2010 Arc Flash Hazard and Power Distribution Modeling


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This Powerpoint covers Arc Flash safety and power distribution modeling By Richard Ramirez

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  • This is a presentation for all who want to re-enforce the basics of AFBefore we start have the audience present themselves and what company are they with?Ask the audience who is not familiar with what arc flash is?When did they hear about it?Arc flash analysis at their facilities?
  • You can also use a Coverall as a replacement for shirts and pants
  • The purpose of a short circuit analysis is to know what your maximem fault current is at bus.
  • S.C. is important to and AF analysis because it uses SC parameters (Voltage, Current, time, and distance) to calculate the incident energy angle.
  • 2010 Arc Flash Hazard and Power Distribution Modeling

    1. 1. Arc Flash<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Control Engineering Inc. <br />2306 Newport Blvd.<br />Costa Mesa, CA 92627<br />Tel: 714-535-5590<br />Fax: 714-535-0625<br />
    2. 2. Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    3. 3. Arc Flash <br />What is Arc Flash?<br />What can cause Arc Flash?<br />What are the results of Arc Flash?<br />Standards<br />Shock and Arc Boundaries<br />Levels of PPE<br />Steps to performing an Arc Flash analysis<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    4. 4. What is Arc Flash?<br />The NFPA defines Arc Flash as an electrical explosion caused when current passes through air between ungrounded conductors or between ungrounded conductors and grounded conductors. <br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    5. 5. What Can Cause Arc Flash?<br />Accidents<br />Unintentional contact with electrical equipment (screwdriver, pliers, etc.)<br />Equipment failure<br />Improperly designed equipment and/or work procedures.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    6. 6. What are the Results of AF?<br /><ul><li>The even release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of:
    7. 7. Thermal heat (up to 35,000 degrees Fahrenheit, that’s almost four time the surface of the sun!!)
    8. 8. Toxic fumes
    9. 9. Molten metal
    10. 10. Pressure waves
    11. 11. Blinding light
    12. 12. Sound waves
    13. 13. Extreme heat causes copper to expand 67,000 times from solid to vapor- pressure
    14. 14. Flying shrapnel at over 700 mph
    15. 15. Surrounding equipment damaged or destroyed
    16. 16. Facility shutdown</li></ul>Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    17. 17. Results Continued<br />Can result in serious injuries<br />Critical burns<br />Fatal burns can occur at distances of 10 ft.<br />Collapsed lungs<br />Loss of sight<br />Ruptured eardrums<br />Puncture wounds<br />Death!!!<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    18. 18. Arc Flash Standards<br />OSHA 29 CFR 1910<br />NEC 110.6<br />NFPA 70E<br />IEEE 1584<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    19. 19. OSHA 1910<br />OSHA 1910.132(d) Where work will be performed within the flash protection boundary, the flash hazard analysis shall determine, and the employer shall document, the incident energy exposure to the worker (in cal/cm2).<br />OSHA 1910.269(I)(6) Flame resistant (FR) clothing and PPE shall be used by the employee based upon the incident energy exposure associated with the specific task.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    20. 20. NEC 110.6<br />110.16 Flash Protection.<br />Switchboards, panel boards, industrial control panels, and motor control centers in other than dwelling occupancies, that are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized, shall be field marked to warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. The marking shall be located so as to be clearly visible to qualified persons before examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the equipment.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    21. 21. NFPA 70E<br />NFPA 70E-2000 Part II Chapter 2, paragraph 2-1.3.3 states that arc-flash analysis must be performed in order to determine the level of hazard and appropriate PPE for given tasks.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    22. 22. NEW NFPA 70e Updates <br />NFPA 70E 110.6(E)-requires that all training be documented and employees must show proficiency.<br />NFPA 70E 130.3(C)-AF labels to include, at a minimum, the AF Incident Energy or Level of PPE.<br />Changes to Hazard Category 1 PPE-4 Calories or more for Pants and Face Shield that attaches to Hard Hat.<br />New exception verifies that 240V and less power systems fed by a single transformer less than 125 kv no longer require AF Analysis.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    23. 23. CEI<br />13<br /> Shock and Arc Boundaries<br />
    24. 24. CEI<br />14<br /> Typical Equipment Label<br />
    25. 25. CEI<br />15<br />Limits of Approach – Flash Protection Boundary<br /><ul><li>The distance from exposed live parts within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an arc flash were to occur.
