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  • 1. 9 Grade Computer th Science Rotation Hardware 1
  • 2. Hardware Terms  Binary Representation - Bits/Bytes  Central Processing Unit (CPU)  Input/Output Devices  Primary Memory  Secondary Memory  Virtual Memory  Baud Rate – Bits per Second  Motherboard 2
  • 3. Hardware: Motherboard AGP Slot Auxiliary Card Connectors CPU Connector BIOS ROM Chip RAM Slots Battery 3
  • 4. Computer Boot Process A starts in the following order:  1. Power On Self Test (POST) 2. Load BIOS 3. Load O/S 4. Load Applications 4
  • 5. Computer Hardware Hardware A computer consists of six major subsystems:  1. User interface 2. Input/Output devices 3. Storage devices 4. Network connection 5. Primary memory - RAM 6. Central processing unit 5
  • 6. Computer Hardware 6
  • 7. Computer Hardware – CPU/Memory Intel 8080 Intel Pentium 4 Intel 4004 IBM 8-bit processing 32-bit processing 32-bit processing 4-bit processing 64-bit processing 108 kHz (a tenth of 1 1.4 MHz 108 kHz (a tenth of 1 megahertz) of an inch 1-trillionth transistors. 55 Million megahertz) 3500 billion transistors 270 transistors. 6500 MIPS 2300 transistors. Speed estimated at 0.5 MIPS estimated at 0.06 Speed MIPS Cost less than $100. Cost less than $100. Installed in most traffic- light controllers 7
  • 8. Computer Hardware – CPU/Memory SPAsoft - CPU Simulator.url 8
  • 9. Computer Hardware – CPU/Memory RAM CPU DISK  Operating System  Microsoft Word  Internet Explorer  Microsoft Outlook 9
  • 10. Computer Hardware – Memory/Virtual Memory RAM CPU Operating System Internet Explorer MS Word Internet Explorer DISK  O/S  Word  Explorer Outlook  Outlook Swapping 10
  • 11. Computer Hardware - Display  Bitmap  “Pixels” - Monitor divided into grid of Picture Elements 1024 px  Image created by displaying a color in each pixel.  Refresh Rate – Number of times the screen redraws in 768 px one second.  Resolution = Total number of screen pixels 786,432 px • 1024 x 768 is common for most screens 11
  • 12. Computer Hardware - Resolution Width Height Total px 2288 1712 3,917,056 2288 1520 3,477,760 2048 1536 3,145,728 1600 1200 1,920,00012
  • 13. Computer Hardware - Display If the computer redraws every pixel on a monitor ( 1024 columns and 768 rows of pixels) 30 times a second, how many pixels get redrawn every minute? b) 23,592,960 c) 1024 x 768 x 30 d) 1024 x 768 x 60 e) More than one of the above Answer: 1024 x 768 x 30 x 60 = 1,415,577,600 13
  • 14. Computer Hardware - Display  Color  Created by combining different amounts of primary colors Red, Green and Blue (RGB)  Color Depth = Number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel. So… • R = 8 bits G = 8 bits B = 8 bits • 11111111 11111111 11111111 • 256 x 256 x 256 = 16,777,216 possible colors 14
  • 15. Computer Hardware – Modem Speed 15
  • 16. Computer Hardware – Modem Speed Bandwidth vs. Download Time 10,000,000 100000.00 1,000,000 10000.00 Download Time (Seconds) 100,000 1000.00 Bits per 10,000 Second 1,000 100.00 100 Speed 10.00 Black Eyed Peas 10 (download time) 1 1.00 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 90 97 99 78 84 88 93 95 98 05 Year 16
  • 17. Computer Hardware – Disk Format – Prepare disk to store data SECTOR BAD SECTOR TRACK 17
  • 18. Computer Hardware – Disk 18
  • 19. Computer Build Top CD-ROM Heat Sink (Cooling) Data Connector Hard Drive Power Supply Front RAM Power CPU Connector Hard Disk Motherboard Auxiliary cards 19
  • 20. Test your knowledge… CPU Heat Sink Motherboard Auxiliary cards 20
  • 21. Computer Build CD-ROM Drive Hard Drive Data Connector Power Connector 21
  • 22. Test your knowledge… RAM 22
  • 23. Brain vs. Computer 23