Healthy Eating for Preschoolers
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Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

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Healthy Eating for Preschoolers Healthy Eating for Preschoolers Presentation Transcript

  • Healthy Eating for Preschoolers By Sheila Jones, PhD, RD, LD
  • Normal Food Behaviors of Preschool Children
    • Disinterest in food – between 9-18 months of age & lasts a few months to a few years
    • - growth has slowed
    • Appetite – usually erratic & unpredictable
    • - evening meal is usually least well received but may have already met their needs with several snacks
    • - indiscriminate snacking dulls the appetite
  • Normal Food Behaviors of Preschool Children
    • Food rituals – may only accept sandwiches if cut in quarters & may throw tantrums if not
    • - may demand food have a particular arrangement on the plate or dishes be placed in certain locations on the table
  • Normal Food Behaviors of Preschool Children
    • Strong preferences
    • – likes & dislikes may change from day to day & week to week
    • - carb-rich foods are often preferred - fortified cereals can be important
    • Eat greater variety when:
    • rested & hungry
    • foods are offered at a neutral temperature
    • in shapes & sizes they can manage
    • foods are offered without undue pressure
  • Foods for Young Children
    • Most like:
    • simple, unmixed dishes at room temperature
    • familiar foods
    • Add:
    • Small portions of new foods with familiar & popular foods
    • Colorful foods for them to try
    • Combine dry foods with moist and sharp acid-flavored with mild-flavored
  • For Ease of Manipulation
    • Prepare foods to be eaten with fingers – small pieces of meat, green beans, orange wedges
    • Small pieces of food are easier for children to handle with eating utensils
    • Idea is to support child’s efforts at self-feeding
    • At age 2 – uses arm muscles
    • At age 3 – uses hand muscles
    • At age 4 – uses finger muscles – may be able to cut up some foods
  • Desirable Food Characteristics
    • Texture: Serve 1 soft food for ease of chewing, 1 crisp food for enjoyment of sound, 1 chewy food for emerging chewing skills
    • - tender or ground meats are needed
    • Flavor: May reject strong flavors
    • Portion sizes: May be discouraged with large portions
  • Portion Guide Foods 1-yr old portion sizes 1-yr old # servings 2-3 yr old portion sizes 2-3 yr old # servings Milk 1/2 Cup 4 - 5 1/4 – 3/4 Cup 4 - 5 Meat & Equivalents 1/4 – 1 oz. 2 - 4 T 1 1 - 2 oz. 2 Vegetables 1 – 2 T 4 – 5 2 – 3 T 4 - 5 Fruits 2 – 4 T 4 – 5 2 – 4 T 4 - 5 Grains 1/2 Slice 3 1/2 – 1 Slice 3
  • Parental Concerns
    • Most Commonly:
    • Limited intake of milk , meat , & vegetables
    • Too many sweets
    • Milk: 1 oz. of milk provides 36 mg calcium
    • (need about 500 mg)
    • - cheese & yogurt can be offered & are usually accepted when milk is rejected
    • - too much fruit juice or sweetened beverages can
    • interfere with milk intake
  • Parental Concerns
    • Meat: try easy to chew forms
    • - if all meat is rejected, offer other forms of iron such as fortified cereal with OJ
    • Vegetables: small portions should be served without comment & discarded if not eaten
    • - nonfood rewards can be given if veggies are eaten at mealtime
  • Parental Concerns
    • Sweets: need to set limits on amounts
    • - other family members & other care providers need to know the limits
  • Parental Concerns
    • Food Intake: eating at intervals of 3-4 hours usually keep children from getting too hungry but do not keep them full all the time
    • Remember they need small portions
    • Focus on when they eat , never when they refuse to eat
    (1)
  • Healthy Breakfasts
    • Focus On:
    • Whole grains - whole grain cereals and breads such as whole wheat or oatmeal bread, Cheerios, Grape Nuts, oatmeal, whole grain waffles
    • Fruits – berries, bananas, apples
    • Vegetables – bell peppers, tomatoes, potatoes
