TIME:Classifies situationsdescribed by verbs according to whether they occur at some time: in the past, in the present or in the future. There are twelve tenses: PRESENT Simple I eat Continuous I’m eating Perfect I have eaten Perfect Continuous I have been eating PAST Simple I ate Continuous I was eating Perfect I had eaten Perfect Continuous I had been eating
FUTURE Simple I will eat Continuous I will be eating Perfect I will have eaten Perfect continuous I will have beeneating
Conceptual and practical difference Timeis a notion which refers to the extension of an action or a state. It also expresses the specific moment in which a specific action or state takes place. Tenseon the other hand, is a grammatical term used to name a specific grammar structure that carries or implies meaning. Practically… In practice, they are quite connected: TENSE: Structure which expresses an action or state at a given TIME.
I am busy . ( Present Tense – Present time) I am busy tomorrow at 5 o’ clock. ( Present Tense- Future Time) I doexercises. ( Present Tense- Present time) Shakira brings happiness with her concert . ( Present Tense- Past Time)
1) Special uses of the Present Simple.It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time.Present Simple for past time. For example, a present tense does not always refer to present time: The Present Simple is commonly used to talk about past situations. a) In newspaper headlines. For example. Seven men are attacked by gunfire in Barranquilla: “Are” belongs to present simple, but it refers here to past time. The security experts recommend not leaving your stuff up to a single person in the room, because it facilitates the theft of items: “recommend” and “facilitates” are in present simple, but both are talking about past.
b) When we tell a joke or when relate the story of a film, book or play. A doctor says to his patient, I have a bad new and a worse new, oh dear what is the bad new, asksthe patient. The doctor replies: you only have 24 hours to live. That’s terrible, says the patient. How can the new possiblybeworse?. The doctor replies: I have been trying to contact you since yesterday.
2) Present simple to talk about now. When we refer to an action which happens instantaneously at the moment of speaking. A new restaurant ”Don Pepe” located in Cabecera invites you to the inauguration next month. I support your decision. When describing or commentating on a present action. woowwGod, sheoffer 2,700,000,000 for thatpicture in thatauction.
3) Present simple for future time. a) The present Simple is commonly used to talk about future events which are programmed or timetabled I leavetomorrow. (The leaving is in future timeand the verb leave is in the present tense.) My medical appointment is on Monday. b) We often use the Present Simple ( and Present perfect) to refer to the future after time conjunctions such as if, when, before, as soon as, until, once, while, by the time etc. Your mom is going to call you as soon as you get Puerto Rico. By the time I get home, the sun will be setting. What will you say if I don’t bring my homework.
c) We also use the present tense after relative pronoun such as who and where and in subordinate clauses introduced by as, than, and whether. What is a subordinate clause? A subordinate clause also called a dependent clause. Bob enjoys the movie more than I do. ( the adverbial clause than I do modifies the adverb more). This is the car that Jack will buy soon. Diego is the boy who kiss Tatiana. I don’t care where we live as long as I’m with the person I love. I will do my homework whether I’m falling asleep or whether I’m getting tired. D) To describe future events which are officially organised or timetabled.
Our President, Álvaro Uribe, is to give some money for people in Haití next week. Metrolínea in Bucaramanga is to work next month.
Past verb forms in unreal situations. Past verb forms are used to describe imaginary situations which are contrary to known facts. If he had died young, he wouldn´t have had children If I were you I wouldn’t do it. My daughter is nearly 4 years old, it’s time she went to the school. they do not describe the past but either the present or a general situation.
They are commonlyfound : IN CLAUSES WITH IF: If Jane were here, she would know what to do. If I studied I would pass the exam. If we had more employees, we would work more efficiently. If we delivered poor quality, we would not be the leading company in our business. If we had money, we would buy a bigger house. Past verb forms in unreal situations.
Past verb forms in unreal situations. A variation on this form is the pattern IF+WERE+INFINITIVE WITH TO. If I were to give you one million dollars, what would you do with this money? If she were to sing you a song, what kind of song would you prefer? If you were to have a year off, what would you do?
Past verb forms in unreal situations. After I wish, I’d rather/sooner, I suppose/imagine and It’s time. I wish I had enough money to buy myself a new computer. I suppose you decided to break with Anne because there is no reason to go on with that. It’s time you made your own bed. I’d rather you didn´t smoke in my house. Harry whishes he had become a pilot.
Past verb forms in unreal situations.
When making requests more tentative and distant.
Was there anything else, Sir? I was just wondering if you had some minutes to give the instructions for the job. I was wondering if you could speak for a moment. I was thinking if you needed help with this assignment.
Past verb forms in unreal situations. There are some special conditional forms for modal verbs in English: would have + can = could have would have + shall = should have would have + may = might have The words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would have." Instead, they must be used in these special forms.
Past verb forms in unreal situations. In some cases with could/might: If I had enough time , I could take dancing classes. If you spoke German , You could translate this letter for me. If she had had time, she might have gone to the party. If he had invited you, you might have gone.
Tense sequence General rules: The verb in a sub-clause is usually in the same tense as the verb in the main clause. I wanted to go home because I missed my parents. She knew she had made the right choice.
Tense sequence if the main clause is in the past, so are the verbs which follow it even if they are still true now. The boss knew you were the right person for this job. After we located the restaurant that Christian had raved about, we ate supper there every Friday. Miriam arrived at 5:00 p.m. but Mr. Whitaker had closed the store.
Reported speech. When transforming statements, check whether you have to change: pronouns present tense verbs (3rd person singular) place and time expressions tenses (backshift) Tense sequence
Exercise. Rewrite these sentences as newpaper headlines. Venezuelan military guard took control over the stores Earthquake in Haití left more than 100.000 dead people. Laura Acuña has crashed her car again. People demand the court to make the referendum’s analysis public. The veteran actress Googie Withers collapsed on stage at the Theatre Royal.
Exercise. Identify the text type below. Fill the gaps, using some verbs in the box Ask go star reply glance live tell shout change meet collect come disappear fall have overtake start dream know be(X2) Two policemen 1)……………………. a fast car on the motorway. As they 2)……………. at the car, they 3)………………… horrified to see the woman at the wheel knitting. “Pull over!” 4)………………… one of the policemen. “No!” 5)…………………. The reply. “ Socks!”.
Exercise. Choose the best verb form(s) in each sentence.( Both are possible but one is better). I suggest/ I’m suggesting that you think carefully about your version of events, sir. I name/I’m naming this ship “ the Argonaut”. I swear/ I’m swearing to tell the truth and nothing but the truth. I put / I’m putting the mixture into a non-stick tin, which I ‘ve warmed in the oven.
Exercise. If he had died/have died young , he _______have had children. If The company hadn´t/haven’t laid him off , he wouldn´t have/had gotten a better position. If he hasn’t/hadn´t been tired , he would have taken for a drive If it had/has been sunny , we would have/had gone at the beach. If I had applied/apply for that job , I would have traveled/travel to Asia
Exercise. They said, "We are busy."-> They said ______________________ He said, "I will ring her."-> He said ________________________ He said, "I will clean the car."-> He said ________________________ She said, "I don't know where my shoes are."-> She said______________________________________