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  • Initial survey Demographics Instructional preferences Student expectations Course Interest Survey Midpoint Survey and Final Survey Community of Inquiry Survey Social, cognitive, and teaching presence Classroom Community Scale -Connectedness and learning Course Interest Survey Attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction
  • 71 students who completed all 3 surveys
  • This is a dependent ,means t test to see if the sense of connectedness and sense of learning community changed from high to moderate teacher presence. Sense of learning community did change however it is not significant. And there were No mean differences significant at 0.05 level Their sense of learning community is the community fostering learning as a whole rather than just “my” learning.
  • The fact that sense of learning community went up could just be because the students have been in the class together for a whole term. Change is not significant anyway.
  • No mean differences significant at 0.05 level
  • No mean differences significant at 0.05 level
  • How a students sense of connectedness is correlated to Learning, Teaching presence, social Presence and Cognitive Presence. These are all significant at the.01 level. This means that there is a relationship between my sense of connectedness in this course and teaching presence, learning, social and cognitive presence.
  • How is my sense of learning connectedness related to each of these aspects of teaching, social and cognitive presence at the mid point (after high teaching presence).
  • This slide shows the same thing at the endpoint.
  • These are the things that the course interest survey measured. The only item that was significant is attention. Attention is defined as Capturing the students attention, creating curiosity etc. How well the course “gets their attention” This chart shows that attention goes up at the midpoint but slightly down by the end.
  • Is there a relationship between how interesting perceive the course at the start and my sense of community either at the midpoint or end of the course. Only the significant correlations are reported here. My
  • This slide shows that this is significant at the .001 level.
  • There is a positive relationship between perceived learning and sense of connectedness at mod as well as high teaching presence conditions
  • This slide is telling us that a students perception of perceived learning at both the mid and endpoint are correlated to each of the items listed under the various categories My perceived learning at the middle of the course is not related to my perceived learning, but it is at the end point
  • The items that are listed had the highest mean rating of importance. These items also had the lowest variability (standard deviation less than 1). This slide shows us that the majority of the students thought that these items were very important. We have collapsed the items into a category we call: “Making sure the students know what is expected in all aspects of the course (i.e., participation, requirements, due dates, topics, goals etc.) and following through
  • This slide shows us the items that had the lowest mean rating of importance. We chose any items that had a variation above 3. We have collapsed the items into a category we call: Mimicking “Face –to Face” Item number one is a special item in that we had other items that show us that student want a response sooner that a week, thus, one week is too long.
  • This slide shows us the items that had the most variation among the ratings. We chose any items that had a variation above 3. We have collapsed the items into a category we call: Mimicking “Face –to Face” Item number one is a special item in that we had other items that show us that student want a response sooner that a week, thus, one week is too long.

Transcript

  • 1. Manipulating Teacher Presence in Online Learning: The Impact on Learning Effectiveness Kathleen M. Sheridan Melissa A. Kelly L. K. Curda
  • 2. Purpose
    • To investigate students’ perceptions of community in an online course when teaching presence was manipulated
    • To determine how students define instructor presence
  • 3. Research Questions
    • How do students’ perceptions of the course change under high and moderate teaching presence in terms of student motivation?
    • What relationships exist among presence and sense of community variables and perceived learning under high teaching and moderate teaching presence conditions?
    • How do students’ perceptions of presence and sense of community under high teaching presence conditions compare to moderate teaching presence conditions?
    • What instructor behaviors do students consider most important for teaching presence?
