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Policy Programmes For Capicity Building
 

Policy Programmes For Capicity Building

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    Policy Programmes For Capicity Building Policy Programmes For Capicity Building Presentation Transcript

    • POLICY, PROGRAMME FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN B R SIWAL Email:brsiwal@gmail.com
    • HUMAN RIGHTS – SEVEN FREEDOM
        • Freedom from discrimination- e.g. Gender, race, ethnicity, national origin and religion
        • Freedom from fear of threats to personal security, from torture, arbitrary arrest and other violent acts.
        • Freedom of thoughts and speech and to participate in decision making and forming associations.
        • Freedom from wants – to enjoy decent standard of living
        • Freedom to realize one’s human potential
        • Freedom from injustice
        • Freedom for decent work – without exploitation
    • United Nations, Women and Human Rights
      • 1946 CSW established
      • 1948 UN declaration of human rights
      • 1975 International women’s year
      • 1975 First World Conference on Women,
      • Mexico city
      • 1976-1985 UN decade for women
      • 1976
      • --INSTRAW established
      • --UNIFEM established
      • 1979 CEDAW adopted
      • 1980 2 nd world conference, Copenhagen
      • 1985 3 rd world conference, Nairobi
      • 1995 4 th world conference, Beijing China
      • 2000 23 rd special session of the on women, equality, development and peace (Beijing+5)
      • 2000 UN millennium development summit
      • October 2000 Security council resolution 1325 women, peace and security
    • THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN(1976-1985)
      • Gender equality firmly placed on the global agenda
      • Critical role of women in the development process acknowledged
      • Adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women by the United Nations General Assembly in 1979
      • Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies adopted by 157 countries
      • International women’s movement expanded its network
      • Creation of two United Nations bodies devoted exclusively to women:
    • NAIROBI FORWARD-LOOKING STRATEGIES
      • Enforcement of laws guaranteeing the
      • implementation of women’s equality
      • Increase in the life expectancy of women to at least 65 years in all countries
      • Reduction of maternal mortality
      • Elimination of women’s illiteracy
      • Expansion of employment opportunities
    • Beijing Platform for Action 12 critical Area of Concern
      • Women and Poverty
      • Education and training of women
      • Women and Health
      • Violence against women
      • Women and Armed Conflict
      • Women and the Economy
      • Women in Power and Decision-Making
      • Institutional mechanisms for the Advancement of Women
      • Human Rights of Women
      • Women and the Media
      • Women and the Environment
      • The Girl Child
    • The United Nations Conference On Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1995
      • The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development states that:
      • ‘ Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development.’
    • The World Summit for Social Development, Denmark, March 1995
      • This major United Nations event addressed gender dimensions in:
      • the enhancement of social integration,
      • particularly for disadvantaged and marginalized
      • groups
      • the alleviation and reduction of poverty
      • the expansion of productive employment
    • The Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, September 1995
      • to draw up a Platform for Action to ensure the completion of the unfinished work in implementing the 1985 Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies
      • to address the question of how women can be empowered by effective participation in decision making on all issues which affect society
    • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
      • Equal rights for women in all fields including political, social, economic, cultural and civil, regardless of their marital status;
      • • National legislation to ban discrimination;
      • • Temporary special measures to enhance the participation of women in political and public life;
      • • Equal access to education and the same choice of curricula;
      • Non-discrimination in employment and pay;
      • • The guarantee of job security in the event of marriage and maternity;
      • • Equal responsibilities of men and women in the context of family life;
      • • Special services to enable women to combine family obligations with work responsibilities and participation in public life.
    • THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
      • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
      • Achieve universal primary education
      • Promote gender equality and empower women
      • Reduce child mortality
      • Improve maternal health
      • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
      • Ensure environmental sustainability
      • Develop a global partnership for development
    • EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN GOVERNMENT POLICY
      • Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full development of women to enable them to realize their full potential
      • Enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom by women on equal basis with men in all spheres – political, economic, social, cultural and civil
      • Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political and economic life of the nation
      Contd .
      • Equal access to women to health care, quality education at all levels, career and vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public office etc.
      • Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms of discrimination against women
      • Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and involvement of both men and women
      Contd .
      • Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process
      • Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the girl child; and
      • Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly women’s organizations.