    26. 26. Arc flash PPE is required within this boundary.
    27. 27. Note: Distance may be less than or greater than the shock protection boundaries.</li></ul>Flash Protection Boundary<br />Prohibited<br />Restricted<br />Limited<br />Energized part<br />Calculated distance<br />
    28. 28. CEI<br />16<br />Limits of Approach – Limited Approach Boundary<br />The closest distance an “unqualified” person can approach, unless escorted by a “qualified” person.<br />Prohibited<br />Restricted<br />Limited<br />Energized panel (<750V)<br />3 feet 6 inches for 480V<br />
    29. 29. CEI<br />17<br />Limits of Approach – Restricted Approach Boundary<br />Prohibited<br />Restricted<br />The closest distance to exposed live parts a “qualified” person can approach w/out proper PPE and tools.<br />To cross this boundary, the qualified person must wear PPE and have proper tools.<br />Energized part<br />12 inches for 480 volts<br />
    30. 30. CEI<br />18<br />Limits of Approach - Shock<br />Prohibited<br />Crossed ONLY by a “qualified” person, which when crossed by body part or object, requires the same protection as if direct contact was made with the live part.<br />Energized part<br />1 inch for 480 volts <br />
    31. 31. CEI<br />19<br />Levels of PPE<br />Hazard Risk Category 4<br />Hazard Risk Category 2<br />Hazard Risk Category 1<br />Hazard Risk Category 0<br />Hazard Risk Category 3<br />
    32. 32. Category 0(up to 1.2 Cal/cm2)<br />Shirt (Long-Sleeve)<br />Pants (Long) <br />Safety Glasses<br />V-Rated Gloves <br />Insulated Tools <br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    33. 33. Category 1 (1.3 up to 4.0 Cal/cm2)<br />Shirt (Long-Sleeve) FR<br />Pants (Long) FR<br />Face Shield FR <br />V-Rated Gloves <br />Hearing Protection<br />Insulated Tools <br />Hard Hat FR<br />Leather Work Shoes<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    34. 34. Category 2 (4.0 up to 8.0 Cal/cm2)<br />Category 1 Requirements plus<br />Extra Layer of Untreated Natural fiber (Shirt & Pants)<br />Leather Work Shoes<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    35. 35. Category 3 (8 up to 25 Cal/cm2)<br />Category 2 Requirements plus<br />Coveralls up to 2 Sets<br />Double Layer Switching Hood <br />Hearing Protection<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    36. 36. Category 4 (higher than 25 Cal/cm2)<br />Category 3 Requirements<br /> plus<br />Flash Suit<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    37. 37. Best way to prevent hazards of electricity……..<br />Avoid energized circuits is the Safest Way!<br />STOP Before taking any action<br />THINK In terms of Risks and Hazards<br />OPTIONS LOTO Lock Out Tag Out<br />PROTECTION Proper PPE<br />
    39. 39. Control Engineering, Inc.<br />FIELD VERIFICATION AND AUDIT<br /><ul><li>Engineering Support of Electrical Staff
    40. 40. PPE
    41. 41. Utility Company and Grid Data
    42. 42. Transformers, Generators
    43. 43. Switchgears and MCCs
    44. 44. High Voltage Relays, Circuit Breakers
    45. 45. Conductors
    46. 46. CTs, Load data</li></ul>Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    47. 47. Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Single line diagrams<br /><ul><li>Verify existing diagrams
    48. 48. Add or remove components where applicable
    49. 49. Update existing devices
    50. 50. Can you Import From / Export To ACAD?</li></ul>Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    51. 51. Control Engineering, Inc.<br />System modeling<br /><ul><li>Generate Model Using Software Program (Etap, SKM, ArcAd, ArcPro) Based on Field Verified Single Diagrams and Data
    52. 52. Use Libraries for Component Characteristics
    53. 53. Verify Model Integrity Using Load Flow Analysis
    54. 54. Optional Short Circuit Analysis and Coordination Studies</li></ul>Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    55. 55. Load Flow Analysis<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    56. 56. Short Circuit Analysis<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    57. 57. Arc Flash Analysis<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    58. 58. Control Engineering, Inc.<br />ARC FLASH <br /><ul><li>Calculate Incident Energy Cal/cm2
    59. 59. Review Risk Category Reports
    60. 60. Labeling Requirements
    61. 61. Approach Boundaries
    62. 62. Class of PPE
    63. 63. Printing and Installing Labels
    64. 64. Reports and Recommendations
    65. 65. Safety Program Integration and Training</li></ul>Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    66. 66. Reports Generated<br />Control Engineering, Inc.<br />
    67. 67. Pop Quiz<br />What is wrong with this label?<br />Wrong hazard category<br />level of PPE is required?<br />Category 1<br />What is meant by the limited approach?<br />The closest distance an “unqualified” person can approach, unless escorted by a “qualified” person.<br />What is meant by the prohibited approach?<br />Crossed ONLY by a “qualified” person, which when crossed by body part or object, requires the same protection as if direct contact was made with the live part.<br />