Prehistory The discovery of wine, early winemaking, early viticulture, the use of wine in ‘primitive’ societies, the development of wine styles
Over the centuries different cultures have had contrasting opinions on wine. - Some regard it as an essential and healthful beverage, others have shunned its use and consider it sinful.
-These competing ideas have influenced the development of wine during the course of history, and continue to affect its place in society today.
Wine was first consumed in the areas of Persia (modern day Iran) around 5000 to 6000 BC.
-Though the exact nature of the wine is uncertain, it was probably made from dates or other tree fruits native to the region rather than grapes.
Around 3000 BC, winemaking from grapes began with the Egyptians and the Phoenicians producing wines from grapes.
Ancient Egyptian artwork and sculptures provide a great deal of information about the winemaking practices of the time.
-The paintings indicate that wine production had evolved into an elaborate procedure.
Containers of wine have been found in royal burial chambers for the dead to enjoy in the afterlife.
-The vessels were marked with the origin and vintage of the grapes that produced the wine.
By 2000 BC, wine had become an important part of Greek culture.
Beginning around 1000 BC, the expansion of the Greek empire brought vineyards and winemaking to regions throughout the Mediterranean basin.
-Including parts of North Africa, Southern Spain, southwest France, Sicily, and much of the Italian mainland.
Ancient Greece (Continued)
The wine was most likely made from dried grapes or raisins.
-The Greeks stored their wines in containers called amphorae.
Like the Egyptians before them, wine occupied a large place in Greek society and The Greeks created a deity, Dionysus, in honor of wine.
The Roman Era
Though the growing of wine grapes in Italy predated the rise of the Roman Empire by many centuries, the Romans took viticulture and winemaking to a new height.
-They began the practice of trellising vines off the ground by training them to grow up trees. -The Romans' technological advances in winemaking were thoroughly documented in literature and art.
The Romans were first rate barrel makers or coopers, and storage in wooden barrels as well as in clay amphorae was common.
The Roman Era (Continued)
As it had with the Greeks, Roman viticulture and winemaking followed Roman legions as they pushed the boundaries of their empire north and westward.
-The Romans grew grapes throughout Italy, expanded the vineyards of Spain north to the Pyrenees, throughout what is now modern Portugal and France, and around the first century they continued the expansion into what is now modern Germany.
The Roman Era (Continued)
The Romans were keen observers of the agricultural process.
-Books, dating from as early as the third century BC, describe grape growing and winemaking in detail. -Their knowledge of matching grape varieties to soils and climates, trellising, and other growing techniques form the basis for many contemporary practices. -The medicinal qualities of wine were also highly regarded by the Romans.
The Roman Era (Continued)
Wine was also significant to Jewish and early Christian cultures.
Wine is mentioned more than 150 times in the Old Testament and is an important part of Jewish religious celebrations such as weddings and Passover.
As Christianity grew in popularity, the religious significance of wine also grew.
-Christ’s first miracle was the conversion of water to wine. -Christians also consumed wine as a sacrament during Mass in a reenactment of the Last Supper.
The fall of Rome, at the end of the second century, ushered in a long period of great strife throughout the civilized world.
Wars between the Franks, Teutons, and Goths brought widespread destruction.
In the seventh century AD, the Moors of North Africa crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and invaded Spain.
-Although the Moors’ Islamic faith prevented them from consuming alcohol, they allowed viticulture and winemaking to continue in the region.
Middle Ages (Continued)
During the Middle Ages, the practice of agricultural activity in much of Europe fell to the Catholic Church.
-Some of the monasteries became great centers of study and commerce.
In the early seventh century, Pope Gregory the Great instructed the monastic orders to expand wine production, and the planting of wine grapes again began to spread.
-The church kept strict control of winemaking. Grapes were required to be pressed in monasteries, for which a “donation” of ten percent of production was taken.
Middle Ages (Continued)
Monks continued the study of viticulture (grape growing) and winemaking (enology) begun by their Roman predecessors.
