Perfect Passive Participles
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Perfect Passive Participles

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Perfect Passive Participles Perfect Passive Participles Presentation Transcript

  • Perfect Passive Participles An adjective made from a verb
  • P.P.P.
    • Perfect : it has already happened
    • Passive : action has happened to the noun
    • Participle : an adjective made from a verb
  • The 4 th principal part of a verb
    • Portatus – carried, having been carried
    • Doctus – taught, having been taught
    • Missus – sent, having been sent
    • Captus – seized, having been seized
    • Auditus – heard, having been heard
  • In a sentence…
    • It acts like any other adjective, describing a noun or as a substantive
    • Agrees in case, number, and gender with any noun in the sentence
    • BUT it can be accompanied by prepositional phrases between the noun and participle
  • Translate:
    • Mater liberorum amissorum ad casam properabat.
    • Mater liberorum in silv ā amissorum ad casam properabat.
  • Ablative of agent
    • a / ab in a prepositional phrase with anything passive takes on the meaning by
    • This use of ab with a passive is called ablative of agent
    • It expresses the doer/agent of the action
  • Translate:
    • Rex captus servos liberavit.
    • Rex a barbaris captus servos liberavit.
  • Translate:
    • Verba facta audietis.
    • Verba a magistr ā facta audietis.
  • Translate:
    • In vi ā munitā ambulabimus.
    • In vi ā a Romanis munitā ambulabimus.
  • Other Participles
    • There are also present active participles:
    • In English: the jumping frog
    • In Latin these are made by adding –ns (genitive: -ntis) to the present stem of verbs
    • They are declined as 3 rd declension adjectives
    • Rana ambulans equum currentem vidit.
  • Other Participles
    • There are also future active participles:
    • In English: the frog about to jump
    • In Latin these are made by adding –ur- before the ending of the p.p.p.
    • They are declined as 1 st -2 nd declension adjectives
    • Rana ambulaturus equum cursurum vidit.
  • The Mystery
    • Have you noticed that some verbs list the future active participle instead of the p.p.p. as the 4 th principal part?
    • Why do some verbs not have a p.p.p ?
    • Extra credit bonus points if you email me the answer.
  • Translating participles in clauses
    • Instead of translating a p.p.p. as having been carried you can turn that one word into a whole clause using one of the following words to start it:
    • Who
    • When
    • After
    • Since
    • Because
    • Although
  • Aspect of time
    • When participles are translated as clauses, they take on aspect of time.
    • They only exist relative to the tense of the main verb in the sentence.
    • Past participles have happened before the main verb.
    • Present participles happen at the same time as the main verb.
    • Future participles will happen after the main verb.
  • Translate:
    • Rex a barbaris captus servos liberavit.
    • The king, after he had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves.
    • The king, since he had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves.
    • The king, although he had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves.
    • The king, who had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves.