Quantitative Research I Survey Methods & Design
Survey Method <ul><li>An approach to data COLLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>and ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>A method of collecting data that is </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURED and UNIFORM </li></ul><ul><li>A method of analysing data involving </li></ul><ul><li>comparing responses located in a </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MATRIX . </li></ul>
A Classification of Survey Methods TRADITIONAL TELEPHONE CATI IN HOME MALL INTERCEPT CAPI POSTAL SURVEY POSTAL PANEL FAX E-MAIL INTERNET DIRECT COMPUTER INTERVIEW TELEPHONE FACE TO FACE MAIL COMPUTER SURVEY METHODS
In-home Interviews Highest response rates Target specific persons Flexible question (naive) design Sophisticated sequencing Clustering of respondents Day time not - at - homes Supervision difficult Costs of re - visits Benefits Limitations Probing answers Clarifying ambiguity Interviewer safety Slow to complete Use visual stimuli Interviewer bias Record non-verbal reactions Very expensive
Mall Intercept Interviews Many advantages of in - homes Less expensive Less time consuming Ease of supervision Short questionnaires Sample representativeness Length and frequency bias Respondent co-operation Benefits Limitations
Telephone Surveys Low cost Dispersed samples Speed Sophisticated routing systems Domestic samples unrepresentative Unlisted numbers Call screening No visual aids Benefits Limitations Direct data entry Editing and validation by machine Short questionnaires Simple scales
Mail Surveys Anonymity of responses Sensitive & personal questions Complete at own pace No interviewer bias Lack of control over respondent Cannot control speed of response Cannot probe / clarify response Sequence bias Benefits Limitations Dispersed samples Targeting specialist populations Simple question (naive) design Low response rates Inexpensive Follow - ups & incentives
Which Survey Method ? <ul><li>SAMPLING CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>the researchers ability to direct the enquiry to a designated </li></ul><ul><li>respondent and secure the desired co-operation from the respondent. </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>the kinds of questions that can be asked and the amount and </li></ul><ul><li>accuracy of information that can be obtained from respondents </li></ul><ul><li>ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>the speed and cost and the control of replies afforded by the method of </li></ul><ul><li>administration. </li></ul><ul><li>(Churchill, 1996) </li></ul>
Questionnaire A set of questions designed to generate the data necessary for accomplishing the objectives of the research. Provides for standardisation and uniformity in data collected from respondents.
The Questionnaire’s “Position” in the Research Process A questionnaire matches the survey objectives with the respondent’s information Respondent’s Information Survey Objectives Questionnaire Data Analysis
Questionnaire Design <ul><li>Preliminary Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Question Content </li></ul><ul><li>Response Format </li></ul><ul><li>Question Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Question Wording </li></ul><ul><li>Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Work </li></ul>
Format - Open Respondents free to answer in their own words Example : Question 10. What do you consider to be the benefits of this program PROBE ANY OTHERS.
Format - Closed Respondents asked to select answer(s) that apply Example : Surroundings Question 10. Here is a list of some of the benefits associated with this program. Which one or ones, if any, apply to you? TICK ALL THAT APPLY Price Participants Content Timing Materials Other (specify) None NA / DK
Respondents indicate which of two alternative answers most closely corresponds to their position on a subject. Example : Format - Dichotomous Question 10. Do you agree or disagree that the objectives of the program were met ? TICK ANSWER. Agree Disagree OK NA
Format - Scale Respondents indicate where their answer lies across a continuum. Example : Question 10. To what extent do you consider that the objective of the programme were met ? Cross (x) the number that corresponds with your answer. NOT MET MET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 8 10
Primary Scales of Measurement 4 8 1 9 Nominal Numbers Assigned to Runners Ordinal Rank Order of Winners Third Place Second Place First Place Interval Performance Rating on a 0 to 10 Scale 8.2 9.1 9.6 Ratio Time to Finish in Seconds 15.2 14.1 13.4
Types of Scaling Techniques <ul><li>COMPARATIVE SCALES </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the respondent directly comparing stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>objects. e.g. How does Pepsi compare with Coke on </li></ul><ul><li>sweetness . </li></ul><ul><li>NONCOMPARATIVE SCALES </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent scales each stimulus object independently </li></ul><ul><li>of other objects e.g. How would you rate the sweetness </li></ul><ul><li>of Pepsi on a scale of 1 to 10 </li></ul>
A Classification of Scaling Techniques Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Sum Q-Sort and Other Procedures Comparative Scales NonComparative Scales Continuous Rating Scales Itemised Rating Scales Stapel Semantic Differential Likert SCALING TECHNIQUES
Semantic Differential Scale Modern Store Low prices Unfriendly staff Narrow product range Sophisticated customers Old- fashioned store High prices Friendly staff Wide product range Unsophisticated customers <ul><li>Here are a number of statements that could be used to describe </li></ul><ul><li>K-Mart. For each statement tick ( X ) the box that best </li></ul><ul><li>describes your feelings about K-Mart. </li></ul>
Semantic Differential Scale - Snake Diagram Modern Store Low prices Friendly staff Wide product range Sophisticated customers Old- fashioned store High prices Unfriendly staff Narrow product range Unsophisticated customers X X X X X Key : Sears X K-Mart
Scale Decisions Number of Categories generally between 5 and 9 Balance preferably a balanced scale Odd or Even if neutral responses likely, use odd number Forced or Nonforced if no opinion likely, use nonforced scale Verbal Description label and close to response categories Physical Form should be piloted.
Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale Unbalanced Scale JOVAN MUSK FOR MEN IS JOVAN MUSK FOR MEN IS Extremely good Very good Good Bad Very bad Extremely bad Extremely good Very good Good Bad Very bad Extremely bad
Sequence <ul><li>Introductory Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to Start </li></ul><ul><li>Classification at End </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassing at End </li></ul><ul><li>Present Before Past </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour Before Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Logic (conversation) </li></ul><ul><li>Funnel Technique </li></ul>
Layout <ul><li>Identification Data </li></ul><ul><li>Request for Co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Information Sought </li></ul><ul><li>Classification Data </li></ul>
Pilot Testing <ul><li>Just Do It! </li></ul><ul><li>Just Do It Again! </li></ul><ul><li>Just Do It Again!! </li></ul>
Commonly Used Probes and Abbreviations Standard Interviewer’s Probe Abbreviation (AO ?) (Other ?) (AE or Else ?) (Tell more) (How mean ?) (RQ) (What mean ?) (Which closer ?) (Why ?) (What in mind ?) Any other reason ? Any others ? Anything else ? Could you tell me more about your thinking on that ? How do you mean ? Repeat question What do you mean ? Which would be closer to the way you feel ? Why do you feel that way ? Would you tell me what you have in mind ?
Dummy Table : Store Preference by Frequency of Visit STORE PREFERRED VISIT FREQUENCY Sears Wal-Mart K-Mart Less than once a month Once or twice a month Three or four times a month More than four times month
Screeners Qualifying questions Have you been snow skiing in past 12 months? First few questions Warm - ups What brand of skis do you own ? First third of questions Transitions What features do you like best about the skis ? Middle half to second third Difficult and complicated Here are ten characteristics of snow skis. Please rate your skis on each characteristic using the scale below Last Section Classification and demographic What is the highest level of education you attained ? LOCATION TYPE EXAMPLE Summary: Questionnaire Organisation
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