MODERN STATE, DEMOCRACY AND ORGANIZED VIOLENCE Complexities in their relations Prof. Gianfranco Poggi University of Trento, Italy
Earliest phase of state development <ul><li>War major aspect of consolidation = fewer and fewer power centers controlling larger and larger territories. </li></ul><ul><li>However, pacification effects in internal affairs = reduction in quantum of actual violence through increase in potential violence (Hobbes paradox). </li></ul><ul><li>War perhaps less frequent, certainly more murderous given technological advances </li></ul>
Later phases <ul><li>Rationalization of domestic organized violence through reliance on law and bureaucratization, professionalization of state agents. Effects: emergence of civil society and “marketization” of economic processes. Durkheim / Foucault effects on punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Some rationalization effects also in external relations ( Westphalia ,Grotius) </li></ul>
Democracy (1) <ul><li>Ambivalences in relationship with violence, war. </li></ul><ul><li>See Tocqueville, both Démocratie (reluctance to go to war, great popular commitment when engaged – career aspirations of officer class incline it to war) and Ancien Régime (paradoxical increase in intensity of wars with missionary intents – as in revolutionary, Napoleonic wars but already in Islam) </li></ul>
Democracy (2) <ul><li>Some aspects of democratic development (widening of suffrage, some welfare policies) are associated with military phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Awkward association between “entry of the masses into politics” and nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Countertendencies associated with cultural changes: individualism – materialism – consumerism – prevalence of economic concerns – civilizing effects of the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing aspirations to collective security . </li></ul>
Impact of World War Two and prospects of nuclear war.
Contemporary democratization . <ul><li>Has complex bearing on phenomena affecting solidity, security of established states. </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread notion that “democracies do not make war on one another”. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent nationalism obstacle to transnational developments and inspires secession movements. </li></ul><ul><li>But major threats to continuity, security of states come from movements denying democracy as legitimacy formula. </li></ul>
One major question for today <ul><li>Does increasing economic interdependence make states more or less secure? </li></ul>
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