      • Economic empowerment
        • Poverty eradication
        • Micro-credit-easy access to credit
        • Women’s perspective in macro-economic policies
        • Empower women to meet negative impact of lpg
        • Enhance productivity and skills in agriculture-
        • Women & industry-entrepreneurship development, labour legislations support
      • Social Empowerment - to create an enabling environment through various affirmative developmental policies and programmes for development of women besides providing them easy and equal access to all the basic minimum services so as to enable them to realize their full potentials.
        • Education- equal access, universalisation of education, reduce gender gaps, gender sensitive educational system
        • Health- holistic approach to women’s health reduction in IMR & MMR
        • Nutrition – meeting nutritional needs of women at all stages of life cycle
        • Housing and shelter – adequate and safe housing
        • Science and technology – appropriate technology to reduce drudgery
        • Women in difficult circumstances – capacity building of women in difficult circumstances
        • Violence against women- eliminate all forms of violence against women
        • Right of the girl child – elimination of gender discrimination
        • Mass media – remove gender stereotypes and promote positive image of women
    • ADMINISTRATITIVE MACHNERY
        • National Commission for Women
        • National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development
        • Department of Women and Child Development
        • Rashtriya Mahila Kosh
        • Central Social Welfare Board
        • Women Development Corporations
        • National Vocational Training Institute
        • Crimes Against Women Cell/ Women police station
    • WOMEN IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES
      • - WOMEN IN EXTREME POVERTY
      • - WIDOW/DESERTED/SEPARATED
      • - FORCED PROSTITUTION & TRAFFICKING
      • - VICTIM OF RAPE & SEXUAL HARASSMENT
      • - VICTIM OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
      • - VICTIM OF MARITAL DISPUTES/ CONFLICTS
      • - WOMEN OF ALCOHOLIC/DRUG ADDICTS HUSBAND
      • - WOMENWITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES UNWED MOTHERS
      • - WOMEN IN CONFLICT WITH LAW AND WOMEN PRISONERS
      • - WOMEN WORKER IN BONDAGE
      • - WOMEN USED AS DRUG PEDDLERS, PRONO
      • - VICTIM OF SOCIALLY SANTIONED PRACTICES
      • - VICTIM OF CASTE, CLASS & GENDER
    • Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women (STEP)
      • This Programme launched in 1987, seeks to provide updated skills and new knowledge to poor and asset-less women in the traditional sectors such as Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Fisheries, Handlooms, Handicrafts, Khadi and Village Industries, Sericulture, Social Forestry and Wasteland Development for enhancing their productivity and income generation.
    • Swawlamban scheme
      • Swawlamban Scheme, previously known as NORAD/Women’s Economic Programme, was started in 1982-83 with the objective to provide training and skills to the poor and needy women and women from weaker sections of the society, such as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, etc. to facilitate them to obtain employment or self-employment on a sustained basis.
      • There are 36 traditional and non-traditional trades for which assistance is provided under the scheme.
      • The State Women Development Corporations (WDCs) are the nodal agencies for implementation of the scheme mostly through voluntary organizations in the States. However, in the States with no WDCs, the programme is being implemented by CSWB/State Social Welfare Advisory Boards, through the NGOs.
      • The Scheme, in consultation with the Planning Commission stands transferred to States with effect from 1.4.2006.
    • Swayamsidha
      • Swayamsidha is an integrated scheme for women’s empowerment through formation of women into Self-Help Groups (SHGs). The scheme was launched in February 2001 across the States and Union Territories of the country with a total budget outlay of Rs. 116.30 crore.
      • The most important component of the programme is the formation, implementation and monitoring of blocks specific composite project for 4-5 years incorporating the following four elements:-
      • Group formation/mobilisation activities;
      • Community oriented innovative interventions;
      • Convergence with specific schemes of MWCD, namely STEP, SEP and AGP along with other schemes, if there is a felt need for the same
    • Swadhar-A Scheme for Women in Difficult Circumstances .
      • This scheme was launched by the Ministry during the year 2001-02 for the benefit of Women in difficult circumstances with the following objectives:
      • l To provide primary need of Shelter, food, clothing and care to the marginalized women/girls living in difficult circumstances who are without any social and economic support;
      • l To provide emotional support and counseling to such women;
      • l To rehabilitate them socially and economically through education, awareness, skill upgradation and personality development through behavioral training etc;
      • To arrange for specific clinical, legal and other support for women/girls in need of those interventions by linking and networking with other organizations in both government and Non-Government Sectors on case to case basis;
      • l To provide Help-line (24 hour Telephone facility) or other facilities to such women in distress; and
      • l To provide such other services as will be required for support and rehabilitation of such women in distress.
    • Target Group/ Beneficiaries
      • Widows deserted by their families and relatives and left uncared at religious places where they are victims of exploitation;
      • l Women prisoners released from jail and without family support;
      • l Women survivors of natural disaster, who have been rendered homeless and are without any social and economic support;
      • Trafficked women/ girls rescued or runaway from brothels or other places or women/girl victims of sexual crimes, who are disowned by family or who do not want to go back to respective family for various reasons;
      • Women victims of terrorist/ extremist violence who are without any family support and without any economic means for survival;
      • Mentally challenged women (except for the Psychotic categories) who are without any support of family or relatives;
      • Women with HIV/AIDS deserted by their family or women who have lost their husband due to HIV/AIDs and are without social and economic support;
      • Similarly placed women in difficult circumstances.
    • UJJAWALA (RADIANCE OF LIGHT)
      • A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of Trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation launched on 4 December, 2007 To be implemented by NGOs.
    • UJJAWALA (RADIANCE OF LIGHT)
      • T he scheme comprises of five components:
      • Prevention — formation of community vigilance groups/adolescents groups, awareness and sensitization of important functionaries like police, community leaders and preparation of IEC material, holding workshops, etc.  
      • Rescue— safe withdrawal of the victim from the place of exploitation .
    • UJJAWALA (RADIANCE OF LIGHT)
      • Rehabilitation— safe shelter for victims with basic amenities, counseling, medical care, legal aid, vocational training and income generation activities etc.
      • Half-Way Homes— for phased re-integration.
      • Reintegration— restoring victim into the family/community
      • Repatriation— provide support to cross-border victims for their safe repatriation to their country of origin.
    • POLICY FOR CHILDREN B R SIWAL NIPCCD NEW DELHI
    • Child Population in India
      • India has the highest number of children in the world.
      • More than one third of country’s population is below 18 years
      • Approximately 40% of the population (around 440 million) is children
    • Status of Children in India
      • India has
        • highest rate of neo-natal deaths (around 35%) in the world
        • 40% of child malnutrition in developing world
        • 50% of the child mortality
        • Reducing number of girls in 0-6 age group- for every 1000 boys 927 girls
        • 46% children from ST and 38% SC out of school
        • High school dropout specially among girls
        • High rate of child marriage:
          • 37% of literate & 51% of illiterate girls are married below 18
          • 10% of literate & 15% of illiterate boys are married below 18
        • Large number of child labourers
        • Large number of sexually abused children
    • CHILD IN INDIA:OUR COMMITMENTS
      • Constitutional Provisions
      • Policies
      • Schemes and Programmes
      • Commitments at International Level
      • Legislative Support
      • Action Plans
    • Constitutional Provisions
      • Article 15… not discriminate against any citizen
      • Article 21… no persons shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty
      • Article 23… traffic in human beings..forced labour prohibited
      • Article 24… no child below 14 years to work
    • Article 39… the tender age of children are not abused Article 42… for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 45… free and compulsory education to all children till fourteen years of age. Article 47… raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people.
    • National Policy for Children - 1974
      • Children to be covered by health and nutrition services.
      • Free and compulsory education to all children below 14 years in a time bound manner
      • Non-formal education
      • Physical education, games, sports to be promoted in schools, community centres etc.
      • Equality of opportunity to children of weaker sections
      • Children to be protected against neglect cruelty and exploitation
      • No child under 14 to work, special facilities for handicapped children, priority to children during distress, calamities, special programmes for gifted children
      • Existing laws to be amended to ensure safeguard of children’s interest
    • National Health Policy - 1983
      • Emphasis on launching of nation wide immunization programme aimed at cent percent coverage of targeted population
      • Priority on launching of special programmes for maternal and child health with focus on under privileged sections of society
      • School health programme
      • Emphasis on provision of safe drinking water -sanitation facilities
    • National Policy on Education - 1986
      • High priority to ECCE
      • Day Care Centres as support service for universalisation of primary education
      • Integration of child care and pre-primary education
      • Universal enrolment and retention of children up to 14 years of age in the school system
      • Child centred activity based process of learning adopted at primary stage
      • Supplementary remedial instruction for first generation learners
      • Provision for essential facilities in primary school
      • Highest priority to solving of school drop-out children
      • Non-formal education facilities for working children, school drop-outs, girl children
      • Provision of at least two teachers-one women in every school
    • National Policy on Child Labour - 1987
      • Setting up of Child Labour Technical Advisory Committee
      • Emphasis on strict enforcement of provisions of child labour (Prohibition and Regulation ) Act, 1986 and other child related legislation.