-Matching grape varieties to soil conditions and climate, propagation and planting, trellising, crushing, fermenting, fining, and storage were all meticulously studied and improved.
Villages formed around monasteries, many growing into cities of 20,000 or more.
Farmers began using the skills learned from the monks to improve and expand their own vineyards.
Twelth century to modern times As centuries passed more and more knowledge was gathered. Wealthy families soon began buying up vineyards throughout Europe labeling their products with both their family and estate names. Not long after the wine industry was recognised to be ‘commercially important’ and the industry has expanded ever since.
Influences on today http://planetgreen.discovery.com/videos/g-word-shorts-winemaking-old-style.html Please view this video for a preview of old style winemaking!
Most winemaking is done in modern wineries. However, villagers who make wine for their own use sometimes still tread the grapes with their bare feet, until the juice is squeezed out. They believe this ancient method still makes the best wine.
Old vs. New world http://tv.winelibrary.com/2006/03/24/episode-20-old-world-wines-vs-new-world/ Visit this video to see difference between new and old world wine
In general, you will likely notice that Old World wines tend to be more subtle in flavour and more reserved in profile than the bolder, expressive counterparts found in the New World wines. Old World wines pride themselves on the grapes' soil location and New World wines may mix grapes from a few locations to build the best bottle of wine.
Old vs. New world The Old World can generally date their origins of wine production back to the Roman Empire and beyond. Spans of time like this simply cannot be replicated by any other means. Throughout this 2000+ year period growers were able to figure out which grapes grew best and which areas of land consistently produced the finest quality. When the Roman Empire collapsed many of the vineyards were abandoned and so by natural selection the grapes which managed to survive became the grapes that are still grown today.
Old vs. New world (Continued) Naturally the growers from these regions-France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain have some pride in this history. Many growers are descended from families that have been tilling the soil for generations. This type of history has it’s dangers in that it creates a kind of complacency-if it’s not broke than why fix it kind of thinking. In this regard the advent of New World wines has been a positive influence on the established order as they are compelled to compete with a broader market.
The history of wine is very interesting and by this powerpoint I hope that you have learnt about the greeks, romans and their input to the history of winemaking.
Also to understand why the history is important and how it had influenced our new world wines that we are producing today.
By Lucy Richmond
Part A – Resources Some of ancient Greek info for powerpoint – received 28th July 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_wine#Ancient_Greece Info on ancient greek – received 28th July 2009 http://www.allaboutgreekwine.com/history.htm Info on ancient greek – received 28th July 2009 http://www.thegreekwine.com/history.html Info on ancient greek – received 31st July 2009 http://www.google.co.nz/search?q=ancient+greek+wine+history&gbv=2&hl=en&sa=X&tbs=tl:1&tbo=u&ei=XS96Sri3JYb0sgPMvvnJDw&oi=timeline_result&ct=title&resnum=11 Info on roman history – received 31st July 2009 http://www.google.co.nz/search?gbv=2&hl=en&tbo=p&tbs=tl%3A1&q=roman+history+wine&meta= Some of the roman era info on powerpoint – received 31st July 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_wine#Roman_Empire Info on roman history – received 2nd August 2009 http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/wine/wine.html Info on roman history – received 2nd August 2009 http://roman-history.suite101.com/article.cfm/wine_drinking_in_the_roman_world Info wine history – received 2nd August 2009 http://www.winepros.org/wine101/history.htm info wine history – received 2nd August 2009 http://www.beer100.com/history/winehistory.htm Info for powerpoint, history of wine – received 2nd August 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine Difference between modern and old wine making - received 4th August 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_wine video hyperlink – received 4th August 2009 http://planetgreen.discovery.com/videos/g-word-shorts-winemaking-old-style.html Old and New world info – received 6th August 2009 http://wine.about.com/od/winetastings/a/oldvsnewwine.htm Old and New world info – received 6th August 2009 http://chowhound.chow.com/topics/373505 Old and new world video – received 6th August 2009 http://tv.winelibrary.com/2006/03/24/episode-20-old-world-wines-vs-new-world/ By Lucy Richmond