WATER- Water: The Drop of Life DEFINITION OF THE PROJECT: WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DELHI – … BY THE AUGMENTATION OF GROUND WATER BY RAIN HARVESTING UNIT. - GIVING A NEW LIFE TO RIVER YAMUNA, THUS TO DELHI… safe, sustainable and for all…
CASE STUDIES… TRADITIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
The traditional water harvesting strategies had effected an integration of storm and floodwater regulation, wastewater collection, drinking water supply and micro-irrigation. These were
Inexpensive and non extractive methods of harvesting the extremely limited fresh water supply, accessible to human use.
Indian communities had perfected management of the natural watersheds of forests, hills and dales, using knowledge of the hydrological regimes and rhythms, water veins and aquifers, slope and lie of land, history and movement of rivers.
Pushkarni at Loni Bhapkar Kunda with a well, Roti Aside from archaeological examples, water harvesting structures continue to be maintained by endogenous communities all over the country. Groundwater continues to be drawn from aquifers or palaeo channels in Rajasthan through bardi (shallow wells in depressions), tankas, khadin and johad (underground storage pits), kunds (cisterns in catchments), beris (wells on river beds). CONTINUING TRADITIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES:
CASE STUDIES… View of udaigiri caves showing a tank WATER SYSTEMS AT UDAIGIRI: Udayagiri consists of two hills joined together with a low ridge or a saddle. The hills are aligned northeast-southwest, forming a crescent-shaped pocket in the west with ancient The western end of the passage leads to a high embankment of a tank, two sides of which are formed by two sides of the northern hill divided by a valley. There are three other tanks and two major channels apart from minor drains forming four independent water systems at Udayagiri
CONTEMPORARY WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES… Urban centers in India are facing an ironical situation today. On one hand there is the acute water scarcity and on the other, the streets are often flooded during the monsoons.
* In areas where there is inadequate groundwater supply or surface resources are either lacking or insufficient, rainwater harvesting offers an ideal solution . * Helps in utilizing the primary source of water and prevent the runoff from going into sewer or storm drains, thereby reducing the load on treatment plants.
Reduces urban flooding. * Recharging water into the aquifers help in improving the quality of existing groundwater through dilution
This system is practiced on a large scale in cities like Chennai, and Bangalore where rainwater harvesting is a part of the state policy. Elsewhere, countries like Germany, Japan, United States, and Singapore are also adopting rainwater harvesting.
Rain water harvesting system advantages
The system consists of a collection tank, slow sand filtration, and a “living systems” componentwhich uses aquatic plants and fish to purify the water. The rainwater collection basin is located on the roof of the Farm Centre and integrated with the existing roof structure and drainage systems.
An example of a Rainwater Harvesting System. This one is integrated into the design of a home and yard in Portland
Parapet wall has been given corrugated profile to facilitate more quantity of rain flow to the gutter CASE STUDIES…
SITE ANALYSIS DELHI INDIA
CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING SITE :
Proximity to river
Better geology conditions
HATHI SHALA, ADJACENT TO VIKAS MARG, NEAR ITO, DELHI VIKAS MARG SITE DETAILS: LOCATION: Hathi Shala, adjacent to Vikas Marg, near ITO, Delhi AREA: 1.2 sq km LANDUSE: Agricultural TOWARDS ITO
22 Km STRETCH OF YAMUNA ALONG DELHI
YAMUNA & DELHI- … the relationship The river bed area in Delhi is 97 sq km. The whole of it is coarse sand up to a depth of 40m. This feature is the key to the riverbed recharge capability!! NAME OF STATE TOTAL CATCHMENT AREA IN YAMUNA (IN SQ. KM.) %AGE CONTRIBUTION TO THE SUPPLY Delhi 1485 0.4 STATE SEGMENT CATERED BY YAMUNA AREA COVERED Delhi Wazirabad Barrage to Okhla Barrage (22 kms)
Sources of Water in Delhi
Delhi receives its water from 3 sources: A. Surface Water: 86% of Delhi's total water supply comes from surface water, namely the Yamuna River, which equals 4.6% of this resource through interstate agreements. B. Sub-surface water: Rainey wells and tube wells. This source, which is met through rainfall (approx. 611.8 mm in 27 rainy days), and unutilized rainwater runoff, is 193 MCM (million cubic meters). C. Graduated Resources: It is estimated at 292 MCM, however current withdrawal equals 312 MCM. Salinity and over exploitation has contributed to depletion and drastically effected the availability of water in different parts of the city. However, according to a report released by the Central Ground Water Board (GCWB), Delhi's ground-water level has gone down by about eight meters in the last 20 years at the rate of about a foot a year.