      • Focussing on General Development Programmes for Benefiting Child Labour
      • Setting up of area specific projects
    • National Nutrition Policy - 1993 Realised the importance of tackling the problem of mal-nutrition through direct nutrition intervention for specially vulnerable groups as well as through various development policy instruments, which will create condition for improved nutrition
    • Direct Intervention - Short Term
      • Expanding the safety net
      • Reaching the adolescent girls
      • Better coverage of expectant women
      • Fortification of Essential Foods
      • Control of Micro-nutrient Deficiencies amongst vulnerable Groups
    • Indirect Policy Instruments - Long Term
      • Food Security
      • Improvement of Dietry Pattern through Production and Demonstration
      • Improving Public Distribution System and Purchasing power
      • Nutrition Surveillance
      • Basic Health and Nutrition Knowledge
    • Schemes and Programmes Government of India implements more than 120 schemes and programmes for the welfare and development of children and women through more than 13 Ministries and Departments Department of Women and Child Development alone implements about 35 schemes and programmes.
    • Some Important Schemes
      • ICDS -Integrated Child Development Services
      • National Creche Fund
      • National Children’s Fund
      • Creches for Children of working/ailing mothers
      • Balika Samriddhi Yojana
      • Early Childhood Education
    • Commitments at International Level
      • Universal Children’s Day - 1957
      • UN Declaration of Rights of the Child - 1959
      • UN Convention on Rights of the Child - 1989
      • World Conference on Education for all - 1990
      • World Summit on Children - 1990
      • Ratification of UN Convention in the Rights of the Child - 1992
    • UN Convention on the Rights of the Child - 1989 The Right to Survival The Right to Protection The Right to Development The Right to Participation
    • Protection Issues
      • Protecting children in difficult circumstances including natural disasters:
        • Children in Need of Care and Protection
        • Child in Conflict with Law
      • Elimination of child labour
      • Protecting children from being trafficked for commercial and sexual exploitation
      • Protecting children affected by HIV/AIDS
    • Children in Need of Care & Protection…
      • Orphans, abandoned & destitute children
      • Missing or run-away children
      • Street & working children
      • Children of sex workers
      • Abused, tortured and exploited children
      • Children indulging in substance abuse
      • Children affected by HIV/AIDS
      • Children affected by natural calamities, emergencies and man made disasters
      • Children with disabilities
      • Child beggars
      • Children suffering from terminal/incurable disease
    • Existing Programmes
      • The existing schemes & programmes of GOI includes:
        • A Programme for Juvenile Justice
        • Scheme for Working Children in need of care and protection
        • Integrated Programme for Street Children
        • Shishu Greha Scheme
        • General Grant-in-aid Scheme
        • CHILDLINE- 24 hour help line for children in distress
        • Rajiv Gandhi national crèche scheme for the children of working mothers
        • Pilot Project to Combat the Trafficking of Women and Children for Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Destination Areas
        • Scheme for assistance to institutions/VO’s for care and support to children affected by HIV/AIDS
    • Gaps
      • Lack of qualitative and quantitative data on:
        • Children in need of care & protection
        • Children in conflict with law
        • Institutional Care system
      • Standards of care not established and implemented
      • Inadequate infrastructure under JJ system, like constitution of:
        • Juvenile Justice Boards
        • Child Welfare Committees
        • Special Juvenile Police Units
      • Lack of non-institutional and family based care system for children
    • Gaps
      • Skewed utilization of resources in terms of geographical spread;
      • Lack of coordination and convergence of programmes/services;
      • Inadequate emphasis for reintegration and restoration to families for rehabilitation;
      • Inadequate budgetary allocation for child protection.