  • 4. Theoretical Frameworks
    • Community of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000; Swan, Richardson, Ice, Garrison, Cleveland-Innes, & Arbaugh, 2008)
      • Social presence
        • Learners’ feeling of social and emotional connectedness with others in the online environment
      • Cognitive presence
        • The degree to which learners construct and confirm meaning through discourse and reflection
      • Teaching presence
        • Instructor functions of design and organization of the course, facilitation of discourse, and direct instruction and their impact on learning outcomes
  • 5. Theoretical Frameworks
    • Classroom Community (Rovai, 2001)
      • Focuses on the feelings of belonging that learners have within an online course and that they matter to one another, have duties and obligations to one another, and have shared expectations and learning goals
      • Connectedness
        • The feeling of belonging and acceptance and the creation of relationships
      • Learning
        • The feeling that knowledge and meaning are actively constructed in the course and learning needs are being satisfied
  • 6. Theoretical Frameworks
    • Course Interest Survey (Keller, 2006)
      • Measures students’ motivations to learn based on their reactions to a specific course
      • Based on ARCS model
        • Attention
        • Relevance
        • Confidence
        • Satisfaction
  • 7. Context for the Study
    • Fully online, graduate and undergraduate level, education courses
    • Content modules linked to practical contexts
    • Role-playing, scenario-based instructional design approach
    • Weekly discussions focusing on practical application of content to problem solving
    • Interactive learning objects
  • 8. Procedures
    • Initial survey at end of week 1
    • Five weeks of high teaching presence
    • Midpoint survey at end of week 5
    • Five weeks of moderate teaching presence
    • Final survey at end of course
  • 9. Treatment Condition: High Teaching Presence
    • Writing a weekly introduction email to all students each week
    • Responding to all student email and inquiries within 24 hours
    • Replying to each student’s discussion posts personally within 24 hours
    • Monitoring the course site at least two times a day, both morning and evening, including weekends
  • 10. Treatment Condition: Moderate Teaching Presence
    • Writing a weekly introduction email to all students each week
    • Responding to all emails and inquiries within 48 hours
    • Summarizing student discussions weekly and replying to the students’ group discussions as a whole rather than individually
    • Monitoring the course site daily at least 5 days during the week
  • 11. Methods
    • Surveys at start, midpoint and end of course
    • Start of course survey measured student expectations of instructional preferences and motivation
    • Midpoint survey measured student perceptions of community and learning under conditions of high teaching presence
    • End of course survey measured student perceptions of community and learning under conditions of moderate teaching presence
  • 12. Instruments Items Survey Initial Midpoint Endpoint Demographics X Instructional preferences X Student expectations X
    • Course Interest Survey
      • Attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction
    X X X
    • Classroom Community Scale
      • Connectedness and learning
    X X
    • Community of Inquiry Survey
      • Social, cognitive, and teaching presence
    X X
  • 13. Initial Results: Demographics
    • 71 participants
    • Distribution of participants by age
  • 14. Initial Results: Enrollment in Prior Online Courses
  • 15. Initial Results: Instructional Preferences
    • I prefer courses that engage me in role playing, problem solving and discussions rather than reading/listening to a lecture and answering questions.
    • I prefer to listen to a lecture rather than participate in a discussion.
  • 16. Initial Results: Expected Hours and Effort
  • 17. Midpoint and Endpoint Results: Sense of Community Scale High Teaching Moderate Teaching t Mean SD Mean SD Connectedness 37.79 6.26 37.80 6.44 -0.03 Learning 40.01 5.94 40.35 6.54 -0.52
  • 18. Midpoint and Final Results: Change in Sense of Community
  • 19. Midpoint and Final Results: Presence Ratings Scale High Teaching Moderate Teaching t Mean SD Mean SD Teaching Presence 4.39 0.60 4.37 0.66 0.50 Social Presence 4.10 0.60 4.05 0.60 1.10 Cognitive Presence 4.26 0.56 4.31 0.58 -0.81
