The ancient Roman style is said to be a reproductive form of the Greek and Etruscan architecture. Together they are considered to be a body of classical architecture. Although the Romans have borrowed much of the Greek style, they have used their own knowledge in construction to improve the arch and vault for the architectural community. The Roman Style
Some of the many achievements the Romans used in the nature of their architecture are the arch, dome, vault, column, and aqueduct. These accomplishments were large steps that added to the understanding of architecture today. By reaching these feats the Romans were able to create many impressive building and structures. The Roman Style
The Romans used many materials to create everything from masonry pastes to walls and flooring. These are a few of the materials used: Chalk Sand Pozzolanic concrete Broken pottery Pumice stone Lime Sandstone Marble Granite Building materials and tools
Similarly to today, the Romans used many different tools to survey the land and construct buildings. These are a few of the tools that were use: Dioptra Leveling staff Groma Axes Adze Lathes Saws Planes Flies Calipers Building materials and tools
The Romans built there foundations out of compact subsoil and sometimes even rock. The foundations of Roman buildings were often 2 to 3m thick. Often when the ground was damp floor boards would be placed on short pillars allowing the ground beneath to dry out. In important public buildings small clay pipes and vent were placed in the walls to form a sort of chimney. Foundations
In ancient Rome floors were normally constructed out of wooden structures and boards. The floor boards were laid over cross beams that rested on supports from the surrounding walls. For extra comfort wooden floors were often covered in straw and then covered over in mortar. When this is done the floors can even be tiled. Roofs were made out of wooden trusses supported by the walls and covered in tiles. Floors and roofs
Constructing walls In ancient Rome there were a series of techniques that could be used to create walls. Opus reticulatum- a form of brickwork that consists of diamond shaped tufa blocks and applied with mortar. Opus incertum-constructing technique that uses irregular shaped uncut rocks that are applied with mortar. Opus mixtum- application of diamond shaped tufa blocks and bricks that are applied with mortar.
The column was very popular in ancient Roman architecture. It was mostly used for structural and at times decorative manners. Columns were often constructed in sections and then stack on top of each other. The basic column was made out of wood or stone and mortar, while more decorative ones were hand carved. Columns http://discoveryouritaly.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/essence-of-italy/roman-columns-in-pompeii.jpg
Arch The arch was said to be invented by the Romans, however the arch has been around since prehistoric times. Modified by the Romans, the arch during this times could support large amounts of weight. The arch was used to provide extra structure for a building and was constructed out of brick, stone, or concrete.
Constructed between 70-82 AD Amphitheatre used for gladiator competitions and other public event. Able to seat at most 87,000 people. Created by masonry and cut stones. Made out of travertine stone, mortar, bricks, and iron clamps. Contains arches, columns, arcades, and podiums. Roman Colosseum
Thermae of Caracalla Constructed between 212-216 AD. Public bath house that later added a public library to its complex. Covered approximately 33 acres; 750 feet long, 380 feet wide, 125 feet in height. Capable of holding 1,600 people. The Thermae of Caracalla was destroyed during the Gothic war demolishing the hydraulic installations, but the remains are a very popular tourist attraction today.
The date in which the original Pantheon was constructed is unknown, but it was rebuilt in 126 AD. Roman temple built to honor all of the gods. Named for all of the statues placed around the building and its resemblance to the heavens. This circular building is constructed with a grand porch, three rows of columns, and a dome with a centered oculus to the sky. The Pantheons dome is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world today. Pantheon
Roman mausoleum in Ravenna, Italy. Constructed between 425-430 AD. Originally created to be a mausoleum, the building is shaped like the Greek cross. The mausoleum hold three sarcophagi containing the burnt remains of Galla Placidia, her brother and her husband. This building contains a dome and the interior is covered in Byzantine mosaics. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
“Ancient Roman architecture.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2010. January-February 2010. Web. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_roman_architecture “Ancient Roman buildings.” Great Buildings. Artifice. Inc. 2009. January-February 2010. Web. http://www.greatbuildings.com/search.html “Ancient Roman architecture.” Crystalinks. Ellie Crystal. 2010. January- February 2010. Web. http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html “Ancient Roman architecture.” Mariamilani. Giovanni Milani-Santarpia. N.d. January- February 2010. Web. http://www.mariamilani.com/about.htm “Images and building from ancient Roman architecture.” Yahoo Images. Yahoo! 2010. January- February 2010. Web. http://images.search.yahoo.com/ Cited Works