    • A Little Protein – peanut butter, low-fat cheese, LEAN meats, low-fat/skim milk, egg or egg whites
  • Healthy Breakfasts
    • Carbs in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, & milk provide energy
    • Protein in peanut butter, low-fat cheeses, lean meats, & eggs provide building blocks for growth & can help your child be alert
  • Healthy Breakfasts
    • Try:
    • Cereal with berries & low-fat milk
    • Whole wheat toast with peanut butter or low-fat cheese melted and juice (with vitamin C)
    • Omelet with vegetables, low-fat cheese, lean ham, whole wheat toast, & juice
  • Quick Healthy Lunches
    • Again, Focus On:
    • Whole grains – whole grain loaf breads, bagels, rolls, & crackers
    • Fruits – single serve applesauce, peaches, etc.; fresh grapes, apples, bananas; dried fruits such as apricots, raisins, cranberries
    • Vegetables – fresh baby carrots, lettuce/tomato for sandwiches, broccoli, zucchini/squash (may add low-fat Ranch dressing)
    • Low-fat Dairy – low-fat cheeses, milk, & yogurts
    • Lean Meats - large amounts are not needed
  • Quick Healthy Lunches
    • Try:
    • Mini pizza with whole grain bagel, ketchup or marinara sauce, Canadian bacon, Mozzarella cheese, grapes, and low-fat/skim milk (olives & shredded carrots can add facial features)
    • Whole grain garlic crackers with string cheese or peanut butter, applesauce, yogurt, and low-sodium vegetable juice
    • Fruit & cheese kabobs, slivered almonds, whole grain roll, and low-fat/skim milk
    • Whole wheat peanut butter and banana sandwich,
    • fresh baby carrots, and low-fat/skim milk
  • Tips for Getting Kids to Eat More Fruits & Vegetables
    • 1. Trying is believing – may like some the 1 st time, but it may take 10-15 times for others
    • 2. Seeing is believing – modeling by parents, other grown-ups, and siblings is very influential – say you LOVE it!
    • 3. Offer choices – offer 2-3 fruit or vegetable choices at meals & snacks, including juices –
    • empowers children to begin making decisions
  • Tips for Getting Kids to Eat More Fruits & Vegetables
    • 4. Make it Easy – when kids come in hungry, they will grab the most convenient item
    • - place fruits & veggies in a large bowl on the kitchen counter or table and cut up in small bags on bottom shelf of refrigerator
    • - place 100% fruit juice boxes or pouches on bottom shelf of refrigerator
    • 5. Make it Fun – let them make pictures with cut
    • up fruits & veggies (broccoli for trees,
    • orange slices for the sun, etc. )
  • Tips for Getting Kids to Eat More Fruits & Vegetables
    • 6. Crunchy & Sweet Can’t Be Beat – if kids won’t eat cooked veggies, try raw with low-fat Ranch dressing
    • 7. Kids Like to Eat What They Make – kids are more likely to try something they help prepare
    • - help them find recipes to try
    • 8. Add Fruits & Vegetables to Favorite Foods –
    • low-fat shakes with fruit, cereal with
    • bananas, spaghetti sauce with pureed vegetables
    (2)
  • Top 10 Ways to Get Kids Involved With Fruits & Vegetables
    • 1. Mean Green Cleaning Machine – Let them wash fruits & veggies
    • 2. Pick A Peck – Let them select a new fruit or veggie
    • 3. Make It Snappy – Let them snap green beans, peas, or broccoli flowerets
  • Top 10 Ways to Get Kids Involved With Fruits & Vegetables
    • 4. I Spy – Play “I Spy” in the produce section
    • 5. Tear It Up ! – Let them tear the lettuce for salads & sandwiches
    • 6. Measure Up! – Let them measure the vegetables before cooking them
    • 7. Peel & Slice – Older children can peel & slice
    • fruits & veggies
  • Top 10 Ways to Get Kids Involved With Fruits & Vegetables
    • 8. Stir & Spice – Make applesauce from apples & let them stir & add the cinnamon
    • 9. A Sprinkle A Day – Let them sprinkle herbs or other seasonings onto veggies
    • 10. Monster Mash! – Pull out the potato masher
    (3)
  • Snack Facts
    • Preschool children have small stomachs and need scheduled snacks
    • Eating at regular intervals discourages grazing, characterized as near-continuous nibbling or drinking
    • How much should you serve at snack time?
