.39, p < .05) between high school counselors’ perception scores and principals’ perception scores; therefore, the null is rejected. </li></ul><ul><li>This would suggest that high school counselors and high school principals do not agree on the functions that high school counselors are actually performing. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Findings-Question 4: <ul><li>If a principal feels that the counseling program will not help the campus to meet federal and state accountability indicators, the principal is going to prioritize and assign duties to maximize the counselor’s benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>Chata and Loesch (2007) have stated that the most effective way for counselors to fulfill duties is to have a collaborative relationship with the principal. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Findings-Question 5: <ul><li>What are the most important functions of the high school counselor as perceived by the high school principal and counselor based on the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Findings-Question 5: <ul><li>Assisting students in selecting high school courses.=80.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Providing the student an opportunity to “talk through his problems.”=79.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling with potential dropouts.=71.5% </li></ul>
  36. 36. Findings-Question 5: <ul><li>Counseling with students concerning academic failures.=69.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling with students in regard to educational and vocational plans.=61.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Checking credits for graduation and college entrance.=60.6% </li></ul>
  37. 37. Findings-Question 5: <ul><li>Counseling with students concerning personal decisions.=54.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Providing college information.=41.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting students with college plans.=34.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling new students.=30.1% </li></ul>
  38. 38. Previous CFI Results <ul><li>Maser (Washington, 1971)-studied perceptions of junior high and senior high school administrators, counselors, and teachers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived counselors’ role similarly </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Previous CFI Results <ul><li>Johnson (Florida, 1989)-analyzed high school principals and counselors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agree in their perceptions and expectations about the functions that counselors do and should be doing </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Previous CFI Results <ul><li>Moore (southwestern Indiana, 1997)- analyzed existing and ideal counselor roles as perceived by high school principals and counselors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar perceptions and expectations of what counselors do and what they should be doing </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Accountability <ul><li>The ASCA National Model provides opportunities for counselors to use and assess quantitative and qualitative data-gathering techniques (Sabella, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability and achievement create an opportunity for school counselors to become more involved in the educational process affecting academic outcomes (Webb, Brigman, & Campbell, 2005). </li></ul>
  42. 42. Accountability <ul><li>When school counselors use research-based techniques to counsel students on specific skills, academic achievement and social performance increase (Webb, Brigman, & Campbell, 2005). </li></ul>
  43. 43. Implications <ul><li>Principals have varying opinions on what counselors’ duties entail. Therefore, counselors may develop job survival skills to avoid conflict as well as frustration with their job. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Implications <ul><li>Given that the job duties are unclear, counselors have conformed to the role that principals expect in order to find job satisfaction. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Implications <ul><li>Many counselors find themselves bogged down with schedule changes and paperwork; not a lot of counseling. One might wonder if more individual counseling was happening would the achievement gap be impacted. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Implications <ul><li>Without proper knowledge of national and state expectations, counselors are not used to their full potential and students are not served to the fullest capacity. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusions <ul><li>Referring to the ASCA standards may alleviate some of the gaps for what a counselor should do and actually do on a campus. It is imperative for principals to have communication with counselors regarding campus expectations and perceptions. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Conclusions <ul><li>With increased communication counselor job duties can be more clearly defined. Clarity will reduce job anxiety giving counselors a sense of purpose. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Recommendations for Future Research <ul><li>A study could be conducted that would include the perceptions and expectations of teachers, students, and parents of the counselors role. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted choosing schools of various populations. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted in rural schools. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Recommendations for Future Research <ul><li>A study could be conducted in urban schools. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted in suburban schools. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted where principals and counselors work together to establish a comprehensive guidance and counseling program that is congruent with the American School Counselor Association. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Recommendations for Future Research <ul><li>A study could be conducted on individual campuses to create, revise, and evaluate guidance and counseling programs to ensure congruence with the ASCA standards. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to determine the effectiveness of a complete guidance and counseling program on student achievement. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Recommendations for Future Research <ul><li>A study could be conducted to determine the effectiveness of a complete guidance and counseling program and its impact on state accountability ratings. </li></ul><ul><li>A study could be conducted to develop appropriate professional development for both principals and counselors to better understand the role of the counselor. </li></ul>
  53. 53. References <ul><li>Amatea, E. S., & Clark, M. A. (2005). Changing schools, changing counselors: A qualitative study of school administrators' conceptions of the school counselor role. Professional School Counselor, 9 , 16-27. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Chata, C. C., & Loesch, L. C. (2007). Future school principals' views of the roles of professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11 , 35-41. Retrieved November 24, 2007, from EBSCOHost database. </li></ul>
  54. 54. References <ul><li>Falls, L. & Nichter, M. (2007). High school counselor's lived experiences of burnout: A phenomenological study. Professional School Counseling, 5 , 47-55. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v5n13.pdf. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, T. H. (1989). An analysis of senior high school guidance counselor role perceptions and expectations by high school principals and guidance counselors in Florida school districts (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (UMI No. 8917455). </li></ul>
  55. 55. References <ul><li>Kirchner, G. L., & Setchfield, M. S. (2005). School counselors' and school principals' perceptions of the school counselor's role. [Electronic version]. Education, 126 , 10-16. </li></ul><ul><li>Maser, A. L. (1971). Counselor function in secondary schools. The School Counselor, 12, 367-372. </li></ul>
  56. 56. References <ul><li>Moore, L. G. (1997). An analysis of existing and ideal guidance counselor roles as perceived by high school principals and counselors in southwestern Indiana (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (UMI No. 9724573). </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson, J., Robles-Pina, R., & Nichter, M. (2008). An analysis of Texas high school counselors' roles: actual and preferred counseling activities. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory and Research , 36 (1), 30-46.. Retrieved, from EBSCOHost database. </li></ul>
  57. 57. References <ul><li>Pérusse, R., Goodnough, G. E., Donegan, J., & Jones, C. (2004). Perceptions of school counselors and school principals about the national standards for school counseling programs and the transforming school counseling initiative. Professional School Counseling, 7 , 152-161. Retrieved November 22, 2007, from EBSCOHost database. </li></ul>
  58. 58. References <ul><li>Ponec, D. L., & Brock, B. L. (2000). Relationships among elementary school counselors and principals: A unique bond. Professional School Counseling, 3 , 208-217. Retrieved July 20, 2007, from EBSCOHost Academic Search Premier database. </li></ul><ul><li>Rizzo, J. R., House, R. J., & Lirtzman, S. I. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15 , 150-163. Retrieved October 16, 2007 from http://www.jstor.org </li></ul>
  59. 59. References <ul><li>Sabella, R. A. (2006). The ASCA national school counseling research center: A brief history and agenda. Professional School Counseling, 9, 412-415. </li></ul><ul><li>Scarborough, J. L., & Culbreth, J. R. (2002). Examining discrepancies between actual and preferred practice of school counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86 , 446-459. </li></ul>
  60. 60. References <ul><li>Webb, L. D., Brigman, G. A., & Campbell, C. (2005). Linking school counselors and student success: A replication of the student success skills approach targeting the academic social competence of students. Professional School Counseling, 8 , 407-413. Retrieved August 13, 2007, from EBSCOHost database. </li></ul>

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