  • 20. Midpoint and Final Results: Change in Sense of Presence
  • 21. Midpoint and Final Results: Presence Ratings Presence High Teaching Moderate Teaching t Subscale Mean SD Mean SD Teaching Design and Organization 4.52 0.59 4.52 0.57 -0.07 Facilitation 4.35 0.64 4.33 0.71 0.48 Direct Instruction 4.31 0.74 4.25 0.79 0.79 Social Affective Expression 3.94 0.70 3.86 0.74 1.21 Open Communication 4.24 0.73 4.26 0.62 -0.42 Group Cohesion 4.14 0.65 4.04 0.73 1.52 Cognitive Triggering Event 4.22 0.67 4.19 0.67 0.54 Exploration 4.31 0.58 4.37 0.58 -0.90 Integration 4.27 0.57 4.37 0.59 -1.62 Resolution 4.31 0.52 4.40 0.61 -1.64
  • 22. Midpoint and Final Results: Change in Sense of Presence
  • 23. Results: Correlations between Community and Presence Scales
    • **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
      Scale High Teaching Moderate Teaching L TP SP CP L TP SP CP Connectedness (C) .76** .62** .71 ** .57 ** C .63 ** .56 ** .73 ** .75 ** Learning (L) .69 ** .73 ** .68 ** L .61 ** .61 ** .70 ** Teaching Presence (TP) .74 ** .78 ** TP .67 ** .74 ** Social presence (SP) . 82** SP . 80** Cognitive Presence (CP) CP
  • 24. Results: Correlations among Midpoint Presence Subscales **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Scale Subscale L DO F DI AE OC GC TE E I R Connectedness (C) .76** .52** .58** .61** .68** .50** .72** .58** .52** .48** .40** Learning (L)   .64** .61** .66** .59** .66** .701** .63** .58** .64** .55** Teaching Presence Design and Organization ( DO)   .74** .78** .60** .48** .54** .67** .54** .61** .55** Facilitation (F)   .80** .69** .60** .66** .79** .61** .69** .66** Direct Instruction (DI)   .64** .53** .59** .67** .59** .62** .56** Social Presence Affective Expression (AE)   .59** .67** .63** .64** .61** .48** Open Communication (OC)   .71** .61** .64** .67** .62** Group Cohesion (GC)   .71** .70** .70** .60** Cognitive Presence Triggering Event (TE)   .68** .73** .65** Exploration (E)   .83** .69** Integration (I)   .78** Resolution (R)                      
  • 25. Results: Correlations among Endpoint Presence Subscales **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Scale Subscale L DO F DI AE OC GC TE E I R Connectedness (C) .63** .56** .64** .63** .71** .42** .74** .70** .72** .67** .60** Learning (L)   .67** .72** .71** .55** .40** .63** .63** .66** .66** .63** Teaching Presence Design and Organization (DO)   .86** .81** .59** .50** .62** .61** .66** .68** .74** Facilitation ( F)   .92** .69** .50** .71** .75** .78** .80** .78** Direct Instruction ( DI)   .72** .53** .69** .76** .78** .81** .79** Social Presence Affective Expression ( AE)   .52** .70** .59** .64** .66** .55** Open Communication ( OC)   .67** .57** .53** .54** .57** Group Cohesion (GC)   .75** .77** .68** .72** Cognitive Presence Triggering Event (TE)   .80** .79** .80** Exploration (E)   .86** .82** Integration ( I)   .807** Resolution (R)                      
  • 26. Results: Changes in ARCS Scales Scale Initial Midpoint Endpoint Significance Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD F HF p Effect size Attention 4.13 0.49 4.16 0.62 3.96 0.69 5.30 0.01 0.07 Relevance 4.59 0.42 4.54 0.47 4.54 0.52 0.79 > 0.05 0.01 Confidence 4.25 0.53 4.26 0.50 4.25 0.60 0.07 > 0.05 0.00 Satisfaction 3.97 0.60 3.93 0.71 4.04 0.73 0.67 > 0.05 0.01
  • 27. Results: Changes in ARCS Scales
  • 28. Results: Correlations among ARCS and Community and Presence
    • Significant correlations ( r ) among initial ARCS subscales and community and presence scales
    *Correlation significant at 0.05 level (2-tailed) **Correlation significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed) H = High teaching presence. M = Moderate teaching presence ARCS Subscale Connectedness Learning Teaching Presence Social Presence Cognitive Presence Attention .24* (H) .43* (H) .30* (H) .38** (M) .26* (H) .36** (H) .40** (M) Relevance .38** (H) .37** (M) .49* (H) .40** (M) .37** (H) .46** (M) .33** (H) .36** (M) .41** (H) .54** (M) Confidence .34** (H) .27* (M) .28* (M) .28* (H) .29* (M) .31** (M) Satisfaction .35** (H) .51** (H) .32** (M) .35** (H) .35** (M) .35** (H) .25* (M) .32** (H) .39** (M)
  • 29. Results: Correlations among ARCS and Community and Presence
    • Significant correlations ( r ) among midpoint ARCS scales and community and presence scales