PRESET SITUATION Source: Delhi Jal Board SITE ANALYSIS
WATER REQUIREMENT OF DELHI
Delhi is experiencing increasing pressure to meet demand for its water resources.
Growing urbanization, improvements in living standards, exploding population are just some of the contributing factors.
Average water consumption in Delhi is estimated at being 274 liters per capita per day (lpcd), the highest in the country.
The large-scale extraction of groundwater is a result of this widening gap between the demand (830 mgd) and supply (650mgd) of water.
And still worse, serious doubts are also being raised about both the quality and quantity of groundwater.
The population of Delhi is expected to cross 220 lakhs by the end of 2021.
SITE ANALYSIS … The requirement of water conservation
HYDRO-GEOLOGY OF DELHI GEOLOGY OF DELHI BEDROCK LEVELS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF DELHI GEOLOGY OF SITE: ALLUVIAL BED ROCK LEVEL OF SITE : 35m SITE ANALYSIS NOTE : INDICATES THE SITE
GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF VARIOUS BLOCKS OF DELHI. THE QUALITY IN THE AREA OF THE SITE IS CONSIDERED ALL RIGHT. SITE ANALYSIS MONTHLY AVERAGES ACROSS CHOSEN YEARS FOR PRECIPITATION [PERIOD:FROM 2001 TO 2002],[UNITS:INTEGER,MM ] Month Average across years Jan 12.4 Feb 11.95 Mar 2.85 Apr 13.8 May 30.7 Jun 60.35 Jul 75.05 Aug 176.5 Sep 93.5 Oct 1.95 Nov 0.0 Dec 4.85 AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL OF DELHI: 611mm PRESENT RUNOFF OF RAINFALL IN DELHI : 50%
WATER TABLE FLUCTUATION IN DELHI
As can be compared from the data given above, the water fluctuation levels of Delhi is highly alarming.
The situation is worsening due to exploitation of groundwater at a rate higher than the rate of its replenishment.
Rain water harvesting is a boon for us in the given scenario.
Recharging of groundwater from rain water harvesting can meet more than half of the city’s supply demands.
CATCH THE RAIN WHERE IT FALLS THE CONCEPT…
THE CONCEPT… शुद्धा न आपस्तन्वे क्षरंतु , यो नः सेदुरप्रिये तं नि दध्मः I पवित्रेर्ण पृथिवी मोत पुनामि I I The atharvaveda invokes mother earth to yield the life giving water to those of pure conduct and right means , and to punish water polluters in these words:
An ideal solution to water problems in areas having inadequate water resources.
The ground water level will rise.
Mitigates the effects of drought & achieves drought proofing.
Will reduces the runoff which chokes the storm water drains.
Flooding of roads and low land areas will reduce
Quality of water will improve.
Soil erosion will be reduced.
WHY RAINWATER ??
Using natural cleansers of water like fine sand, microbiotic culture.
Usage of natural materials for rainwater filter chamber therefore cost of materials reduced
Increase in ground water level.
The level of river Yamuna increases.
