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Published

PHYSIOLOGY …

PHYSIOLOGY
CELL PART 3

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  • 1. THIS SLIDE IS PRESENTED TO YOU BY
    HAMZA RASHEED
    &
    MUHAMMED HAFEEZ (ADMIN OF HELP IN STUDIES ON FACEBOOK)
    http://www.facebook.com/group.php?v=wall&gid=319795502526
    PLEASE STOP PIRACY & STEALING PEOPLE WORK,
    AND GET a LIFE.
    PEACE
    THANKS
  • 2.
  • 3. Learning objectives
    Functions of mitochondria.
    Locomotion of cells
  • 4. Extraction of energy from nutrients
    Energy is extracted from foodstuffs.
    Oxygen reacts with carbohydrates, fats and proteins under the influence of enzymes.
    All these reactions occur in mitochondria.
    ATP is formed.
  • 5.
  • 6. Functional characteristics of ATP
    ATP is a nucleotide composed of:-
    1-The nitrogenous base adenine
    2-The pentose sugar ribose
    3-Three phosphate radicals
  • 7.
  • 8. Each high energy bonds contains about 12,000 calories of energy per mole of ATP.
    When ATP releases its energy, a phosphoric acid radical is split away and ADP is formed.
    ATP is called Energy currency of cell as it can be spent and remade continually.
  • 9. Chemical process in the formation of ATP
    Glycolysis
    Citric acid cycle
    The overall process of formation of ATP is called Chemiosmotic mechanism.
  • 10. Uses of ATP for cellular function
    ATP is used for 3 major categories of functions:-
    1-Transport of substances through multiple membranes of the cell
    2-Synthesis of chemical compounds
    3-Mechanical work
  • 11.
  • 12. Locomotion of cells
    2 types of movements are present:-
    1- Ameboid movement
    2- Ciliary movement
  • 13.
  • 14. Types of cells that exhibit ameboid movement
    WBC
    Fibroblasts
    Germinal cells of skin
    Movement of embryonic cells
  • 15. Control of ameboid movement
    Chemotaxis- Initiates movement
    Chemotactic substances
    Positive chemotaxis
    Negative chemotaxis
  • 16. Ciliary movements
    Whiplike movement of cilia
    Occurs in two places in humans:-
    1-Respiratory airways
    2-Movement of ovum from ovary to uterus
  • 17. Cilium has the appearance of a sharp pointed straight or curved hair that projects 2-4 micrometers from the surface of cell.
    Almost 200 cilia on the surface of each epithelial cell inside respiratory passages.
  • 18.
  • 19. Cilium is covered by an outcropping of CM.
    It is supported by 11 microtubules – 9 double tubules located around the periphery of the cilium, and 2 single tubules down in the center.
  • 20.
  • 21. Each cilium is an outgrowth of a structure that lies immediately beneath the CM, called the basal body of the cilium.
    Flagellum of a sperm is similar to a cilium.
    Difference is that flagellum is much longer and moves in quasi-sinusoidal waves .
  • 22.
  • 23. Cilium moves forward with a sudden , rapid whiplike stroke 10-20 times per second, bending sharply where it projects from the surface of the cell.
    Then it moves backwards slowly to its initial position.
    The fluid is continually propelled in direction of fast of fast forward stroke.
  • 24.
  • 25. Mechanism of ciliary movement
    1-Nine double tubules and two single tubules are linked by complex of protein cross linkages to one another.
    This whole complex is called axoneme.
    2-If membrane is removed and other elements of cilium besides axoneme is destroyed, the cilium can still beat under appropriate conditions.
  • 26. 3-After destruction beating depends on:-
    -Availability of ATP
    -Appropriate ionic conditions esp Mg and Ca
    4-During forward movement, the double tubules on the front edge of the cilium slide outwards towards the tip of cilium and those on back edge remain in place.
  • 27. 5-Multiple protein arms composed of protein Dynein which has ATPase enzymatic activity, project from each double tubule toward an adjacent double tubule.