    *Correlation significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) H = High teaching presence. M = Moderate teaching presence ARCS Subscale Connectedness Learning Teaching Presence Social Presence Cognitive Presence Attention .56** (H) .44** (M) .68** (H) .53** (M) .67** (H) .67** (M) .59** (H) .53** (M) .63** (H) .58** (M) Relevance .52** (H) .40** (M) .63** (H) .42** (M) .59** (H) .56** (M) .50** (H) .47** (M) .60** (H) .56** (M) Confidence .62** (H) . 45** (M) .62** (H) .41** (M) .63** (H) .53** (M) .66** (H) .54** (M) .58** (H) .54** (M) Satisfaction .. 44** (H) . 39** (M) . 63** (H) .56** (M) .65** (H) .59** (M) .61** (H) .51** (M) .60** (H) .55** (M)
  • 30. Results: Correlations among ARCS and Community and Presence
    • Significant correlations ( r ) among endpoint ARCS scales and community and presence scales
    **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) H = High teaching presence. M = Moderate teaching presence ARCS Subscale Connectedness Learning Teaching Presence Social Presence Cognitive Presence Attention . 50** (H) .63** (M) .58** (H) .66** (M) .60** (H) .73** (M) .46** (H) .57** (M) .56** (H) .67** (M) Relevance .45** (H) .50** (M) .54** (H) .50** (M) .50** (H) .64** (M) .48** (H) .55** (M) .53** (H) .65** (M) Confidence .47** (H) .40** (M) .39** (H) .38** (M) .45** (H) .58** (M) .53** (H) .58** (M) .38** (H) .51** (M) Satisfaction .42** (H) .51** (M) .54** (H) .59** (M) .54** (H) .70** (M) .54** (H) .60** (M) .53** (H) .63** (M)
  • 31. Results: Change in Perceived Learning
    • On a scale of 0 to 9, how much did you learn in this class, with 0 meaning you learned nothing and 9 meaning you learned more than in any other class you've had?
    High Teaching Moderate Teaching t df p Mean SD Mean SD 6.41 1.63 7.24 1.62 -5.21 69 0.00
  • 32. Results: Correlations among Learning and Community and Presence Scales
    • Significant correlations ( r ) among perceived learning and community and presence scales
    *Correlation significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) H = High teaching presence. M = Moderate teaching presence   Connectedness Learning Teaching Presence Social Presence Cognitive Presence Midpoint Learning .38 ** (H) .38** (M) .39 ** (H) .52** (M) .57 ** (H) .57** (M) .39 ** (H) .35** (M) .50 ** (H) .53** (M) Endpoint Learning .44 ** (H) .57** (M) .51 ** (H) .62** (M) .59 ** (H) .74** (M) .50 ** (H) .59** (M) .55 ** (H) .66** (M)
  • 33. Results: Correlations among Learning and Community and Presence Subscales
    • Significant correlations ( r ) among perceived learning and presence subscales
    *Correlation significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) H = High teaching presence. M = Moderate teaching presence   Teaching Presence Social Presence Cognitive Presence Design and org Facili-tation Direct Instruc-tion Affect-ive Expres-sion Open Commn-ication Group Cohesion Trigger- ing Event Explor-ation Integra- tion Resolu-tion Mid Learn .42**(H) .43**(M) .60**(H) .57**(M) .50**(H) .61**(M) .40**(H) .40**(M) .39**(H) .37**(M) .56**(H) .47**(M) .37**(H) .52**(M) .48**(H) .49**(M) .43**(H) .47**(M) End Learn .48**(H) .63**(M) .61**(H) .72**(M) .48**(H) .76**(M) .51**(H) .64**(M) .35**(H) .28*(M) .47**(H) .57**(M) .55**(H) .62**(M) .46**(H) .61**(M) .49**(H) .62**(M) .46**(H) .67**(M)
  • 34. Results: Correlations among Learning and ARCS Scales
    • Significant correlations ( r ) among perceived learning and ARCS scales
    *Correlation significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) **Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) I = Initial. H = High teaching presence. M = Moderate teaching presence   Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction Midpoint Learning .26 * (I) .42** (H) .48** (M) .41 ** (I) .36** (H) .34** (M) .26 * (I) .33** (H) .30* (M) Endpoint Learning .33 ** (I) .53** (H) .62** (M) .54 ** (I) .44** (H) .53** (M) .31* (H) .43** (M) .36 ** (I) .44** (H) .57** (M)
  • 35. Results: Student Ratings of Indicators of Instructor Presence
    • Highest importance to students
      • 64 items rated on scale from 1 to 10
