Mangroves power point

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  • 1. Mangroves
  • 2.
    • salt-tolerant, woody trees – really land plants
    • flowering plants - with true roots, stems, and leaves
  • 3.
    • warm, tropical and sub-tropical regions
    • cover 60 – 75% of tropical shores
  • 4.
    • found in protected, coastal areas
  • 5.
    • intertidal
    • where salt marshes would be in temperate zone
  • 6.
    • salty, muddy water
    • anaerobic sediments
  • 7. Functions:
    • protect coastal lands from storms and erosion
    • filter runoff
    • accrete
    • sediments
  • 8.
    • gradually extend land seaward – eventually replaced by land plants = ecological succession
    Functions:
  • 9. Habitat Value:
    • very important for
    • other organisms
    • epiphytic organisms live on prop roots:
    • sponges, tunicates, worms, anemones, snails, crabs, shrimp, lobster
  • 10. Habitat Value:
    • some species live in mud:
    • crabs, mudskippers (Pacific)
  • 11. Habitat Value:
    • many juvenile coral reef fish live here (later move to reef)
    • food and protection from predators among roots
  • 12. Habitat Value:
    • many birds nest in branches away from land predators:
    • egrets, doves, pelicans, etc
  • 13. Zonation
    • four main types in Caribbean:
    • red, black, white, buttonwood – moving inland
  • 14. different types of mangroves
  • 15.  
  • 16. Red Mangrove
    • most prominent
    • large prop roots
    • anchor trees in soft mud
    • stabilize and trap
    • sediments
    • grow down from
    • branches into water
    • up to 30 ft. tall
  • 17. Red Mangrove
    • thick, waxy leaves - reduce water loss
    • exclude salt at roots
  • 18. Red Mangroves
    • pencil seeds - germinate while still attached to the tree
    • pointy – if low tide - falls into mud, sticks there, grows
    • if high tide - floats to other areas
  • 19. Black Mangroves
    • next inland
    • snorkel roots – ( pneumatophores )
    • - environment more severe than red mangrove
    • - anaerobic mud – high decomp.
    • - roots grow upward
    • - obtain oxygen from air above - act as straws
  • 20. Black Mangroves
  • 21. Black Mangroves
    • salt pores (glands) - secrete excess salt from plant
    • can sometimes see salt crystals - leaves covered with salt
  • 22. White Mangroves
    • farthest from water
    • cannot tolerate
    • flooding
  • 23. White Mangroves
    • excrete salt from leaves and at base of stem – salt glands
  • 24. Buttonwood
    • not true mangrove, but mangrove associate
  • 25. Human Uses
    • protect coastal lands from storms and erosion, filter runoff
    • ex: tsunami
    • - where mangroves removed – land destroyed
    • - where mangroves remained – land protected
  • 26. Human Uses
    • cutting to make charcoal
    • honey from flowers
    • medicine - from bark
    • dyes - from bark
    • cattle feed - leaves
  • 27. Human Impacts
    • half of world’s mangroves destroyed – more in Southeast asia
    • cut to make marinas - destroys habitat and increases erosion
  • 28. Human Impacts
    • filled in land - for development
    • ex: St. Thomas racetrack built on filled in mangroves
    • broken when boats tie to them
    • cut for charcoal
  • 29. Human Impacts
    • destroyed for shrimp mariculture – for ponds
  • 30.
    • mangroves are a critical habitat to be restored