2010 English150 Week2 Part2
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2010 English150 Week2 Part2

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2010 English150 Week2 Part2 2010 English150 Week2 Part2 Presentation Transcript

  • Grammar and Punctuation Week 2, Part 2
  • Today
    • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Punctuation
  • Word of the Day
    • Mitigate
    • To lessen intensity, to make something less severe
    • In The Informant! Matt Damon’s character’s jail sentence is never mitigated.
  • Grammar Questions
    • Why is grammar important?
    • How have you learned grammar in the past?
  • Biggest Grammar Errors
  • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Parallel structure
    • Comma splices/run-ons
    • Fragments
    • Subject-verb agreement
    • Dangling participle
    • Wrong word
  • 1. Parallel Structure
    • For a sentence to be parallel:
      • All grammatical elements need to match
      • Items in a list need to match
  • 1. Parallel Structure
    • Abused children commonly exhibit one or more of the following symptoms: withdrawal, rebelliousness, restlessness, and they are depressed.
    • Hooked on romance novels, I learned there is nothing more important than being rich, looking good, and to have a good time.
  • 1. Parallel Structure
    • Grammatical elements:
      • The actor was handsome, articulate, and he loved to look at himself in the mirror.
      • People who are in debt should give up credit cards, borrowing money, eating out in expensive restaurants, and living above their means.
      • They divorced because the husband thought that no one should read while he was talking, and the wife thought that while she was reading no one should talk.
  • 1. Parallel Structure
    • “ than” or “as”
      • It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness.
      • My grades are just as good as Stephanie.
  • 1. Parallel Structure
    • After assuring us that he was sober, Sam drove down the middle of the road, ran one red light, and two stop signs.
  • Try It!
  • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Parallel structure
    • Comma splices/run-ons
    • Fragments
    • Subject agreement
    • Dangling modifier
    • Wrong word
  • 2. Comma Splices and Run-ons
    • Comma splices and Run-ons
    • Same problem: two independent clauses fused together improperly
    • Comma splice:
    • Subject verb, subject verb
    • I love ice cream, I love chocolate
    • Run on:
    • Subject verb subject verb
    • I love ice cream I love chocolate
  • Comma Splices
    • Dependent clause
    • Cannot stand alone as a sentence
    • May be missing a subject, a verb, or have both but also a subordinating conjunction.
    • Example: Before I leave, I want to dance.
  • Comma Splices
    • Independent clause
    • Can stand alone as a sentence
    • Has at least a subject and a verb
    • Example: The star shines.
  • Try It!
  • Comma Splices
    • Two independent clauses cannot be fused together on their own.
  • Comma Splices
    • Comma Splice:
      • When a comma is doing the work of period.
      • Comma is too weak to take this role
      • Comma = weak
      • Period = strong
  • Comma Splices
    • Examples
      • His new album has an interesting picture on the cover, in other words the cover demands attention.
      • Hand gestures are important for everyone, however they are a means of survival for the hearing impaired.
  • Tools We Need:
    • Coordinating Conjunction (“co-con”)
      • FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
    • Subordinating Conjunctions (“sub-cons”)
      • Examples: after, although, as, because, before, even though, if, once, rather, than, since, that, though, unless, while
  • How to Fix a comma splice/run-on
    • Stronger punctuation
    • Use a coordinating conjunction
    • Make one phrase dependent
  • How to Fix a comma splice/run-on
    • Use stronger punctuation
      • Period
      • Semi-colon and a transitional phrase
        • Examples: also, anyway, besides, furthermore, incidentally, moreover, otherwise, thus, however, in addition
      • He’s an excellent swimmer; he won an Olympic medal.
      • He’s an excellent swimmer. He won an Olympic medal.
      • He’s not a good swimmer; however, he enjoys the water.
  • How to Fix a comma splice/run-on
      • 2. Add a coordinating conjunction
      • FANBOYS
      • He’s an excellent swimmer, and he won an Olympic medal.
  • How to Fix a comma splice/run-on
    • 3. Make one phrase dependent
    • with a subordinating word.
    • by changing it entirely
    • He is recognized as a great swimmer because he won an Olympic medal.
    • His great swimming ability won him an Olympic medal.
  • Try It!
  • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Parallel structure
    • Comma splices/run-ons
    • Fragments
    • Subject agreement
    • Dangling modifier
    • Wrong word
  • 3. Fragments
    • Missing a subject, a verb, or includes a subordinating word.