    • Answer: Enough to take the edge off - start small; you can always serve more
  • Healthy Snacks Made at Home
    • Think of snacks as mini-meals and avoid serving high-sodium chips & sugar-laden drinks
    • Try:
    • Snack Mix - set out bowls of Cheerios, dried fruit, & chopped nuts or sunflower seeds – let them mix it up – this mix is good with yogurt
    • Fruit Smoothies – let them experiment with fresh or frozen fruits and low-fat yogurt or milk
    • Low-fat microwave popcorn sprinkled with Parmesan cheese, and low-sodium vegetable juice
  • Little Dipper Snacks
    • Young children love to dip – a little messy, but worth it for development and good nutrition
    • Try:
    • Sliced apple, peach, pear, banana, or cooked sweet potato dipped in low-fat yogurt
    • Baby carrots, celery sticks, sliced bell peppers, cherry tomatoes (cut in half) dipped in low-fat Ranch dressing or nut butter
  • Healthy Snacks on the Go
    • For simple, healthy snacks
    • Try:
    • String cheese & small can of low-sodium vegetable juice
    • Small whole grain muffin & carton of low-fat/skim milk
    • ¼ peanut butter sandwich & carton of 100% fruit juice
    • Tube of yogurt & whole grain crackers
    (4)
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • Until your child’s food preferences mature, prevent mealtime battles 1 bite at a time
    • 1. Respect Your Child’s Hunger – young children tend to eat only when hungry
    • - growth has slowed its pace
    • – don’t force food
    • 2. Stay Calm – If your child sees you unhappy, it may become a battle of the wills
    • - threats and punishments reinforce the
    • behavior
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • 3. Keep An Eye On The Clock – Nix juice & snacks at least 1 hour before meals
    • 4. Don’t Expect Too Much – A few bites may be all it takes for your child to feel full
    • 5. Limit Liquid Calories – Low-fat or fat-free dairy & 100% fruit juice are important but may not leave room for meals & snacks if taken in
    • excess
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • 6. Start Small – Offer several foods in small
    • portions & let your child choose
    • 7. Boycott The Clean Plate Club – Promotes overeating - allow your child to stop eating when full
    • 8. Leave taste Out Of It – Talk about the color, shape, aroma, & texture – not whether it tastes
    • good
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • 9. Be Patient With New Foods – May need repeated exposure before the 1 st bite is taken
    • 10. Eat Breakfast For Dinner – May enjoy
    • breakfast foods
    • 11. Make It Fun – Serve veggies with a favorite dip such as low-fat Ranch dressing
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • 12. Recruit Your Child’s Help – Ask them to help you select fruits & veggies in the store
    • - at home, let them rinse veggies, stir batter, or set the table
    • 13. Set A Good Example – If you eat a variety, your child is more likely to follow suit
    • 14. Be Sneaky – Add veggies to spaghetti sauce,
    • casseroles, & soups & top cereal with fruits
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • 15. Keep It Separate – Try not mixing the foods & serve the ingredients separately
    • 16. Stick To The Routine – Serve the meals & snacks at the same times everyday & keep kitchen closed at other times
    • 17. Minimize Distractions – Turn off the TV during meals & snacks & don’t allow books or toys
    • at the table
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • 18. Don’t Offer Dessert As A Reward – Sends a message that it is the best food
    • - redefine dessert as fruit, yogurt, etc.
    • 19. Expect Some Food Preferences To Stick – As kids mature, they tend to become less picky, but will still have some preferences & not like others
  • 20 Tips for Picky Eaters
    • 20. Know When To Seek Help – If they are energetic and growing, probably doing fine
    • - if the eating behavior is compromising growth & development or if certain foods cause illness, consult your physician
    (5)
  • References
    • Worthington-Roberts BS and Williams SR. Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle , 4 th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 242-246.
    • www.dolesuperkids.com/html/parents
    • www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org
    • http:// children.webmd.com/child-nutrition-8/simple-sweet-snacks
    • www.mayoclinic.com/health/childrens-health/HQ01107
  • Questions? Thank You!