      • Inadequate training and capacity building of functionaries under juvenile justice system
    • Current Initiatives
      • Amendment of Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000
      • Comprehensive Scheme “Integrated Child Protection Programme”
      • Adoption Scheme
    • Proposed Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)
      • GOI has proposed to combine its existing different child protection schemes under one integrated scheme
      • It aims to provide for care and protection of all the children in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection.
      • It proposes to involve steps to:
        • Strengthen families and prevent them from breakup and children becoming homeless and without care and protection.
        • Provide support to children already outside the mainstream, beginning from emergency outreach services to final rehabilitation with their families/ society.
    • Objectives
      • The Integrated Child Protection Scheme aims at:
      • Creating a safety net for children in need of care and protection and children in conflict with law
      • Promoting preventive measures to enable families to stay together and prevent avoidable institutionalization of children
      • Providing services to the more vulnerable categories of children through specialized programmes
      • Establishing linkages for restoration of children to their biological families/ placement with adoptive families or foster families
      • Ensuring effective implementation through the creation of State level child protection units
      • Supplementing and strengthening the infrastructure established under the Juvenile Justice Act, 2000
    • Objectives
      • Creating emergency access through CHILDLINE and followed by counseling, restoration and rehabilitative services along with linkages to other available services
      • Building capacities of families, community, NGOs, local bodies, police, judiciary and other concerned departments of State Government
      • Undertaking research, advocacy and spreading awareness about child related issues.
      • Networking amongst the Allied Systems to ensure proper treatment of children, care and rehabilitation
      • Initiating any other need based specialized innovative services including child guidance and counselling especially to combat drug abuse, HIV/AIDS and sexual abuse.
    •  
    • Components of the Scheme
      • The components of the scheme would be broadly divided in two categories:
        • Juvenile in conflict with law, and
        • Children in need of care and protection
    • Components of the ICPS
      • Juvenile in conflict with law: Under this component, the Scheme would support setting up:
        • State Child Protection Unit
        • Observation Homes
        • Special Homes
        • Aftercare Homes
        • Juvenile Justice Boards (JJBs)
        • Special Juvenile Police Units (SPJU )
    • Components of the ICPS
      • Children in Need of Care & Protection: Under this component, the Scheme would support setting up:
        • State Child Protection Unit
        • Children’s Homes
        • Shelter Homes
        • After-care Organisations
        • Child Welfare Committees (CWCs)
        • 24-hour Drop-in Shelters for Street Children
        • CHILDLINE Service
    • Funding Pattern
      • ICPS to be a centrally sponsored scheme and shall be implemented through the State/UT
      • Bulk funding from the Central Government.
      • State/UT shall in turn provide grant-in-aid to voluntary organizations under the different components
      • Eligibility criteria laid down for providing grant-in-aid under the Scheme shall be adhered
    • Proposed Adoption Scheme
      • Central Adoption Resource Agency (CARA) functions as the Central Authority for promoting Adoptions in India
      • The Ministry recognizes that there are gaps in the existing Adoption system
      • A draft Scheme has been prepared to streamline the Adoption System in the country
    • Proposed Adoption Scheme
      • The major components of the draft scheme include:
        • Redefining the goals for Adoption
        • Reforming relevant laws
          • Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act 2000
        • Rescheduling the procedure of:
          • In-country Adoption
          • Inter-country Adoption
        • Restructuring the system
        • Introducing the scheme of assistance for:
          • Regional Offices of CARA at Kolkata, Guwahati, Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi, Lucknow and Bhopal
          • State Adoption Cells in every State
    • State Adoption Cell
      • The State Adoption Cell at other hand would be setup to:
        • License and monitor Child Care Institutions involved in adoption;
        • Maintain a comprehensive List of Child Care Institutions involved in adoption;
        • Collect and maintain centralised list of children available for adoption;
        • Register and place adoptable children with prospective adoptive parents (PAPs) and to handle matters incidental thereto;
        • Act as the clearing house of adoption information at the state level;
    • State Adoption Cell
        • Furnish the list of adoptable children and prospective adoptive parents to the concerned CARA Regional Office in prescribed format on monthly basis if their needs could not be addressed within the State;
        • Enhance capacity building of district level functionaries involved in adoption including Child Protection Officers;
        • Provide all kinds of adoption data to CARA Regional Office in the prescribed format on monthly basis.
    • THANK YOU