  • Fragments/Incomplete Sentences
      • Easy to recognize apart from other sentences.
      • Difficult to recognize next to related sentences.
  • Fragments/Incomplete Sentences
      • Example: On the old wooden stool in the corner of my grandma’s kitchen.
      • Example: And immediately popped their flares and life vests.
    • On that morning I sat in my usual spot. On the wooden stool in the corner of my grandma’s kitchen.
    • The pilots ejected from the burning plane, landing in the water. And immediately popped their flares and life vests.
  • Test Your Sentence!
          • YES!
            • YES!
            • No!
    Is there a verb? Is there a subject? Is there just a subordinate clause or phrase? Complete Sentence ! No Fragment No Fragment YES. Fragment
  • How to Fix a Fragment
    • Attach the fragment to a nearby sentence.
    • Turn the fragment into a sentence.
  • Try It!
  • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Parallel structure
    • Comma splices/run-ons
    • Fragments
    • Subject agreement
    • Dangling modifier
    • Wrong word
  • 4. Subject-verb agreement
      • Subject and verb must agree in gender and number
      • Subject and antecedent must agree in gender and number.
  • Subject-verb agreement:
      • The samples on the tray in the lab need testing.
      • High levels of air pollution cause damage to the respiratory tract.
  • Subject-verb Agreement
    • What’s an indefinite pronoun?
      • Anybody
      • Anyone
      • Each
      • Either
      • Everybody
      • Neither
      • Nobody
      • No one
  • Subject-verb Agreement
      • Indefinite pronouns are treated as singular
      • Example: Each of the students has a textbook now.
      • Example: Everybody who signed up for the tours is able to go.
      • What about collective nouns?
  • More Agreement
      • Example: When someone has been drinking, they are likely to speed.
      • Example: Every runner must train rigorously if they want to excel.
      • Example: If a medical student wants to get a job, he must study every day.
  • Ways to Fix Agreement Errors
    • Replace the plural pronoun with “he or she” or “his or her.”
    • Make the antecedent plural.
    • Rewrite the sentence completely.
    • Example:
    • When someone has been drinking, he or she is likely to speed.
    • When drivers have been drinking, they are likely to speed.
    • A driver who has been drinking is likely to speed.
  • Try It!
  • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Parallel structure
    • Comma splices/run-ons
    • Fragments
    • Subject agreement
    • Dangling modifier
    • Wrong word
  • Dangling Modifier
    • Dangling Modifier:
    • A modifier that does not refer logically to any word in the sentence. It suggests but does not name the true subject.
  • Dangling Modifier
    • Diseased, the farmers disposed of the potatoes.
    • Checking the call display while biking, a dog ran in front of me.
    • Deciding to join the navy, the recruiter enthusiastically pumped Joe’s hand.
    • Upon entering the doctor’s office, a skeleton caught my attention.
  • Dangling Modifier
    • Though only sixteen, UCLA accepted Martha’s application.
    • To please the children, some fireworks were set off a day early.
  • Try It!
  • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Parallel structure
    • Comma splices/run-ons
    • Fragments
    • Subject-verb agreement
    • Dangling modifier
    • Wrong word
  • 6. Wrong Word
    • Affect/Effect
    • Its/it’s
    • Allot/a lot
    • Who’s whose
    • Your/you’re
    • They’re/their/there
  • Try It!
  • 6 Biggest Grammar Errors
    • Parallel structure
    • Comma splices/run-ons
    • Fragments
    • Subject-verb agreement
    • Dangling participle
    • Wrong word
  • Punctuation
    • Commas
    • Colons
    • Semi-colons
    • Hyphens
    • Brackets
    • Quotations
  • Summary
    • You have the rest of the class
    • No electronic dictionaries
    • English-English paper dictionaries permitted
    • Write double-spaced
    • Write in pen
  • Summary: How it will be marked
    • Format
    • Structure
    • Content
    • Sentence-level
  • Why the Blog?
    • Post comments and practice your writing
    • Post group work for group work mark and participation
    • Find past PowerPoints
    • Find readings
    • Ask questions that may apply to the whole group
  • The Blog!
    • Wait for an email—no email? Email me!
    • Click on the link
    • Sign in with previous google account OR create google account
    • Sign in with new google account
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  • cameng150-29.blogspot.com