    Items with Highest Mean Rating N Min. Max. Mean SD Makes course requirements clear 51 9 10 9.96 0.20 Clearly communicated important due dates/time frames for learning activities 53 8 10 9.91 0.35 Sets clear expectations for discussion participation 53 8 10 9.83 0.47 Provides timely feedback on assignments and projects 53 8 10 9.79 0.45 Provides clear instructions on how to participate in course learning activities 53 7 10 9.77 0.58 Keeps the course calendar updated 53 5 10 9.74 0.81 Clearly communicates important course topics 53 7 10 9.70 0.70 Clearly communicated important course goals 52 7 10 9.69 0.64 Creates a course that is easy to navigate 53 6 10 9.64 0.81 Always follows through with promises made to students 53 8 10 9.60 0.72 Lets me know how I am doing in the course 53 7 10 9.49 0.82
  • 36. Results: Student Ratings of Indicators of Instructor Presence
    • Lowest importance to students
      • 64 items rated on scale from 1 to 10
    Items with Lowest Mean Rating N Min. Max. Mean SD Create chapter quizzes 53 1 10 5.32 2.87 Has a personal website for me to go to 53 1 10 5.49 3.22 Engages in “real time” chat sessions 53 1 10 5.60 3.11 Reply to each individual student’s posts in the discussion area 53 1 10 5.87 2.86 Provide a video that allows me to hear and see the instructor 53 1 10 5.94 3.10 Feedback and comments are always positive 53 1 10 6.32 2.62 Participate daily in discussions 53 1 10 6.42 2.71 Responds to student questions when ever I need a response/ 24 hours a day 53 1 10 6.77 3.08
  • 37. Results: Student Ratings of Indicators of Instructor Presence
    • Most varied importance to students
      • 64 items rated on scale from 1 to 10
    Items with Lowest Mean Rating N Min. Max. Mean SD Respond to student questions or concerns within 1 week 50 1 10 7.58 3.47 Provide a video that allows me to hear and see the instructor 53 1 10 5.94 3.10 Engages in “real time” chat sessions 53 1 10 5.60 3.11 Responds to student questions when ever I need a response/24 hours a day 53 1 10 6.77 3.08 Has a personal website for me to go to 53 1 10 5.49 3.22
  • 38. Conclusions
    • How do students’ perceptions of the course change under high and moderate teaching presence in terms of student motivation?
      • There was a significant decrease in students’ attention from high to moderate teaching presence.
    • How do students’ perceptions of presence and sense of community under high teaching presence conditions compare to moderate teaching presence conditions?
      • There were no significant changes in students’ perceptions of presence (teaching, social, or cognitive).
    • What instructor behaviors do students consider most important for teaching presence?
      • Making sure that students know what is expected in all aspects of the course and following through
  • 39. Conclusions (cont.)
    • What relationships exist among presence and sense of community and perceived learning under high teaching and moderate teaching presence conditions?
      • Perceived learning increased from midpoint (high-teaching presence) to endpoint (moderate-teaching presence)
      • There were significant positive correlations between perceived learning and sense of connectedness and learning community under both high-teaching condition and moderate-teaching condition.
      • There were significant positive correlations between perceived learning and all categories of teaching presence, cognitive presence, and social presence (except for open communication in moderate-teaching condition) under both the high-teaching condition and moderate-teaching condition.
  • 40. Implications
    • How present students perceive you to be at the end of a course is the same as how present they perceive you to be during the first half of the course.
    • What you neglect to do in the beginning of a course might negatively impact students’ perceptions of teacher presence and perceived learning at the end of the course.
    • Decreased instructor presence after the first half of a course does not significantly impact students’ perceived learning and sense of connectedness and community.
    • Overall, face-to-face contact (live chats, “talking head video”, 24/7 teacher response, personal instructor web site) is not important for students’ perceptions of their learning in an online course.
    • Students report that it is important for their perceived learning for an instructor to make sure the students know what is expected in all aspects of the course (i.e., participation, requirements, due dates, topics, goals etc.).
  • 41. Future Research
    • Examine possible order effects of teaching presence on perceptions of presence and community
    • Examine possible course effects on perceptions of presence and community
    • Conduct multivariate analyses with a larger sample