What is typography?
• The art and technique of arranging
type and type design.
• The arrangement of type involves the
selection of typefaces, point size, line
length, line spacing (leading),
adjusting the spaces between groups
of letters (tracking) and adjusting the
space between pairs of letters
• Choice of font is the main part of using type.
• Legibility is primarily the concern of the typeface
designer, to ensure that each individual character is
distinguishable from all other characters in the font.
• Readability is primarily the concern of the typographer
or information designer. It is the intended result of the
complete process of presentation of textual material in
order to communicate meaning as easily as possible.
• Text set in lower case is more legible than text set all in
upper case, apparently because lower case letter
structures and word shapes are more distinctive.
Using type (continued)
• Readability can also be compromised by letter spacing, word
spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved
when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it
easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous
line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely
ﬁtted can also result in poor legibility.
• Display typography is a potent element in graphic design, where
there is less concern for readability and more potential for using
type in an artistic manner. Type is combined with negative space,
graphic elements and pictures, forming relationships and dialog
between words and images.
• Color and size of type elements are much more prevalent than in
text typography. Most display typography exploits type at larger
sizes, where the details of letter design are magniﬁed. Color is used
for its emotional effect in conveying the tone and nature of subject
• Born in 1948 in Washington DC.
• She studied at the Tyler School of Art in Philadelphia and the
Corcoran College of Art and Design in Washington DC.
• In the 1970s, she designed album covers for CBS Recordings.
• She worked at Time Inc. before creating her own design ﬁrm called
Koppel & Scher.
• She designed the citibank logo and started the logo from thinking
the t in citi looked like an umbrella.
• Her works are mostly text and she designs her own type.
• She believes in using type as design.
A Lesson on Typography
• Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with
ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a
large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing
and transaction printing.
• Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or
patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia. It originated
in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later
on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving
examples from China date to before AD 220, and from Roman
Egypt to the 4th century.
• Movable type is the system of printing and typography using
movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices
struck by letter punches. Movable type allowed for much more
ﬂexible processes than hand copying or block printing.
• Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing,
normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process
of creating prints with an element of originality, rather than just
being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Each piece
produced is not a copy but considered 'an original' since it is not a
reproduction of another work of art and is technically (more
correctly) known as an 'impression'. Printmaking (other than
monotyping) is not chosen only for its ability to produce multiple
copies, but rather for the unique qualities that each of the
printmaking processes lends itself to.
• Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked
image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket,
then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the
lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and
water, the offset technique employs a ﬂat (planographic) image
carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink
rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a ﬁlm of water, keeping
the non-printing areas ink-free.
History in Print