The system is devised to work on a pressure knob,.i.e. When the level of water increases the defined limit, the discharge of water into river stops
Financial Sustainability & Accountability Operational Efficiency Improved Services To the Poor Customer Orientation & HRD Continuous Supply Vision Environmental Sustainability
RAIN WATER FILTER CHAMBER CONCEPTUAL SKETCH OF THE PROPOSED UNIT RAIN WATER PIPES COLLECTING RAIN WATER FROM RESIDENTIAL AREA RIVER CLEAN WATER GETTING DISCHARGED INTO THE GROUND MAIN RAIN WATER PIPES SETTLEMENT PRESENT SITUATION SITUATION AFTER IMPOSITION OF PLANT WATER RISING THROUGH CAPILLARY ACTION After saturation of ground MAIN INLET PRIMARY INLET GROUND LEVEL RAIN WATER COLLECTING PIPE
The pressure knobs get activated when the levels of water rises the defined limit and closes the valves of the rain water filter chamber for further flow of water.
The water saturates the soil and thus recharges the river by capillary action
PRESSURE KNOB SYSTEM River THE CONCEPT…
ANALYSING THE NUMBER OF CISTERNS
A suitable size of cistern was taken as 6 m diameter and 25 m depth.
The size is considered suitable keeping in mind the bedrock levels of the area, i.e., 50 m deep.
The number of cisterns has been calculated keeping the projected population in 2021 in mind.
Estimated population of Delhi in 2021 = 220 lakhs
Present per capita per day water demand= 274 lcpd
Total demand in 2021= 220,0,000 X 274= 6.02 X 10 9 litres.
Volume of 1 cistern= 2826 X 10 3 litres
Ideal no. of cisterns required = 6.02 X 10 9 / 2826 X 10 3 = 2130
No. of cisterns in our site= 97
RAIN WATER FILTER CISTERN 25 m Dia: 6m MAIN INLET Dia : 1m WATER GRAVEL (5m thick layer) FINE SAND ( 8 m thick layer) WATER PERCOLATING OUTLET PORES MATERIAL : GI THE DESIGN… MICROBIOTIC CULTURE is added to naturally clean the water and the tank , thereby reducing the cost of maintenance GROUND LVL 5 m
THE DESIGN HAS TRIED TO INCORPORATE BOTH THE PRINCIPLES OF RAINWATER HARVESTING AND WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT.
THE CISTERNS ARE CONNECTED TO THE RAINWATER HARVESTING UNITS OF THE BUILT UP AREAS IN VICINITY THROUGH A NETWORK OF PIPES. THE WATER PERCOLATED BY THE CISTERN (EQUAL TO THE VOLUME OF THE CISTERN) ADDS TO THE GROUNDWATER. TYHIS SATURATES THE SOIL AND THUS RECHARGES THE RIVER THROUGH UPWARD CAPILLARY ACTION.
THE PARKING AREA IS SLOPED TOWARD THE RIVER. TREES WITH CRESCENT SHAPED LANDSCAPE HOLDING AREA .
A LANDSCAPED AREA HAS BEEN DEVELOPED IN THE AREA WHICH UTILIZES THE WASTE WATER FROM THE BUILT UP AREA. THE WASTE WATER IS FILTERED THROUGH A FILTER TANK ABOVE GROUND.
THE WATER CHANNEL THUS FLOWS AND ADDS TO THE LANDSCAPE AESTHETICS, ULTIMATELY FLOWING INTO THE RIVER.
THE DESIGN… THE PLAN OF THE SITE IS ENCLOSED IN A DRAWING
THE DESIGN… THE CENTRAL O.A.T.
EFFICIENCY OF THE DESIGN
WITH RESPECT TO WATER SUPPLY :
QUALITY OF THE WATER SUPPLY WILL IMPROVE
THERE IS SCOPE OF EQUAL DISTRIBUTION AND ALSO BULK SUPPLY IS A BOON
IT WILL ADD TO THE EXISTING WATER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
THERE ARE REDUCED HEALTH RISKS DUE TO BETTER QUALITY MONITORING.
IT IS COST EFFICIENT AS TRADITIONAL METHODS OF PURIFICATION HAVE BEEN INCULCATED. THIS WOULD ENSURE THAT THE SYSTEM IS POCKET- FRIENDLY FOR THE POOR.
WITH RESPECT TO ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:
REDUCED POLLUTION AND CONTAMINATION OF RIVER YAMUNA
BETTER CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES DUE TO EFFECTIVE MONITORING